Jump to content

Christian socialism

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Christian socialism is a religious and political philosophy that blends Christianity and socialism, endorsing socialist economics on the basis of the Bible and the teachings of Jesus.[1] Many Christian socialists believe capitalism to be idolatrous and rooted in the sin of greed.[2][3] Christian socialists identify the cause of social inequality to be the greed that they associate with capitalism.[2] Christian socialism became a major movement in the United Kingdom beginning in the 19th century. The Christian Socialist Movement, known as Christians on the Left since 2013, is one formal group,[2][4] as well as a faction of the Labour Party.[5][6]

According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, socialism is a "social and economic doctrine that calls for public rather than private ownership or control of property and natural resources. According to the socialist view, individuals do not live or work isolated, but live in cooperation with one another. Furthermore, everything that people produce is in some sense a social product, and everyone who contributes to the production of a good is entitled to a share in it. Society as a whole, therefore, should own or at least control property for the benefit of all its members. ... Early Christian communities also practised the sharing of goods and labour, a simple form of socialism subsequently followed in certain forms of monasticism. Several monastic orders continue these practices today."[7]

The Hutterites believe in strict adherence to biblical principles and church discipline, and practised a form of communism. In the words of historians Max Stanton and Rod Janzen, the Hutterites "established in their communities a rigorous system of Ordnungen, which were codes of rules and regulations that governed all aspects of life and ensured a unified perspective. As an economic system, Christian communism was attractive to many of the peasants who supported social revolution in sixteenth century central Europe", such as the German Peasants' War, and Friedrich Engels came to view Anabaptists as proto-communists.[8]

Other earlier figures viewed as Christian socialists include the 19th-century writers F. D. Maurice (The Kingdom of Christ, 1838),[4] John Malcolm Forbes Ludlow (The Christian Socialist, 1850),[4] Adin Ballou (Practical Christian Socialism, 1854),[9] Thomas Hughes (Tom Brown's School Days, 1857),[10] John Ruskin (Unto This Last, 1862),[11] Charles Kingsley (The Water-Babies, A Fairy Tale for a Land Baby, 1863),[4] Frederick James Furnivall (co-creator of the Oxford English Dictionary),[12] and Francis Bellamy (a Baptist minister and the author of the Pledge of Allegiance in the United States).[13]


Biblical age[edit]

Elements that would form the basis of Christian socialism are found in the Old Testament, as well as the New Testaments.[14] They include Deuteronomy 15:1–5, Ezekiel 18:7, Isaiah 58:2–7, James 2:14, James 5:1–6, Job 31:16–25, 28, John 11:10–11, Leviticus 25: 35–38, Luke 4:18, Matthew 6:24, Matthew 19:23–24, Matthew 25:40–46, Proverbs 28:3–28, and Proverbs 31:9.[15]

Old Testament[edit]

The Old Testament had divided perspectives on the issue of poverty. One part of the Biblical tradition held that poverty was judgment of God upon the wicked while viewing prosperity as a reward for the good, stating in the Proverbs 13:25 that "[t]he righteous have enough to satisfy their appetite, but the belly of the wicked is empty."[16] There are other sections that instruct generosity to the have-nots of society. Mosaic Law instructs followers to treat neighbours equally and to be generous to have-nots.[17]

You shall not oppress your neighbour ... but you shall love your neighbour as yourself: I am the Lord.[18]

— Leviticus 19:13, 18

For the Lord your God is God of gods and Lord of lords, the great God, mighty and awesome, who shows no partiality and accepts no bribes. He defends the cause of the fatherless and the widow, and loves the foreigner residing among you, giving them food and clothing. And you are to love those who are foreigners, for you yourselves were foreigners in Egypt.[19]

— Deuteronomy 10:17–19

When you reap in your harvest in the field, and have forgotten a sheaf in the field, you shall not go back to get it. ... When you beat your olive trees, you shall not go over the boughs again. ... When you gather the grapes of your vineyard, you shall not glean it afterward; it shall be for the sojourner, the fatherless and the widow. You shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt; therefore I command you to do this.[14]

— Deuteronomy 24:19–22

Some of the Psalms include many references to social justice for the poor.[20]

Give justice to the weak and the fatherless; maintain the right of the afflicted and the destitute. Rescue the weak and the needy; deliver them from the hand of the wicked.[20]

— Psalms 82 (81): 3, 4

Blessed is the man who fears the Lord, who greatly delights in his commandments! ... He has distributed freely, he has given to the poor; his righteousness endures forever; his horn is exalted in honour.[20]

— Psalms 112 (111): 1, 9

Amos emphasizes the need for justice and righteousness that is described as conduct that emphasizes love for those who are poor and to oppose oppression and injustice towards the poor.[21] The prophet Isaiah, to whom is attributed the first thirty-nine chapters of the Book of Isaiah known as Proto-Isaiah, followed upon Amos' themes of justice and righteousness involving the poor as necessary for followers of God, denouncing those who do not do these things.[21]

Even though you make many prayers, I will not listen; your hands are full of blood. ... [C]ease to do evil, learn to do good; seek justice, correct oppression; defend the fatherless, plead for the widow.[21]

— Isaiah 1:15–17

The Book of Sirach, one of the deuterocanonical or biblical apocrypha books of the Old Testament, denounces the pursuit of wealth.[22]

He who loves gold will not be justified, and he who pursues money will be led astray by it. Many have come to ruin because of gold, and their destruction has met them face to face. It is a stumbling block to those who are devoted to it, and every fool will be taken captive by it.[22]

— Sirach 31: 5–7

New Testament[edit]

Jesus Expels the Moneylenders from the Temple by Giovanni Paolo Pannini, 1750

The teachings of Jesus are frequently described as socialist, especially by Christian socialists, such as Terry Eagleton.[23] Acts 4:32 records that in the early church in Jerusalem "[n]o one claimed that any of their possessions was their own"; this pattern, which helped Christians survive after the siege of Jerusalem, was taken seriously for several centuries,[24] and was an important factor in the rise of feudalism. While it would later disappear from church history except within monasticism, it experienced a revival since the 19th century.[25] Christian socialism was one of the founding threads of the Labour Party in the United Kingdom and is said to begin with the uprising of Wat Tyler and John Ball in the 14th century.[26]

In the New Testament, Jesus identifies himself with the hungry, the poor, the sick, and the prisoners.[27] Matthew 25:31–46 is a major component of Christianity and is considered the cornerstone of Christian socialism.[27] Another key statement in the New Testament that is an important component of Christian socialism is Luke 10:25–37 that follows the statement "You shall love your neighbour as yourself" with the question "And who is my neighbour?" In the Parable of the Good Samaritan. Jesus gives the response that the neighbour includes anyone in need, even people we might be expected to shun.[28] The Samaritans and Jews claim descension from different Tribes of Israel, which had faced a schism prior to the events described in the New Testament.[29][30] This schism led to interethnic and interreligious conflict between the two groups.[28]

Luke 6:20–21 shows Jesus narrating the Sermon on the Plain. It reads: "Blessed are you poor, for yours is the kingdom of God. Blessed are you that hunger now, for you shall be satisfied."[31] Christian socialists cite James the Just, the brother of Jesus, who criticizes the rich intensely and in strong language in the Epistle of James.[32]

Come now, you rich, weep and howl for the miseries that are coming upon you. Your riches have rotted and your garments are moth-eaten. Your gold and silver have rusted, and their rust will be evidence against you and will eat your flesh like fire. You have laid up for treasure for the last days. Behold, the wages of the labourers who mowed your fields, which you have kept back by fraud, cry out; and the cries of the harvesters have reached the ears of the Lord of hosts. You have lived on the earth in luxury and in pleasure; you have fattened your hearts in a day of slaughter.[32]

— James 5:1–6

During the New Testament period and beyond, there is evidence that many Christian communities practised forms of sharing, redistribution, and communism. Some of the Bible verses that inspired the communal economic arrangements of the Hutterites are found in the book of the Acts.[33]

All the believers were together and had everything in common. Selling their possessions and goods, they gave to anyone as he had need.

— Acts 2, 44–45

All the believers were one in heart and mind. No one claimed that any of his possessions were his own, but they shared everything they had.

— Acts 4, 32

There were no needy persons among them. For from time to time those who owned lands or houses sold them, brought the money from their sales and put it at the apostles' feet, and it was distributed to anyone as he had need.

