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Marhaenism (Indonesian: Marhaenisme) is a socialistic political ideology originating in Indonesia. An adherent of Marhaenism is known as a Marhaenist. It was developed by the first President of Indonesia Sukarno.
Some scholars argue that Marhaenism is a variant of Marxism. It emphasizes national unity, culture, and collectivist economics. It was established as an anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist ideology. It promotes democratic rights in opposition to authoritarianism, while condemning liberalism and individualism. It combines both western and eastern principles. Marhaenism is the guiding ideology of the Indonesian National Party Marhaenism and the now defunct Parti Marhaen Malaysia.
The name of the ideology is said to be taken that of a land-poor farmer named Marhaen, whom Sukarno met in Priangan. Sukarno attributed the farmer's poverty to a lack of access to production tools. Sukarno thenceforth took to referring to members of the agrarian class as "Marhaens".
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