Mumps outbreaks in the 21st century

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Mumps outbreaks in the 21st century refers to mumps outbreaks occurring from 2000 through the present day. The viral disease continues to cause outbreaks across the world.

Canada (2017, 2007, 2008, 2011)[edit]

2017[edit]

Toronto[edit]

As of March 17, 2017, there have been 43 confirmed cases in the city of Toronto with the highest rates in the west end. Most cases have occurred in people in their late teens to mid-thirties, and the hike in cases has been linked to patrons of bars in the city’s west end.

Alberta[edit]

As of March 28th 2017, 51 cases of mumps have been confirmed in Alberta this year, and a mumps outbreak has been declared in the city of Edmonton, with 24 cases having been confirmed in that city.[1] The remaining cases in Alberta include 12 confirmed cases in the city of Calgary, and 15 in the south region of Alberta health services. Already, as of March 28th 2017, Alberta has seen an increase of 437% in mumps cases over 2016. [2]

Earlier Cases Across the Country (April 2007, August 2008, March 2011)[edit]

Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Dalhousie University was struck with an outbreak of the mumps confirmed in many students with suspected cases in dozens of others. The main causes of the large outbreak include students being unaware of being infected, and other students who knowingly ignored quarantine restrictions. The outbreak began after St. Patrick's Day, and has spread beyond the university community, with confirmed cases reaching 350 cases of mumps since February, including about 24 new cases that have surfaced during the week ending June 9, 2007. The end of the university year in May meant that many students travelled to their homes across the country carrying the infection, leading to a large scale spread, the extent of which is still not clear, although the prevalence of the disease lay in people aged 17 to 24. Roughly 50 personnel of the Halifax-based navy ship HMCS Glace Bay were sent home as a precaution. Reported outbreaks have begun in New Brunswick (Approximately 100 cases), Prince Edward Island (2 cases), Ontario (3 cases confirmed, 5 suspected), West Coast of Newfoundland (2 cases),[3] and Toronto (3 cases). On October 3, 2007, a new case was reported at Nipissing University/Canadore College, in North Bay, Ontario. On October 26, four additional cases were reported in Alberta at the University of Lethbridge and Lethbridge College;[4] By October 30, this had expanded to 5 confirmed.[5] As of Nov. 16 there have been a total of 54 cases in Alberta.[6] As of Nov. 29 there have been 57 confirmed cases in Calgary Alberta, six at the University of Calgary as well as outbreaks at SAIT Polytechnic and Mount Royal College. A vaccination program is currently being undertaken to re-immunize all students in post-secondary by the Calgary Health Region. Vaccinations are also occurring at universities in Edmonton.[7] As of December 11, 2007 the Alberta government has suspended its inoculation program after several people suffered severe allergic reactions.[8]

In late August, 2008, a mumps outbreak was reported in Agassiz, spreading westward into Vancouver.[9]

In September 2008, a single confirmed case of the mumps occurred in London, Ontario.[citation needed] The individual was a student of Fanshawe College.[citation needed]

In June 2010, a single confirmed case of the mumps occurred in Vancouver, BC.[citation needed] In March 2011, a few cases of mumps in Whistler, BC.[citation needed]

United Kingdom (2004–2017)[edit]

In the United Kingdom, between the years of 2004–2006, a mumps outbreak[10] has involved more than 70,000 patients.[11][12] The cause of the outbreak is low immunity in those too old to have received MMR, but young enough to have not developed natural immunity through exposure. A catch-up programme of immunisation of under twenty-five-year-olds, particularly in university towns such as Exeter was implemented.