— Acts 4, 34–35

Church Fathers age[edit]

Basil of Caesarea, the Church Father of the Eastern monks who became Bishop of Caesarea, established a complex around the church and monastery that included hostels, almshouses, and hospitals for infectious diseases.[34] During the great famine of 368, Basil denounced against profiteers and the indifferent rich.[34] Basil wrote a sermon on the Parable of the Rich Fool in which he states:

"Who is the covetous man? One for whom plenty is not enough. Who is the defrauder? One who takes away what belongs to everyone. And are not you covetous, are you not a defrauder, when you keep for private use what you were given for distribution? When some one strips a man of his clothes we call him a thief. And one who might clothe the naked and does not—should not he be given the same name? The bread in your hoard belongs to the hungry; the cloak in your wardrobe belongs to the naked; the shoes you let rot belong to the barefoot; the money in your vaults belongs to the destitute. All you might help and do not—to all these you are doing wrong."[35]

John Chrysostom declared his reasons for his attitude towards the rich and position of attitude towards wealth.[36] He said:

"I am often reproached for continually attacking the rich. Yes, because the rich are continually attacking the poor. But those I attack are not the rich as such, only those who misuse their wealth. I point out constantly that those I accuse are not the rich, but the rapacious; wealth is one thing, covetousness another. Learn to distinguish."[36]

Early modern period[edit]

During the English Civil War and the period of the Commonwealth of England (1642–1660), the Diggers espoused a political and economic theory rooted in Christianity that bears a strong resemblance to modern socialism,[37][38] particularly its anarchist and communist strains.[39][40][41] Some scholars believe the Munster Rebellion may have formed an early socialist state.[42]

19th century to present[edit]

In "Religion and the Rise of Socialism", historian Eric Hobsbawn argued that the "modern working-class socialist movement has developed an overwhelmingly secular, indeed often militantly anti-religious ideology." At the same time, he and other historians cited examples where this was not the case, particularly Britain in the 19th and 20th centuries, where E. P. Thompson and Stephen Yo said a form of ethical socialism dominated the labour movement. A prominent example of Christian socialism, or socialist Christianity, was Keir Hardie, a founder of the Labour Party in Britain, who said he learnt his "Socialism in the New Testament", where he said he found what he described as his "chief inspiration". Those socialists argued that socialism was the embodiment of the teachings of Jesus, and that it would also rescue the church from Mammon, which they said caused it to have lost its way and become corrupt by siding with the rich and powerful against the poor. According to this view, socialism was not anti-religion but was opposed to those who would use it to support capitalism and the status quo.[43] James Connolly is credited with setting the groundwork for Christian socialism in Ireland.[44] Connolly, who wrote a story for the Christian socialist journal Labour Prophet,[45][46] said: "It is not Socialism but Capitalism that is opposed to religion ... when the organised Socialist working class tramples upon the Capitalist Class it will not be trampling on a pillar of God's Church but upon a blasphemous defiler of the Sanctuary, it will be rescuing the faith from the impious vermin who make it noisome to the really religious men and women."[43]

In France, Philippe Buchez began to characterize his philosophy as Christian socialism in the 1820s and 1830s. A variety of socialist perspectives emerged in 19th-century Britain, beginning with John Ruskin. Edward R. Norman identifies what he describes as the three "immediate intellectual sources" for mid-century Christian socialism: Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Thomas Carlyle, and Thomas Arnold.[47] The United States also has a Christian socialist tradition.[48][49] In Utah, it developed and flourished in the first part of the 20th century, playing an important part in the development and expression of radicalism. Part of a larger, nationwide movement in many American Protestant churches, Christian socialism in Utah was particularly strong, and dedicated Christian socialist ministers, such as Episcopal Church bishop Franklin Spencer Spalding of Utah and Congregational minister Myron W. Reed in the American West,[50] were fierce advocates for the miners laboring in the Mountain states.[51][52]

John Ruskin[edit]

The influential Victorian era art critic John Ruskin expounded theories about social justice in Unto This Last (1860). In it, he stated four goals that might be called socialist even though Ruskin did not use the term.[53]

  1. "[T]raining schools for youth, established at government cost."
  2. In connection with these schools, the government should establish "manufactories and workshops, for the production and sale of every necessary of life."
  3. All unemployed people should be "set to work" or trained for work if needed or forced to work if necessary.
  4. "[F]or the old and destitute, comfort and home should be provided."

Although Norman says Ruskin was not "an authentic Socialist in any of its various nineteenth-century meanings", as his only real contact with the Christian socialists came through the Working Men's College, he influenced later socialist thinking, especially the artist William Morris.[54]


The painters of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood were influenced and sponsored by Ruskin.[55] Morris was a leader of the Socialist League founded in December 1884.[56]

Fabian Society[edit]

The Fabian Society was founded in 1884, with Beatrice Webb and Sydney Webb being among its leading members. The Fabians influenced members of the Bloomsbury Group and were important in the early history of the Labour Party in the United Kingdom.[57]

Episcopal Church Socialist League and Church League for Industrial Democracy[edit]

Founded by Vida Dutton Scudder in 1911,[58] herself influenced by the Fabian Society, the Episcopal Church Socialist League and its successor, the Church League for Industrial Democracy, sought to ally Christian doctrine with the plight of the working class as a part of the larger social gospel movement that was taking hold of many urban churches across the United States in the early 20th century.[59][60]

In the November 1914 issue of The Christian Socialist, Spalding stated:

"The Christian Church exists for the sole purpose of saving the human race. So far she has failed, but I think that Socialism shows her how she may succeed. It insists that men cannot be made right until the material conditions be made right. Although man cannot live by bread alone, he must have bread. Therefore, the Church must destroy a system of society which inevitably creates and perpetuates unequal and unfair conditions of life. These unequal and unfair conditions have been created by competition. Therefore competition must cease and cooperation take its place."[61]

Christian anarchism[edit]

The Masses, 1917 political cartoon by socialist cartoonist Art Young

Although anarchists have traditionally been skeptical of or vehemently opposed to organized religion,[62] some anarchists have provided religious interpretations and approaches to anarchism, including the idea that glorification of the state is a form of sinful idolatry.[63] Christian anarchists say anarchism is inherent in Christianity and the Gospels,[64][65] that it is grounded in the belief that there is only one source of authority to which Christians are ultimately answerable—the authority of God as embodied in the teachings of Jesus. It therefore rejects the idea that human governments have ultimate authority over human societies. Christian anarchists denounce the state, believing it is violent, deceitful, and idolatrous when glorified.[66]

The foundation of Christian anarchism is a rejection of violence, with Leo Tolstoy's The Kingdom of God Is Within You regarded as a key text. Tolstoy sought to separate Russian Orthodox Christianity—which was merged with the state—from what he believed was the true message of Jesus as contained in the Gospels, specifically in the Sermon on the Mount. Tolstoy takes the Christian pacifist viewpoint that all governments who wage war, and churches who in turn support those governments, are an affront to the Christian principles of nonviolence and nonresistance. Although Tolstoy never used Christian anarchism in The Kingdom of God Is Within You, reviews of this book following its publication in 1894 appear to have coined the term.[67][68]

Christian anarchists hold that the Reign of God is the proper expression of the relationship between God and humanity. Under the Reign of God, human relationships would be characterized by divided authority, servant leadership, and universal compassion—not by the hierarchical, authoritarian structures that are normally attributed to religious social order.[69] Most Christian anarchists are pacifists who reject war and the use of violence.[70] More than any other Bible source, the Sermon on the Mount is used as the basis for Christian anarchism.[71] Tolstoy's The Kingdom of God Is Within You is often regarded as a key text for modern Christian anarchism.[72]

Critics of Christian anarchism include both Christians and anarchists. Christians often cite Romans 13 as evidence that the state should be obeyed,[73] while secular anarchists do not believe in any authority including God as per the slogan "no gods, no masters".[74] Christian anarchists often believe Romans 13 is taken out of context,[75] emphasizing that Revelation 13 and Isaiah 13, among other passages, are needed to fully understand Romans 13 text.[76]

Christian communism[edit]

Christian communism is a form of religious communism based on Christianity and the view that the teachings of Jesus compel Christians to support communism as the ideal social system. While there is no universal agreement on the exact date when Christian communism was founded, Christian communists say that evidence from the Bible suggests that the first Christians, including the Apostles in the New Testament as described in the Acts, established their own communist society in the years following Jesus' death and resurrection.[77]

Advocates of Christian communism, including other communists, such as Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, and Karl Kautsky, argue that it was taught by Jesus and practised by the apostles themselves.[78] This is generally agreed by historians.[24][79] The link was highlighted in one of Marx's early writings, which stated that "[a]s Christ is the intermediary unto whom man unburdens all his divinity, all his religious bonds, so the state is the mediator unto which he transfers all his Godlessness, all his human liberty."[80]

Christian democracy[edit]

The political movement of Christian democracy espouses some values of Christian socialism in the form of economic justice and social welfare. It opposes an individualist worldview and approves state intervention in the economy in defence of human dignity. Because of its close association with Catholicism, Christian democracy differs from Christian socialism by its emphasis on traditional church and family values, its defence of private property, and by its opposition to excessive state intervention.[81]

Salvatore Talamo, a neo-Thomistic sociologist and Catholic social theorist, when distinguishing between the conservative and Christian democratic views on labour issues, used Christian Socialists for the latter; most Christian democrats avoid using socialism, which is occasionally mainly used by conservatives who attempt to discredit their Christian democratic opponents by using a word with Marxist connotations.[82] Christian democratic parties under various names were formed in Europe and Latin America after World War II. Some, such as in Germany and Italy, became a major political force.[81]

Liberation theology[edit]

Liberation theology is a synthesis of Christian theology and socio-economic analyses that emphasizes "social concern for the poor and political liberation for oppressed peoples",[83] as well as "the oppressed and maimed and blind and lame", and bring the "good news to the poor".[84] Beginning in the 1960s after the Second Vatican Council,[85] it became the political praxis of Latin American liberation theologians, such as Gustavo Gutiérrez, Leonardo Boff, and Jesuits like Juan Luis Segundo and Jon Sobrino, who popularized the phrase "preferential option for the poor". This expression was used first by Jesuit Father General Pedro Arrupe in 1968, and the World Synod of Catholic Bishops in 1971 chose as its theme "Justice in the World" for the Second Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops.[86][87]