  • 12 November 2004: The University of Bath Internal News reports that twenty three students have presented to the University of Bath Medical Centre with Mumps. A "Mumps Vaccination programme" is announced, to commence 15 November 2004.[13]
  • April 2008: Oxford Brookes University reported that 28 cases of mumps were reported at the health centre.
  • 1 April 2009: The University of Sheffield reports that 75 cases have come to the University Health Service with mumps, with more cases presenting.
  • 8 April 2009: The University of Sheffield health service reports that the outbreak has escalated to approx 150 cases.
  • March to April 2009: Goldsmiths University of London had several cases reported.
  • April to May 2009: The University of Bristol has ongoing cases of mumps occurring weekly.[14] A second year Classics student has suffered a particularly severe case and has undergone treatment to prevent infertility. Three cases were confirmed in Clifton Hill House hall of residence in May 2009.
  • May 2009: The University of York has at least two reported cases of mumps in second year Electronics students.
  • May 2009: Manchester Metropolitan University, Cheshire, has many outbreaks of mumps within the 2nd year students, as it was spread by a male unaware he was infected during the Easter Break.
  • May 2009: King's College London, numerous outbreaks, particularly amongst the student union staff.
  • November 2009: Central Saint Martins, numerous students, particularly amongst the students in the Korean Society. It is rumoured that the outbreak was caused by a fund-raising night at a club.
  • March 2010: Glasgow University, numerous outbreaks.
  • March 2010: University of Central Lancashire, numerous outbreaks.
  • March 2010: London Dungeon, numerous outbreaks.
  • February 2011: University of Birmingham, a single reported case of mumps in third year AGMS, a second case to a Jewish engineering student
  • March 2011: University of Liverpool, student contracts mumps from Greenbank Halls of Residence.
  • March 2011: University of Southampton, numerous outbreaks.
  • March 2011: University of Durham, numerous outbreaks.
  • April 2011: University of Plymouth, numerous outbreaks.
  • April 2011: University of Nottingham, numerous outbreaks.
  • April to May 2011: Sheffield, numerous outbreaks.
  • June 2011: Lymm High School, numerous outbreaks.
  • June 2011: Bournemouth University, a single case reported in a first year Television Production student.
  • October 2011: University of Strathclyde, a single case reported.
  • January–March 2012: University of Durham, numerous outbreaks.
  • February 2012: Canterbury Christ Church University, a single case reported.
  • Feb–March 2012: University of Glasgow, 37+ cases reported[15]
  • Feb–March 2012: University of Kent, numerous outbreaks.
  • October 2012: University of Sheffield, two cases reported in a third year Town Planning and Urban Design student and a third year Medicine student.
  • April 2013: a case diagnosed in Surrey by a student at the University of Liverpool who had received an MMR vaccination at a young age.
  • May 2013: more than 5 cases reported in students and staff at King's College London
  • October 2013: more than 5 cases reported in students at Cardiff University
  • March 2014: at least 8 cases reported at the University of York.
  • March 2014: at least one suspected case at the University of Warwick
  • April 2014: at least two suspected cases at UCL
  • September - na 2016: unknown number of confirmed cases at the University of Winchester
  • March 2017: several confirmed cases at Newcastle University.

United States (2005–2017)[edit]

Although there may not be a direct link with the mumps outbreak in Ireland, United States CDC Director Dr. Julie Gerberding has been quoted stating that the genotype from the U.S. outbreak, "in the early cases of this outbreak, was the same genotype of virus that was associated with the United Kingdom outbreak."[16] Entrez Gene contains a placeholder database record for a new Mumps gene; the record is dated 23 February 2006.[17]

2007[edit]

  • 31 January 2007: 6404 cases of mumps in 2006 compared to 314 in 2005. As of today, YTD 15 deaths in the United States were reported.[18]

Arkansas (2016)[edit]

Arkansas' first reported case of mumps in 2016 was on August 31 in Springdale.[19] As of December 16, 2016, Arkansas has 2200 cases of mumps, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has reported that Arkansas leads the nation in mumps cases during the current outbreak.[19][20] The high number of infections in Arkansas has prompted monitoring of the outbreak by the Louisiana Office of Public Health. Louisiana currently has no cases of mumps, but authorities are urging people in the state to take precautions due to outbreaks in the border states of Arkansas and Texas.[21][22]

Georgia (2006)[edit]

Illinois (2006, 2014)[edit]

There have been three confirmed cases of the mumps at Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, Two cases at Loyola University Chicago, and has spread to three other neighboring counties in the Southern Illinois area. There has also been one confirmed case at Knox College, in Galesburg (Western Illinois). Wheaton College has also been affected by 93 cases since early September (as of Jan 9).[24]

  • 9 May 2006: Illinois reports 279 total cases.[25]
  • September 28, 2006: The Illinois Department of Public Health has reported 636 cases of mumps in Illinois between January 1, 2006 and September 28, 2006.[25]
  • April, 2014: Nine cases reported among students at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.[26]

Indiana (2006, 2017)[edit]

Iowa (2005–2006)[edit]

In early 2006, for reasons still not fully understood, the state of Iowa experienced a large surge in the number of reported mumps infections.[29] [11] According to the New York Times, college students accounted for about a quarter of the 245 cases [12], while about half of the cases are people aged seventeen to twenty five. Doctors are attributing the rise in mumps case frequency to low vaccination rates in Iowa's youth, coupled with the close quarters in dormitories, classrooms and cafeterias.

According to Canadian media reports,[30] there may be something novel about this mumps strain which indicates a standard MMR-series vaccination is not 95% effective, as was thought.