The Latin American context produced evangelical advocates of liberation theology, such as Rubem Alves,[88][89][90] José Míguez Bonino,[91] and C. René Padilla,[92] who called for integral mission in the 1970s, emphasizing evangelism and social responsibility.[93] Theologies of liberation have developed in other parts of the world, such as black theology in the United States and South Africa,[94][95] Palestinian liberation theology,[96][97] Dalit theology in India,[98] and Minjung theology in South Korea.[99][100][101]

In Catholicism[edit]

Communism and socialism have been condemned by Pope Pius IX, Pope Leo XIII, Pope Pius X, Pope Benedict XV, Pope Pius XI, Pope Pius XII, Pope John XXIII, Pope Paul VI, and Pope John Paul II. Many of these popes, Leo XIII and Pius XI in particular, have also condemned unregulated capitalism. Pope Benedict XVI condemned both ideologies, while distinguishing them from democratic socialism, which he praised. The views of Pope Francis on the issue have also been called into question, with some arguing he holds socialist or communist views, while others argue he does not.[102][103] Pope Francis has denied accusations of him being a communist, including by The Economist,[104] calling them a "misinterpretation" of his views. In 2016, Francis criticized Marxist ideology as wrong but praised communists for "[thinking] like Christians".[105][106]

19th century[edit]

Pope Pius IX criticized socialism in his works Nostis et nobiscum and Quanta cura. In his 1849 work Nostis et nobiscum, he referred to communism and socialism as "wicked theories" that confuse people with what he called "perverted teachings".[107] In his 1864 work Quanta cura, he referred to communism and socialism as a "fatal error".[108] Communism was later further criticized in the 1878 papal encyclical Quod apostolici muneris, by Pope Leo XIII, as he believed that it led to state domination over the freedom of the individual and quelled proper religious worship, inherently turning the top hierarchical power over to the state instead of God. Leo said in this work that socialists steal "the very Gospel itself with a view to deceive more easily the unwary ... [and] distort it so as to suit their own purposes."[109] In the words of academic Catherine Ruth Pakaluk, who refers to the reigns of Pope Pius IX to Pope Pius XII (1850–1950) as the Leonine era, "socialism and communism appear so often in the papal texts of the Leonine era, and with such importance, that they might be described as central foils over and against which the Church is defined and refined over time."[110]

In his 1891 encyclical Rerum novarum, Pope Leo XIII said that socialism acts against natural injustice and destroys the home. He wrote that materialist socialism "must be utterly rejected" by Catholics.[111][112] Leo XIII strongly criticized capitalism. According to historian Eamon Duffy, it was revolutionary in that, as recounted by theologian Paul Misner, up until that point, the Vatican was allied with reactionary institutions and monarchies, and it was the first major statement of the old institutions to discuss the realities of 19th-century society and endorse the working class's grievances. In the words of Duffy, "For the successor of Pio Nono to say these things ... was truly revolutionary. Leo's attack on unrestriced capitalism, his insistence on the duty of state intervention on behalf of the worker, his assertion of the right to a living wage and the rights of organised labour, changed the terms of all future Catholic discussions on social questions, and gave weight and authority to more adventurous advocates of Social Catholicism."[113]

Many Catholics and non-Catholics used the Christian socialists label for those who wanted to put Rerum novarum into practice. The Knights of Saint Columbanus can trace its origins back to Rerum novarum. The labour movement in Ireland and the United States traces its origins back to Roman Catholicism and the 1891 encyclical Rerum novarum and the various subsequent encyclicals it spawned.[114][115] The Starry Plough, a symbol associated with socialism in Ireland, was designed with an explicit reference to Catholicism in mind.[116] The right to association, such as the creation of and involvement in trade unions and co-operatives,[117][118][119] are regarded as a core part of Roman Catholic social teaching.[115][120][121]

20th century[edit]

In 1901, Leo XIII in his encyclical Graves de communi re referred to socialism as a "harvest of misery".[122] In 1910, Pope Pius X criticized socialism in his Apostolic letter Notre charge apostolique, predicting that the rise of socialism will be "a tumultuous agitation".[123] In 1914, Pope Benedict XV wrote his encyclical, Ad beatissimi Apostolorum, which reaffirmed the anti-socialist stance of the Catholic Church, calling on Catholics to remember "the errors of Socialism and of similar doctrines", as taught by his predecessors.[124]

In 1931, Pope Pius XI wrote his work Quadragesimo anno, wherein Pius described the major dangers for human freedom and dignity arising from unrestrained capitalism and totalitarian communism.[125] Pius XI called upon true socialism to distance itself from totalitarian communism as a matter of clarity and also as a matter of principle. Communists were accused of attempting to overthrow all existing civil society. It was argued that Christian socialism, if allied to communism, was deemed to be an oxymoron because of this.[126] At the time, Pius XI famously wrote: "Religious socialism, Christian socialism, are contradictory terms; no one can be at the same time a good Catholic and a true socialist."[127]

Some prominent Catholic socialists existed during Pope Pius XI's era, including the American anarchist Dorothy Day who advocated for distributism and the Irish priest Michael O'Flanagan who was suspended for his political beliefs.[128][129] In 1931, it was clarified that a Catholic was free to vote for the Labour Party, the British affiliate of the Socialist International.[130] Later in 1937, Pius XI rejected atheistic communism in an encyclical entitled Divini Redemptoris as "a system full of errors and sophisms", with a "pseudo-ideal of justice, equality, and fraternity" and "a certain false mysticism",[131] and contrasted it with a humane society (civitas humana).[132]

In 1949, Pope Pius XII issued the Decree against Communism, which declared Catholics who professed communist doctrine to be excommunicated as apostates from the Christian faith.[133] In 1952, when referring to socialism, Pius XII stated: "The Church will fight this battle to the end, for it is a question of supreme values: the dignity of man and the salvation of souls."[134] In 1959, on the question of whether Catholics could "associate themselves with the communists and support them with their course of action", a response from the Holy Office under Pope John XXIII replied: "No."[135][136] On 15 May 1961, John XXIII promulgated the encyclical Mater et magistra, which reaffirmed the Church's anti-socialist stances. John XXIII wrote:

"Pope Pius XI further emphasized the fundamental opposition between Communism and Christianity, and made it clear that no Catholic could subscribe even to moderate Socialism. The reason is that Socialism is founded on a doctrine of human society which is bounded by time and takes no account of any objective other than that of material well-being. Since, therefore, it proposes a form of social organization which aims solely at production, it places too severe a restraint on human liberty, at the same time flouting the true notion of social authority."[137]

Nonetheless, Pope John XXIII helped the Christian Democracy party to cooperate with the Italian Socialist Party, as part of the Catholic open up to the left.[138]

In Chile, many Catholics supported the democratic president Salvador Allende, and a group of Catholic priests and faithful founded the group Christians for Socialism, which supported the president and argued that socialism is closer to Catholic values than capitalism. In a meeting organized by the group in April 1972 attended by over 400 Catholic priests and nuns, the participants issued a declaration calling for official Catholic support for socialism, argued that Christians are obliged to involve themselves in the revolutionary process, and called for class struggle.[139] The group also cited the words of Chilean papal prelate Raúl Silva Henríquez, who stated: "There are more of the Gospel's values in socialism than there are in capitalism."[140] In May 1971, Chilean bishops released a pastoral letter "The Gospel, Politics, and Socialisms" (Spanish: Evangelio, politica, y socialismos), which stated that while the Catholic Church could not endorse a specific political ideology, socialism is not incompatible with Catholic teaching and might be seen as a direct application of Catholic principles. At the same time, Chilean bishops warned that Catholics must reject variants of socialism that are based on atheism or a materialistic view of history, as these were elements incompatible with the teaching of the Church.[141]

In 1971, Pope Paul VI wrote the Apostolic Letter, Octogesima adveniens. About Christians and socialism, he wrote: "Too often Christians attracted by socialism tend to idealize it in terms which, apart from anything else, are very general: a will for justice, solidarity and equality. They refuse to recognize the limitations of the historical socialist movements, which remain conditioned by the ideologies from which they originated."[142] Pope John Paul II criticized socialism in his 1991 encyclical Centesimus annus. He wrote:

"The fundamental error of socialism is anthropological in nature. Socialism considers the individual person simply as an element, a molecule within the social organism, so that the good of the individual is completely subordinated to the functioning of the socio-economic mechanism. Socialism likewise maintains that the good of the individual can be realized without reference to his free choice, to the unique and exclusive responsibility which he exercises in the face of good or evil. Man is thus reduced to a series of social relationships, and the concept of the person as the autonomous subject of moral decision disappears, the very subject whose decisions build the social order. From this mistaken conception of the person there arise both a distortion of law, which defines the sphere of the exercise of freedom, and an opposition to private property. A person who is deprived of something he can call 'his own', and of the possibility of earning a living through his own initiative, comes to depend on the social machine and on those who control it. This makes it much more difficult for him to recognize his dignity as a person, and hinders progress towards the building up of an authentic human community."[143]

The 1992 Catechism of the Catholic Church, also promulgated by Pope John Paul II, condemns socialism as an atheistic ideology. Paragraph 2425 states:

"The Church has rejected the totalitarian and atheistic ideologies associated in modem times with 'communism' or 'socialism.' She has likewise refused to accept, in the practice of 'capitalism,' individualism and the absolute primacy of the law of the marketplace over human labor. Regulating the economy solely by centralized planning perverts the basis of social bonds; regulating it solely by the law of the marketplace fails social justice, for 'there are many human needs which cannot be satisfied by the market.' Reasonable regulation of the marketplace and economic initiatives, in keeping with a just hierarchy of values and a view to the common good, is to be commended."[144]

21st century[edit]

In 2004, Joseph Ratzinger, the future Pope Benedict XVI, addressed the Italian Senate, declaring that "[i]n many respects democratic socialism was and is close to Catholic social doctrine; in any case, it contributed toward the formation of a social consciousness."[145] In 2005, Benedict XVI in his encyclical Deus caritas est stated: "We do not need a State which regulates and controls everything, but a State which, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity, generously acknowledges and supports initiatives arising from the different social forces and combines spontaneity with closeness to those in need. The Church is one of those living forces. ... In the end, the claim that just social structures would make works of charity superfluous masks a materialist conception of man ... a conviction that demeans man and ultimately disregards all that is specifically human."[146] In 2007, Benedict XVI criticized Karl Marx in his encyclical Spe salvi, stating that "[w]ith the victory of the revolution, though, Marx's fundamental error also became evident. He showed precisely how to overthrow the existing order, but he did not say how matters should proceed thereafter. ... He forgot that freedom always remains also freedom for evil. He thought that once the economy had been put right, everything would automatically be put right. His real error is materialism: man, in fact, is not merely the product of economic conditions, and it is not possible to redeem him purely from the outside by creating a favourable economic environment."[147]

Pope Francis has been viewed as having some sympathy to socialist causes, with his frequent criticism of capitalism and of neoliberalism. In 2016, Francis said that the world economy is "[f]undamental terrorism, against all of Humanity",[148] and that "[i]f anything, it is the communists who think like Christians. Christ spoke of a society where the poor, the weak and the marginalized have the right to decide."[106] When later questioned on whether or not he is a communist, Francis responded: "As for whether or not I'm a communist: I am sure that I have not said anything more than what the Church's social doctrine teaches ... maybe the impression of being a little more 'of the left' has been given, but that would be a misinterpretation."[105] In 2013, he said: "The ideology of Marxism is wrong. But I have met many Marxists in my life who are good people, so I don't feel offended."[149]

Movements like liberation theology argue for the compatibility of socialism and Catholicism; they have been rejected by Pope John Paul II and Pope Benedict XVI.[150][151] António Guterres, a practicing Catholic and Secretary-General of the United Nations since 2017, is the immediate past president of the Socialist International.[152]

In Calvinism[edit]


In Australia, the academic Roland Boer has attempted to synthesize Calvinism and Marxism.[153] In a 2010 interview, he stated that "it became clear to me that within Christianity there is a strong tradition of political and theological radicalism, which I continued to explore personally. Reformed or Calvinist theology did not seem to sit easily with that interest, so I spent many a long year rejecting that tradition, only to realise later that Calvin himself was torn between the radical potential of elements in the Bible and his own conservative preferences."[154]


In France, the birthplace of Calvinism, the Christianisme Social (Social Christianity) movement emerged in the 1870s from the preaching of Tommy Fallot.[155] Early on, the movement focused on such issues as illiteracy and alcoholism amongst the poor.[156] After the First World War, Social Christianity moved in two directions — towards pacifism and towards ecumenism. Within the movement emerged conscientious objectors, such as Jacques Martin, Philo Vernier, and Henri Roser, economists pursuing policies that reflected cooperation and solidarity, such as Bernard Lavergne and Georges Lasserre, and theologians like Paul Ricoeur. One of the pastors in the movement, Jacques Kaltenbach, was also to have a formative influence on André Trocmé.[157]

Under the Vichy regime, which had seen the emergence of other forms of witness, particularly the support of internees in the camps and aiding Jews to escape, the movement was reborn to tackle the problems of a changing world. It expressed a Christian socialism, more or less in line with the beginning of a new political left. Political activism was very broad and included the denunciation of torture, East–West debate on European integration and taking a stance on the process of decolonization. It facilitated meetings between employers, managers, and trade unionists to discern a new economic order. After the events of May 68, Calvinism in France became much more left-wing in its orientation.[158]

One doctrinal text produced in the 1960s, Church and Authorities, was described as Marxist in its orientation.[158] Churches now seized for themselves the political and social issues to tackle, such as nuclear power and justice for the Third World. In the early 2000s, the Social Christianity movement temporarily discontinued and its journal Other Times ceased to be published.[156] The movement was relaunched on 10 June 2010 with a petition signed by over 240 people,[156] and now maintains an active presence with its own website.[159] Economically, most Calvinists have supported capitalism and have been in the vanguard of promoting free-market capitalism, and have produced many of France's leading entrepreneurs.[160] With regard to politics and social issues, they are socialists.[158] Three of France's post-war prime ministers have been Calvinists, despite Protestants only making up two percent of the population. Two of these prime ministers have been socialists.[160]


In Wales, Calvinistic Methodism is the largest non-conformist religion. Its beginnings may be traced to Griffith Jones (1684–1761), of Llanddowror, Carmarthenshire, whose sympathy for the poor led him to set on foot a system of circulating charity schools for the education of children. Until the 19th century, the prevailing thought amongst Welsh non-conformists was that "it would be wiser if the churches limited their activities to those of the altar and not to meddle at all with the state and social questions." This stemmed partly from the traditional nonconformist belief in the separation of church and state.[161]

In his influential sermon Y Ddwy Alwedigaeth (The Two Vocations), Emrys ap Iwan challenged this passive pietism. He wrote: "We must not think, like the old Methodists, Puritans and some Catholics, that we can only seek Godliness outside our earthly vocation." He condemned those Christians who limited godliness to directly religious matters such as Sabbath observance and personal devotion. He declared that all earthly things, including language and culture, have some kind of divine origin.[162] Many of the founders of the Welsh nationalist social-democratic party, Plaid Cymru, were also Calvinists, including John Edward Daniel. Daniel was the theologian credited for bringing neo-orthodoxy to Wales. Daniel argued that God did not create man as an isolated individual but as a social being.[162] The second generation of Plaid Cymru leaders included R. Tudur Jones. His political stance, combined with Calvinist doctrine, created an integrated vision that was significant to the religious life of Christian Wales in the later half of the 20th century.[163] Jones argued that the "state should be a servant, to preserve order and to allow men to live the good life."[164]

In the 21st century, many Calvinist socialists in Wales support same-sex marriage on the grounds that it delivers marriage equality in the eyes of the state, while still allowing churches to follow their own conscience and upholding the traditional Protestant belief in separation of church and state.[165] The Calvinist tradition in Plaid Cymru also influenced its non-violent approach. According to Rhys Llwyd, "[t]he ideal is no fist violence, no verbal violence, and no heart violence. ... Christians ... point to the New Testament example of Jesus Christ clearing the temple. Here there is no suggestion of violence against people; rather the tables are turned as a symbolic act. The life and teaching of Jesus Christ were seen as the foundations of nonviolent direct action [for Plaid Cymru members] ... loving their enemies on the one hand, but not compromising on what they saw as an issue of moral rightness."[166] Plaid Cymru continues to see itself as very much part of the Christian pacifist tradition.[165]

Notable Christian socialist people and groups[edit]

Notable followers of Christian socialism include:

Notable Christian socialist groups and parties include:


In Britain, Christian socialism is viewed positively by many different backgrounds, ranging from Nonconformists to Roman Catholic, particularly Anglo-Catholic Ritualism.[195] It is viewed critically by some socialists,[196][197] who reject it as utopian socialism and for its methodology, and by some religious figures and popes,[198] who rejected socialism's compatibility with Christianity due to its perceived atheism and materialism. Continental Reformed Protestant pastor Henri Nick defended it, saying: "It is not socialism that I would criticise, but atheism falsely called social."[199]

Anglo-Catholic Christian socialism was part of Catholic polemic against perceived Protestant individualism and puritanism, which led many anti-Ritualist Protestants to associate Catholicism and socialism.[200] Charles Haddon Spurgeon, an English Particular Baptist preacher, was critical of socialist doctrines, and warned that those who seek socialism "may soon have too much of it". Specifically, he regarded collectivist Christianity as inferior to faith on an individual level. He said: "I would not have you exchange the gold of individual Christianity for the base metal of Christian Socialism."[201] Tommy Fallot, a French Lutheran pastor, argued: "Socialism has drawn a good deal of its program from the Gospel. It seeks to build a society on the pillars of justice, something the Gospel seeks to do as well. In that regard, a condemnation of socialism would represent a condemnation of the Gospel and the prophets."[202]

Views of Christian socialism generally depend on the left–right political spectrum. While Christian leftists argue that Jesus would prioritize the poor and migrant's rights over opposition to abortion, Christian rightists argue he would be against wealth redistribution, illegal immigrants, abortion, and same-sex marriage.[203] The conservative view is reflected by Lawrence Reed, president emeritus of the American libertarian-leaning Foundation for Economic Education,[204] American conservative and evangelical Christian Johnnie Moore Jr.,[205] and Bryan Fischer, an American traditionalist conservative, of the American Family Association, a Christian fundamentalist organization.[206] Opposing this view on the right is Quentin Letts, who said, "Jesus preached fairness — you could almost call him a Lefty".[207]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Williams, Anthony Alan John (March 2016). "Christian Socialism as a Political Ideology" (PDF). University of Liverpool Repository. University of Liverpool. p. 5. Retrieved 16 January 2023. Firstly, Christian Socialists based their socialism mainly on the Bible, church teaching and the sacraments, to a far greater extent than any other sources. Secondly, Christian Socialists called for a revolution but were committed to democratic methods, suggesting a synthesis between revolutionary and democratic socialism. In practice this can be sketched out as a three-stage process: first, persuading people of the deficiencies of capitalism and the need for socialism; second, the election of a Labour government / the persuasion of other politicians to adopt socialism; third, the establishment of socialism, brought about by a socialist government and population. Thirdly, Christian Socialists sought to create a society of co-operation and collectivism, equality, democracy and peace ... the concept at the core of Christian Socialism is brotherhood, based on the idea of the universal Fatherhood of God, and that other key concepts – co-operation, equality and democracy – are derived from this. In seeking co-operation, equality and democracy Christian Socialism is not necessarily distinct from other forms of socialism, but it is distinct in drawing upon Christian theology as a basis for these concepts as well as the language to describe a future socialist society.
  2. ^ a b c Leech 2000, pp. 677–678.
  3. ^ McIlhenny, Ryan C., ed. (16 July 2015). Render unto God: Christianity and Capitalism in Crisis (hardbook ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4438-7705-3.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Schmidt, Alvin J., ed. (2012) [2011]. "Christian Socialism". The Encyclopedia of Christian Civilization. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. doi:10.1002/9780470670606.wbecc0289. ISBN 9781405157629. Although Frederick Denison Maurice's father was a Unitarian clergyman, Maurice later joined the Church of England, and in 1834 he became one of its ordained clergy. He was appalled by the widespread poverty, the misery of child labor, and the economic plight of the poor and working class in the 1830s and 1840s. Similar to his acquaintance, John Malcolm Ludlow, he believed that socialism would ameliorate England's socio-economic problems of the economically oppressed. But neither Maurice nor Ludlow wanted socialism, divorced from Christian principles. Socialism, in their opinion, needed the guidance of Christian values. Thus, Maurice coined the term 'Christian socialism' in 1848, as he launched the Christian Socialist Movement. He had another close associate in Charles Kingsley, also an avid proponent of Christian socialism. In 1850, a periodical, The Christian Socialist, was created with Ludlow as editor.
  5. ^ Routledge, Paul (22 May 1994), "Labour revives faith in Christian Socialism", The Independent on Sunday. Archived from the original on 1 July 2018.
  6. ^ Kurian, Thomas, ed. (2011). "Christian socialism". The Encyclopedia of Political Science. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press. p. 1555. ISBN 978-1-933116-44-0.
  7. ^ Ball, Terence; Dagger, Richard (30 April 2020). "Socialism". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  8. ^ Janzen, Rod; Stanton, Max (2010). The Hutterites in North America (illustrated ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-8018-9925-6.
  9. ^ a b Sartwell, Crispin (1 January 2018). "Anarchism and Nineteenth-Century American Political Thought". Brill's Companion to Anarchism and Philosophy: 454–483. doi:10.1163/9789004356894_018. ISBN 978-9-0043-5688-7.
  10. ^ a b Norman, Edward (2002) [1987]. The Victorian Christian Socialists (paperback ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-5215-3051-4.
  11. ^ a b MacCarthy, Fiona (1994). William Morris: A Life for Our Time. Faber and Faber. pp. 69–70, 87.
  12. ^ a b Peterson, William S. (2007) [2004]. "Furnivall, Frederick James". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/33298. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  13. ^ a b Dorn, Charles (8 September 2017). "How a Socialist Ended Up Writing the Pledge of Allegiance". Fortune. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  14. ^ a b Cort 1988, p. 19.
  15. ^ Cavanaugh, Clayton (29 May 2021). "No Good Christians are Capitalists". Cavanaugh. Retrieved 11 January 2023.
  16. ^ Cort 1988, p. 20.
  17. ^ Cort 1988, pp. 19–21.
  18. ^ Cort 1988, p. 21.
  19. ^ Cort 1988.
  20. ^ a b c Cort 1988, p. 22.
  21. ^ a b c Cort 1988, p. 23.
  22. ^ a b Cort 1988, p. 28.
  23. ^ Eagleton, Terry (17 October 2007). The Gospels: Jesus Christ (paperback ed.). London: Verso Books. ISBN 978-1-84467-176-2.
  24. ^ a b Montero 2017, p. 5.
  25. ^ Flinn, Frank K. (2007). Encyclopedia of Catholicism. Infobase Publishing. pp. 173–174. ISBN 978-0-8160-7565-2.
  26. ^ "Labour revives faith in Christian Socialism". The Independent. 21 May 1994. Retrieved 13 January 2023.
  27. ^ a b Cort 1988, p. 31.
  28. ^ a b Cort 1988, p. 32.
  29. ^ Bourgel 2016, p. 1.
  30. ^ Crown 1989, p. 17.
  31. ^ Cort 1988, p. 37.
  32. ^ a b Cort 1988, pp. 41–42.
  33. ^ Montero 2017.
  34. ^ a b Cort 1988, p. 43.
  35. ^ Cort 1988, pp. 43–44.
  36. ^ a b Cort 1988, p. 45.
  37. ^ Winstanley, Gerrard (2002) [1649]. Jones, Sandra (ed.). The True Levellers Standard Advanced: Or, the State of Community Opened, and Presented to the Sons of Men (Renascence ed.). R. S. Bear. Retrieved 11 January 2023 – via Digital Repository Unimib. That we may work in righteousness, and lay the Foundation of making the Earth a Common Treasury for All, both Rich and Poor, That every one that is born in the Land, may be fed by the Earth his Mother that brought him forth, according to the Reason that rules in the Creation. Not Inclosing any part into any particular hand, but all as one man, working together, and feeding together as Sons of one Father, members of one Family; not one Lording over another, but all looking upon each other, as equals in the Creation; ... .
  38. ^ Empson, Martin (5 April 2017). "A common treasury for all: Gerrard Winstanley's vision of utopia". International Socialism. No. 154. Archived from the original on 7 October 2021. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
  39. ^ Stearns, Peter; Fairchilds, Cissie; Lindenmeyr, Adele; Maynes, Mary Jo; Porter, Roy; Radcliff, Pamela; Ruggiero, Guido, eds. (2001). Encyclopedia of European Social History: From 1350 to 2000. Vol. 3. Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 290. ISBN 0-684-80577-4.
  40. ^ Campbell, Heather M., ed. (2009). The Britannica Guide to Political Science and Social Movements That Changed the Modern World. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 127–129. ISBN 978-1-61530-062-4.
  41. ^ Johnson, Daniel (1 December 2013). "Winstanley's Ecology: The English Diggers Today". Monthly Review. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
  42. ^ Twentieth Century. 1896. p. 35-PA4. Retrieved 2 March 2023.
  43. ^ a b Knox, W. W. (October 1988). "Religion and the Scottish Labour Movement c. 1900–39". Journal of Contemporary History. 23 (4): 609–630. doi:10.1177/002200948802300406. ISSN 0022-0094. JSTOR 260837. S2CID 159655098.
  44. ^ Lubienski, Christopher Andrew (1992). James Connolly's Integration of Socialism, Nationalism, and Christianity in the Context of Irish History. Michigan State University. Department of History.
  45. ^ "Short story in 1894 journal may be lost James Connolly play". The Guardian. 15 January 2019. Archived from the original on 7 November 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2023.
  46. ^ "Long-Lost James Connolly Play May Be Found". Irish America. 1 March 2019. Archived from the original on 4 December 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2023.
  47. ^ Norman, Edward (2002) [1987]. The Victorian Christian Socialists (paperback ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-5215-3051-4.
  48. ^ Spargo, John (1909). "Christian Socialism in America". American Journal of Sociology. 15 (1): 16–20. doi:10.1086/211752. ISSN 0002-9602. JSTOR 2762617. S2CID 145687046. Zenodo1431287. Retrieved 18 January 2023.
  49. ^ Brown, William Thurston (1910). Socialism and Primitive Christianity. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr & Company. Retrieved 18 January 2023.
  50. ^ a b Berman 2007.
  51. ^ McCormick, John S.; Sillito, John R. (1989). "Socialists in Power: The Eureka, Utah Experience, 1907–1925". Weber Studies. 6 (1): 55–67. Archived from the original on 6 July 2010. Retrieved 18 January 2023.
  52. ^ McCormick, John S.; Sillito, John R. (2011). A History of Utah Radicalism Startling, Socialistic, and Decidedly Revolutionary. Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press. ISBN 978-0-87421-848-0.
  53. ^ Ruskin 1872, pp. xi–xiii.
  54. ^ Norman 1987, pp. 122, 132.
  55. ^ Landow, George P. (2015) [1989]. "Pre-Raphaelites: An Introduction". The Victorian Web. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  56. ^ Cody, David (2002) [1987]. "Morris's Socialism". The Victorian Web. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  57. ^ "The Fabian Story". Fabian Society. Archived from the original on 25 December 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  58. ^ "Scudder, Vida Dutton". Episcopal Church. 22 May 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  59. ^ a b Rossinow, Doug (2005). "The Radicalization of the Social Gospel: Harry F. Ward and the Search for a New Social Order, 1898–1936". Religion and American Culture: A Journal of Interpretation. 15 (1): 63–106. doi:10.1525/rac.2005.15.1.63. ISSN 1533-8568. JSTOR 10.1525/rac.2005.15.1.63. S2CID 144701279.
  60. ^ "Christian Socialism". Episcopal Church. 22 May 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  61. ^ Berman 2007, pp. 11–12.
  62. ^ Walter, Nicholas (1991). "Anarchism and Religion". Tao.ca. Retrieved 13 January 2023 – via The Anarchist Library.
  63. ^ Christoyannopoulos, Alexandre (2010). "The state as idolatry". Christian Anarchism: A Political Commentary on the Gospel. Exeter: Imprint Academic. p. 254.
  64. ^ Christoyannopoulos, Alexandre (2010). Christian Anarchism: A Political Commentary on the Gospel. Exeter: Imprint Academic. pp. 2–4. Locating Christian anarchism ... In political theology ... In political thought ... .
  65. ^ Christoyannopoulos, Alexandre (2010). Jun, Nathan J.; Wahl, Shane (eds.). New Perspectives on Anarchism. Lexington Books. p. 149. ISBN 978-0739132401. Christian anarchism 'is not an attempt to synthesise two systems of thought' that are hopelessly incompatible; rather, it is 'a realisation that the premise of anarchism is inherent in Christianity and the message of the Gospels'.
  66. ^ Christoyannopoulos, Alexandre (2010). Christian Anarchism: A Political Commentary on the Gospel. Exeter: Imprint Academic. p. 254. The state as idolatry Christian anarchists accuse other 'Christians' of idolatry not only in their worship of money, but also in their worship of the state ... .
  67. ^ Stead, William Thomas, ed. (1894). "Christian anarchism". Review of Reviews. Vol. 9. p. 306.
  68. ^ "Christian anarchism". The Speaker. Vol. 9. Mather & Crowther. 1894. p. 254.
  69. ^ Van Steenwyk, Mark (2013). The UNkingdom of God. Downers Grove, Illinois: IVP Books. ISBN 978-0830836550.
  70. ^ Christoyannopoulos, Alexandre (March 2010). "A Christian Anarchist Critique of Violence: From Turning the Other Cheek to a Rejection of the State" (PDF). Political Studies Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  71. ^ Christoyannopoulos, Alexandre (2010). Christian Anarchism: A Political Commentary on the Gospel. Exeter: Imprint Academic. pp. 43–80.
  72. ^ Christoyannopoulos, Alexandre (2010). Christian Anarchism: A Political Commentary on the Gospel. Exeter: Imprint Academic. pp. 19, 208.
  73. ^ Christoyannopoulos, Alexandre (17 May 2011). "Was Jesus an anarchist?". BBC. Retrieved 16 January 2023. The two passages that are most frequently brought up as 'clear evidence' ... to respect civil authorities and to honour secular governments as those whom God has placed in authority ... are Romans 13 and 'render unto Caesar'.
  74. ^ Alexis-Baker, Nekeisha (October 2006). "Embracing God and Rejecting Masters: On Christianity, Anarchism and the State". The Utopian. 5. The anarchist position on God can be summed up in the popular slogan, 'No God and no masters'. ... If God is indeed a tyrant as Bakunin asserts then the abolition of God and religion are necessary parts of what it means to be anarchist.
  75. ^ Craig, Kevin (2010). "Romans 13: The Most Disastrously Misinterpreted Scripture in the History of the Human Race". Romans13. Retrieved 13 January 2023.
  76. ^ "'Unlucky 13': Romans 13, Revelation 13, and Isaiah 13... and why the State does not want you to read them together". VFT Online. 2007. Retrieved 13 January 2023.
  77. ^ Acts 2:44, 4:32–37; 5:1–12. Other verses are Matthew 5:1–12, 6:24, Luke 3:11, 16:11, 2 Corinthians 8:13–15 and James 5:3.
  78. ^ Kautsky, Karl (1953) [1908]. "IV.II. The Christian Idea of the Messiah. Jesus as a Rebel.". Foundations of Christianity. Russell and Russell. Christianity was the expression of class conflict in Antiquity.
  79. ^ See also Bang, Gustav (March 2001). Crises in European History (PDF). Translated by Petersen, Arnold. Socialist Labor Party of America. p. 24. Lansford, Tom (2007). "History of Communism". Communism. Political Systems of the World. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 24–25. ISBN 9780761426288. Retrieved 16 May 2011. von Mises, Ludwig (1981) [1951]. "Christianity and Socialism". Socialism. New Heaven: Yale University Press. p. 424. ISBN 9780913966624. Retrieved 16 May 2011. "Rénan's Les Apôtres. Community life". The London Quarterly and Holborn Review, Volume 26. London. 1866 [April and July]. p. 502. Retrieved 10 May 2011 – via Google Books.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link) Unterbrink, Daniel T. (2004). "The Dead Sea Scrolls". Judas the Galilean. Lincoln: iUniverse. p. 92. ISBN 0-595-77000-2. Retrieved 10 May 2011 – via Google Books. Guthrie, Donald (1992) [1975]. "3. Early Problems. 15. Early Christian Communism". The Apostles. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-310-25421-8 – via Google Books. Renan, Ernest (1869). "VIII. First Persecution. Death of Stephen. Destruction of the First Church of Jerusalem". Origins of Christianity. Vol. II. The Apostles. New York: Carleton. p. 152 – via Google Books. Ehrhardt, Arnold (1969). "St Peter and the Twelve". The Acts of the Apostles. Manchester: University of Manchester Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0719003820 – via Google Books. Boer, Roland (2009). "Conclusion: What If? Calvin and the Spirit of Revolution. Bible". Political Grace. The Revolutionary Theology of John Calvin. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-664-23393-8 – via Google Books. Halteman Finger, Reta (2007). "Reactions to Style and Redaction Criticism". Of Widows and Meals. Communal Meals in the Book of Acts. Cambridge: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-8028-3053-1 – via Google Books. Ellicott, Charles John; Plumptre, Edward Hayes (1910). "III. The Church in Jerusalem. I. Christian Communism". The Acts of the Apostles. London: Cassell – via Google Books.
  80. ^ Houlden, Leslie; Minard, Antone (2015). Jesus in History, Legend, Scripture, and Tradition: A World Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 357. ISBN 978-1-61069804-7.
  81. ^ a b "Christian Democracy". Britannica Academic. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2015. Retrieved 25 December 2015.
  82. ^ Agócs, Sándor (1 December 2017). "Introduction". The Troubled Origins of the Italian Catholic Labor Movement, 1878–1914. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-4331-9.
  83. ^ Cook, Chris (1998). Dictionary of Historical Terms (2nd ed.). Gramercy. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-517188712.
  84. ^ Alves, Rubem (1988). Towards a Theology of Liberation (paperback ed.). Princeton Theological Seminary. ISBN 978-0-8834-4542-6.
  85. ^ Altmann, Walter (18 November 2009). "Liberation theology is still alive and well". Ekklesia. Retrieved 23 January 2010.
  86. ^ Dault, Lira (January 2015). "What is the preferential option for the poor?". U.S. Catholic. 80: 46.
  87. ^ "In 1971, the bishops sounded a call for justice". National Catholic Reporter. 17 October 2016. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  88. ^ McGrath, Alister E (1995). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Modern Christian thought. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 331. ISBN 0-631-19896-2. See also "Christian socialism".
  89. ^ Linhares, Bruno J (2007). "Princeton Theological Seminary and the Birth of Liberation Theology". Koinonia. 19. Princeton: Princeton Theological Seminary: 85–105. ISSN 1047-1057.
  90. ^ "Rubem Alves – Liberation Theology Pioneer". New York: Critical Therapy Center. 19 July 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  91. ^ McKim, Donald K. (5 May 1999). The Bible in Theology and Preaching. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 170. ISBN 978-1-57910-244-9.
  92. ^ Carter, Jason A. (2018). "Preaching in the Global South". In Hutchinson, Mark P. (ed.). The Oxford History of Protestant Dissenting Traditions. Vol. V: The Twentieth Century: Themes and Variations in a Global Context. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-19-870225-2.
  93. ^ Kirkpatrick, David C. (27 April 2021). "Died: C. René Padilla, Father of Integral Mission". Christianity Today. Retrieved 27 April 2021.
  94. ^ Bongmba, Elias (2010). "African Theology". The Oxford encyclopedia of African thought. Vol. 1. Abiola Irele, Biodun Jeyifo. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 46–53. ISBN 978-0-19-533473-9. OCLC 428033171. Retrieved 14 January 2023. Liberation, contextual, and black theologies are prophetic theologies that emerged in South African in response to the long domination under apartheid ... the Black Consciousness Movement and Black Theology in the United States provided inspiration to the development of black theology in South Africa.
  95. ^ Howard, C. (16 April 2014). Black Theology as Mass Movement. Springer. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-137-36875-1.
  96. ^ Wessels, Antonie (1995). Arab and Christian? Christians in the Middle East. Kampen, Netherlands: Kok Pharos Publishing House. pp. 203–227. ISBN 978-90-390-0071-7.
  97. ^ Ateek, Naim (24 March 2014). "Land and Liberation: An Interview with Reverend Naim Ateek". Shalom Rav. Interviewed by Rosen, Brant. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  98. ^ Rao, Anand (2004). Soteriologies of India and Their Role in the Perception of Disability: A Comparative Transdisciplinary Overview with Reference to Hinduism and Christianity in India. Berlin-Hamburg-Münster: LIT Verlag. p. 232. ISBN 3-8258-7205-X. OCLC 54973643.
  99. ^ Wickeri, Philip L. (1985). "Asian Theologies in Review". Theology Today. p. 461. Archived from the original on 11 February 2005. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  100. ^ Suh, David Kwang-sun (15 August 2000). The Korean Minjung in Christ. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-57910-509-9.
  101. ^ Dabashi, Hamid (6 January 2020). "Decolonising Jesus Christ: The Figure of Jesus Christ Goes Way Beyond the Image of Him Which Hegemonic European Christianity Imposed on the World". Al Jazeera. Al Jazeera Media Network. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  102. ^ Hale, Christopher (25 February 2016). "Bernie Sanders is wrong: Pope Francis is no socialist". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  103. ^ Barnidge, Robert P. Jr. (11 March 2016). "Against The Catholic Grain: Pope Francis Trumpets Socialism Over Capitalism". Forbes. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  104. ^ Pullella, Philip (29 June 2014). "Pope Francis: Communists 'stole' the flag of Christianity". Reuters Edition International. Archived from the original on 7 July 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2020.
  105. ^ a b Johnson, Garrett (20 May 2016). "Criticised for Being Communist or to the Left, Here's Pope Francis' Response". Catholic Link. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  106. ^ a b Skojec, Steve (11 November 2016). "Pope: 'It is the Communists Who Think Like Christians'". OnePeterFive. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
  107. ^ Pope Pius IX (1849). Nostis et nobiscum. No. 6.
  108. ^ Pope Pius IX (1864). Quanta cura. No. 4.
  109. ^ Pope Leo XII (1878). Quod apostolici muneris. No. 5.
  110. ^ Beckett, Paul (13 April 2021). Labour Rights and the Catholic Church: The International Labour Organisation, the Holy See and Catholic Social Teaching. Vol. 1. London: Routledge. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-000-37784-2.
  111. ^ Pope Leo XIII (1891). Rerum novarum. No. 4–5, 14–15.
  112. ^ Tanis, Bethany (2009). "The 'Great Church Crisis,' Public Life, and National Identity in late-Victorian and Edwardian Britain". eScholarship@BC. Boston College University Libraries. p. 50. Retrieved 16 January 2023. The turning point in Roman Catholic social thought occurred in 1891 with the publication of Pope Leo XIII's encyclical Rerum Novarum, in which attacked unrestricted capitalism and supported the rights of workers to organize, although warning against materialist socialism and labor strikes.
  113. ^ Beckett, Paul (13 April 2021). Labour Rights and the Catholic Church: The International Labour Organisation, the Holy See and Catholic Social Teaching. Vol. 1. London: Routledge. p. 63–64. ISBN 978-1-000-37784-2.
  114. ^ Connolly, James (1969) [1910]. Labour: Nationality & Religion. Dublin: New Books. Retrieved 14 January 2023 – via Marxists Internet Archive.
  115. ^ a b Sinyai, Clayton (15 May 2019). "Happy Birthday, Rerum Novarum!". The Catholic Labor Network. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  116. ^ "The Starry Plough Flag". Irish Studies. 2018. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  117. ^ Kerr, David (10 December 2011). "Pope Benedict: cooperatives help humanize the economy". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  118. ^ "Pope Francis calls for co-operatives to build a more honest economy". International Cooperative Alliance. 20 March 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  119. ^ Considine, Kevin P. (2 February 2016). "Does the church support unions?". U.S. Catholic. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  120. ^ Pope Francis (24 May 2015). "Laudato si'". The Holy See. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  121. ^ "Catholic social teachings call to the dignity of creation". National Catholic Reporter. 13 May 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  122. ^ Pope Leo XII (1901). Graves de communi re. No. 21.
  123. ^ Pope Pius X (1910). Notre charge apostolique.
  124. ^ Pope Benedict XV (1914). Ad beatissimi Apostolorum. No. 13.
  125. ^ Badie, Bertrand; Berg-Schlosser, Dirk; Morlino, Leonardo, eds. (7 September 2011). International Encyclopedia of Political Science. Vol. 1. Thousand Oaks: SAGE. p. 461. ISBN 978-1-4129-5963-6.
  126. ^ "Socialism & the Vatican". Time. Vol. 70, no. 2. 8 July 1957. p. 19. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  127. ^ Beckett, Paul (13 April 2021). Labour Rights and the Catholic Church: The International Labour Organisation, the Holy See and Catholic Social Teaching. Vol. 1. London: Routledge. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-000-37784-2.
  128. ^ McKay, Iain, ed. (1 April 2008). An Anarchist FAQ. Vol. 1. Oakland, California: AK Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-1902593906.
  129. ^ Moran, James (21 November 2013). The Theatre of Sean O'Casey (paperback ed.). London: A&C Black. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-4081-7535-4. See also "Fr. Michael O'Flanagan, letters, 1915–1920". Letter from Bishop Bernard Coyne to Father Michael O'Flanagan.
  130. ^ "Says Pope Puts No Bar on Joining Laborites; Cardinal Bourne Says Britons Are Free to Enter Party and Be Guided by Conscience". The New York Times. 18 June 1931. p. 7. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  131. ^ Ruggieri, Giuseppe (2011). La condanna dei comunisti del 1949 (in Italian). Traccani. Retrieved 28 August 2016. {{cite encyclopedia}}: |work= ignored (help)
  132. ^ Scholsser, Stephen (2015). David Schultenover (ed.). Reproach vs. Rapprochement. Liturgical Press. p. xlviii. ISBN 9780814683019. Retrieved 27 August 2016. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  133. ^ "Papal Decree Against Communism". The New York Times. 14 July 1949. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  134. ^ Pope Pius XII (14 September 1952). Radio message to the Katholikentag of Vienna.
  135. ^ Pope John XXIII (1959). "Acta Apostolicae Sedis – Commentarium Officiale" (PDF). The Holy See. Retrieved 11 January 2023.
  136. ^ Denzinger, Heinrich Joseph (DS 3930), Ignatius Press. 43rd ed.
  137. ^ Pope John XXIII (15 May 1961). "Mater et Magistra". The Holy See. Retrieved 11 January 2023.
  138. ^ Driessen, Michael D. (2014). "Religion and Democratization in Italy". Religion and Democratization: Framing Religious and Political Identities in Muslim and Catholic Societies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 91–134. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199329700.003.0005. ISBN 9780199329700.
  139. ^ Smith, Brian H. (1982). "Christians and Marxists in Allende's Chile: Lessons for western Europe". West European Politics. 5 (2): 108–126. doi:10.1080/01402388208424360.
  140. ^ "Raul Silva Henriquez Dies". Washington Post. 11 April 1999. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  141. ^ Sigmund, Paul E. (1986). "Revolution, Counterrevolution, and the Catholic Church in Chile". Religion and the State: The Struggle for Legitimacy and Power. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 483. Sage Publications, Inc.: 25–35.
  142. ^ Pope Paul VI (14 May 1971). "Octogesima Adveniens". The Holy See. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  143. ^ Pope John Paul II (1 May 1991). "Centesimus Annus". The Holy See. Retrieved 11 January 2023.
  144. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church – Paragraph # 2425". Catechism of the Catholic Church. 1992. Retrieved 11 January 2023.
  145. ^ Pera, Marcello; Ratzinger, Joseph (13 May 2004). "Without Roots: The West, Relativism, Christianity, Islam". Catholic Education. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  146. ^ Pope Benedict XVI (25 December 2005). "Deus caritas est". The Holy See. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  147. ^ Pope Benedict XVI (30 November 2007). "Spe salvi". The Holy See. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  148. ^ Knight, Nika (2 August 2016). "Pope Francis: Capitalism is 'Terrorism Against All of Humanity'". Common Dreams. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
  149. ^ Davies, Lizzy (15 December 2013). "Pope says he is not a Marxist, but defends criticism of capitalism". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
  150. ^ "The Case Against Liberation Theology". The New York Times. 21 October 1984. Retrieved 11 January 2023.
  151. ^ "Benedict XVI: Liberation Theology was mere 'millenarism' that would have no justification today". Catholic News Agency. 9 May 2007. Retrieved 11 January 2023.
  152. ^ Borger, Julian; Chrisafis, Angelique (1 January 2017). "Will António Guterres be the UN's best ever secretary general?". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 January 2023.
  153. ^ "Professor Roland Boer". University of Newcastle. 2014. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2023. 'There is a tradition within Marxism of engagement with religion that is usually characterised as atheistic and disinterested, but I argue there is a continuous stream of major Marxist figures who have written on questions of religion and engaged specifically with the Bible or with theological debate,' Boer said. 'Some people contend that Marxism borrowed its main ideas from Christianity and Judaism and reconstructed them as secular ideology, but I think that is extremely simplistic – the relationship is much more complex.' See also "Left of his field". Newcastle.edu.au. Newcastle University. 13 December 2013. Archived from the original on 31 March 2022. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  154. ^ Oudshoorn, Dan (24 December 2010). "An Interview with Roland Boer (On Marxism and Theology)". On Journeying with those in Exile. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  155. ^ "Social Christianity". Virtual Museum of Protestantism. Fondation pasteur Eugène Bersier. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  156. ^ a b c "La relance du christianisme social" [The Revival of Social Christianity]. France Culture (in French). Radio France. 2010. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  157. ^ Chalamet 2013.
  158. ^ a b c Wells, Paul (May 1988). "L'Église C'est Moi: The French Churches and the 'Me' Generation". Third Way. Vol. 11, no. 5. London: Hymns Ancient & Modern. pp. 14–16. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  159. ^ "Accueil" [Welcome]. ...Se réclamant du christianisme social (in French). Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  160. ^ a b "Prim but Punchy". The Economist. Vol. 346, no. 8064. 16 April 1998. p. 48. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  161. ^ Llwyd 2015, p. 3.
  162. ^ a b Llwyd 2015, p. 4.
  163. ^ Davies et al. 2008.
  164. ^ Llwyd 2015, p. 5.
  165. ^ a b Llwyd 2015, p. 7.
  166. ^ Llwyd 2015, p. 6.
  167. ^ Gustafson, Barry (2012) [1996]. "Archer, John Kendrick". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  168. ^ "Grand Lodge of BC and Yukon profile of Bellamy". Freemasonry.bcy.ca. Retrieved 19 January 2023.
  169. ^ Sydney Higgins (1984). The Benn Inheritance: The Story of a Radical Family. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-78524-8. Quoted in Brown, Rob (27 September 1984). "Vital key to the real Tony Benn". The Glasgow Herald. p. 8. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
  170. ^ Webber, Christopher L. (1959). "William Dwight Porter Bliss (1856–1926): Priest and Socialist". Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church. 28 (1): 9–39. ISSN 2377-5289. JSTOR 42972716.
  171. ^ "Sergei Bulgakov". Yqyq.net. 2009. Archived from the original on 21 January 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
  172. ^ O'Shaughnessy, Hugh (13 October 2009). "Helder Câmara – Brazil's archbishop of the poor". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 January 2023. The late archbishop's place in history will be heavily influenced by one of his more memorable sayings. 'When I feed the poor they call me a saint. When I ask why so many people are poor they call me a communist.' That is the sort of quotation that Lula must be thinking he should have made.
  173. ^ Lustig, Robin (20 October 2005). "Hugo Chavez: Charming provocateur". BBC News. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  174. ^ Southwell, F. R.; Barry, F. R.; Gray, Donald (2004). "Dearmer, Percy (1867–1936)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/32763.
  175. ^ Thomas, Lewis, ed. (1982). The Making of a Socialist: The Recollections of T.C. Douglas. Edmonton: The University of Alberta Press. ISBN 978-0-88864-070-3.
  176. ^ Abbott, Wenonah Stevens (1903). "The Women's National Socialist Union". The Comrade: An Illustrated Socialist Monthly. 2 (1). Comrade Publishing Company. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  177. ^ "Socialist labels for Barry Gardiner and Jeremy Corbyn". BBC News. 14 May 2019. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
  178. ^ Schofield, Kevin (29 June 2017). "Barry Gardiner: On taking on the media, his cult status and Labour's future". PoliticsHome. Retrieved 19 January 2023.
  179. ^ Hart, David Betley (27 April 2019). "Can We Please Relax About 'Socialism'?". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  180. ^ Watson, Natalie E. "Hewlett Johnson". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/34202. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  181. ^ Mount, F. (2012). "To the End of the Line: Review of The Red Dean of Canterbury: The Public and Private Faces of Hewlett Johnson by Butler, J." London Review of Books. 34 (8): 27–28. Retrieved 19 January 2023.
  182. ^ King, Martin Luther Jr. (2015). West, Cornel (ed.). The Radical King. Beacon Press. ISBN 978-0-8070-1282-6.
  183. ^ "Leech, Kenneth". Bishopsgate Institute. 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2023.
  184. ^ Oestreicher, Paul (22 September 2015). "The Rev Ken Leech obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 January 2023.
  185. ^ Chappell, Jonathan W. (29 June 2022). "'Keep the Faith Baby': Kenneth Leech's Christian socialism". The Tablet. Retrieved 19 January 2023.
  186. ^ Maiden, Samantha; Edwards, Verity (15 December 2006). "Rudd Backtracks on Socialism". The Australian Financial Review. Archived from the original on 6 September 2007. Mr Rudd also cites Keir Hardie, founder of the 19th century British Christian socialist movement, as one of his heroes.
  187. ^ Gustafson, Barry (2013) [1998]. "Nash, Walter". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  188. ^ Rudd, Kevin (October 2006). "Faith in Politics". The Monthly. No. 17. Retrieved 4 June 2016. A Christian perspective, informed by a social gospel or Christian socialist tradition, should not be rejected contemptuously by secular politicians as if these views are an unwelcome intrusion into the political sphere.
  189. ^ Maiden, Samantha; Edwards, Verity (15 December 2006). "Rudd Backtracks on Socialism". The Australian Financial Review. Archived from the original on 6 September 2007. Also cites Gordon, Michael; Grattan, Michelle (14 December 2006). "Rudd Rejects Socialism". The Age. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  190. ^ Crabb, Annabel (3 September 2013). "Call yourself a Christian: private faith, public politics". ABC. Retrieved 19 January 2023.
  191. ^ Ormrod, David (1990). Fellowship, Freedom & Equality: Lectures in Memory of R.H. Tawney. London: Christian Socialist Movement. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-900286-01-8. Tawney's was undoubtedly the most forceful and authentic voice of Christian socialist prophecy to be raised during the 1920s and 30s, echoing into the 1950s.
  192. ^ Gardiner, Juliet, ed. (1995). The History Today Companion to British History. London: Collins & Brown. p. 734. ISBN 978-1-85585-261-7.
  193. ^ Phillips, James M. (17 June 2011). From the Rising of the Sun: Christians and Society in Contemporary Japan (paperback ed.). Wipf & Stock Publishers. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-61097-557-5.
  194. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 236.
  195. ^ Tanis, Bethany (2009). "The 'Great Church Crisis,' Public Life, and National Identity in late-Victorian and Edwardian Britain". eScholarship@BC. Boston College University Libraries. p. 30. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  196. ^ Tanis, Bethany (2009). "The 'Great Church Crisis,' Public Life, and National Identity in late-Victorian and Edwardian Britain". eScholarship@BC. Boston College University Libraries. p. 41. Retrieved 16 January 2023. The chapter also briefly examines the impact of Christian Socialism on the Labour Movement and the hostility of some of the Independent Labour Party's founders, including Keir Hardie and J. Bruce Glasier to both Ritualism and Roman Catholicism, which they associated with the upper-class.
  197. ^ Williams, Anthony Alan John (March 2016). "Christian Socialism as a Political Ideology" (PDF). University of Liverpool Repository. University of Liverpool. p. 5. Retrieved 16 January 2023. Their vision of this society was for the most part highly utopian, due to the belief that the new society would be the Kingdom of God or Kingdom of Heaven on Earth. There are several criticisms of Christian Socialism which have been made, both from a Christian and from a socialist perspective, over, for example, the viability of the Christian Socialist methodology and the validity of the Christian Socialist use of Scripture and church teaching.
  198. ^ Williams, Anthony Alan John (March 2016). "Christian Socialism as a Political Ideology" (PDF). University of Liverpool Repository. University of Liverpool. p. 66. Retrieved 16 January 2023. This rejection of socialism was the Vatican's consistent position: Pope Pius IX had rejected socialism and communism in his Syllabus Errorum (the Syllabus of Errors) in 1864, as did Pius XI in Quadragessimo anno, or In the Fortieth Year, so called because the encyclical was written in 1931, forty years after the publication of Rerum novarum (and also a year after the death of Wheatley). Indeed Pius XI was specific in his condemnation: 'Whether socialism be considered as a doctrine, or as a historical fact, or as a 'movement', if it really remains socialism, it cannot be brought into harmony with the dogmas of the Catholic Church ... 'Religious socialism', 'Christian socialism' are expressions implying a contradiction in terms. No one can be at the same time a sincere Catholic and a true socialist'.
  199. ^ Chalamet, Christophe (29 September 2017). Revivalism and Social Christianity: The Prophetic Faith of Henri Nick and Andre Trocme. ISD. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-7188-4602-2.
  200. ^ Tanis, Bethany (2009). "The 'Great Church Crisis,' Public Life, and National Identity in late-Victorian and Edwardian Britain". eScholarship@BC. Boston College University Libraries. p. 165. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  201. ^ Spurgeon, Charles Haddon (1889). The Metropolitan Tabernacle Pulpit. Passmore. p. 241. Also quoted in Charles, Spurgeon (26 March 2015). The Complete Works of C. H. Spurgeon, Volume 35: Sermons 2062–2120. Delmarva Publications. p. 309.
  202. ^ Chalamet, Christophe (29 September 2017). Revivalism and Social Christianity: The Prophetic Faith of Henri Nick and Andre Trocme. ISD. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-7188-4602-2.
  203. ^ Barigazzi, Jacopo (24 December 2021). "Was Jesus a leftist or a rightist?". Politico. Retrieved 12 January 2023.
  204. ^ Reed 2015.
  205. ^ Moore, Johnnie (2013). "Was Jesus a Socialist or a Capitalist?". Fox News Radio. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  206. ^ Fischer, Bryan (15 October 2015). "Jesus Was Not a Socialist". The Stand. American Family Association. Archived from the original on 14 June 2016. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  207. ^ Byrnes, Sholto (9 June 2021). "'Jesus was a lefty'". New Statesman. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2023.


Further reading[edit]