  • 14 April 2006: Iowa has experienced more than 600 suspected cases since December. Other states reporting cases are California, Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention agency has not yet released the name of the ninth Midwestern state, however there have been confirmed cases in Michigan.[31] The mumps outbreak is the nation's largest in twenty years.
  • 18 April 2006: 815 cases have been reported [13] in Iowa alone, representing a caseload reporting increase of 200 in the last week.
  • 25 April 2006: There are over 1,120 confirmed,[32] probable and suspected cases of mumps. Over 1000 of the cases are confirmed.
  • 2 May 2006: Iowa reports 1,487 cases.[33]
  • 11 May 2006: Iowa reports 1,184 confirmed, 253 probable, and 237 suspect cases, or 1674 total.[34]

Kansas (2006)[edit]

  • 2 May 2006: With 340 mumps cases now reported in Kansas, state health officials have asked the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to help.[35]
  • 10 May 2006: Kansas reports 546 cases.[36]

Kentucky (2006)[edit]

  • 4 May 2006: Two cases diagnosed by Doctor Roach in Paducah,KY, a border town to Southern Illinois.[37]

Massachusetts (2009, 2016)[edit]

Michigan (2006)[edit]

  • 20 April 2006: A woman in Saginaw County was diagnosed with mumps, with another pending results.[31] Cases in Oakland County and Delta County were previously confirmed, and results in neighboring Bay County came back negative.
  • 4 May 2006: A case of the mumps is reported in Plymouth-Canton High School, Canton. The three high schools in Canton are requiring students to provide documentation of vaccination.[41]

Minnesota (2006)[edit]

  • May 2006: The Minnesota Department of Health has confirmed eleven mumps cases in Minnesota in 2006. Four of the eleven cases may be linked to Iowa.[42]

Missouri (2006), (2017)[edit]

  • 10 May 2006: Missouri reports twenty one confirmed, eighty eight probable, for a total of 109 cases[43]

8 March 2017: Southeast Missouri State University has confirmed 29 cases of the mumps.[44]

Nebraska (2006, 2010)[edit]

  • 10 May 2006: Nebraska reports sixty four confirmed, 193 probable, twenty two suspect, for a total of 279 cases in forty three counties.[45] Officials say many people with mumps in Nebraska had connections to Iowa.
  • 10 April 2010: Nebraska reports 9 confirmed cases, with further suspected cases currently undergoing testing. The affected persons all attended or participated in an alumni basketball tournament at Columbus Scotus High School in Columbus, Nebraska on March 26–27, 2010.[46]

New Jersey (2010)[edit]

  • 11 February 2010: There have been consistent reports of a mumps outbreak among Orthodox Jews in New York and New Jersey. The outbreak has now surpassed 1,500 cases, and has shown no sign of coming to an end soon. From those affected in the outbreak, (1,100 in the new outbreak) the CDC says 88 percent have gotten at least one vaccine dose, while 75% have had two doses. Health officials in January were offering a third dose in schools where the outbreak has persisted. So far, the mumps epidemic is continuing.[citation needed]

New York (2009, 2014)[edit]

  • October 23, 2009: at least 1,000 children of the ultra-Orthodox Jewish community in Borough Park, Brooklyn contracted the mumps, despite 3/4 of them having been vaccinated. Neighboring Jewish communities have also experienced outbreaks, including Monsey, New York and Lakewood, New Jersey.[47]
  • February 2014: An outbreak of mumps was reported at Fordham University's Rose Hill Campus in Bronx, NY as well as the Lincoln Center campus. The university's health services department said thirteen students were diagnosed with mumps all together, 12 of the cases being at Rose Hill and one case at Lincoln Center.[48]

North Carolina (2006)[edit]

In May 2004, an 8-year-old in Orange County is diagnosed with the mumps.

  • 4 May 2006: An 8-year-old in Mecklenburg County is diagnosed with the mumps, the first case in the county since 2002.[49]

Ohio (2008, 2014)[edit]

  • 14 February 2008: The University of Toledo was hit by a sudden outbreak of the mumps on February 14, 2008. Most of the pregnant students were moved into quarantined buildings, and all the students in the Ottawa House buildings were required to provide medical record of previous mumps vaccinations.
  • March, 2014: an outbreak of the mumps was reported at The Ohio State University in Columbus, OH. As of April 19, 2014, 244 cases have been reported throughout Franklin and Delaware counties.[50]

Oregon (2006)[edit]

South Dakota (2006)[edit]

  • 12 May 2006: SD Department of Health reports thirty three confirmed cases, fifty three probable cases, and six suspect cases for a total of ninety two cases.[53]

Texas (2016)[edit]

The Louisiana Office of Public Health reported about 50 cases of mumps in the Dallas area.[22]

Vermont 2008[edit]

  • September 17, 2008: Health Department Responds to Case of Mumps at Middlebury College.[54]

Virginia (2006, 2008)[edit]

  • Fall 2006: In the fall of 2006, University of Virginia had an outbreak of mumps with 55 cases.[55]
  • 13 March 2008: University of Virginia reports two suspected cases.[55]

Wisconsin (2006)[edit]

  • 10 May 2006: 185 confirmed cases, at least one case in one out of three counties.[56]

University of California, Berkeley (2011)[edit]

  • October 2011, an outbreak of mumps was reported on the University of California, Berkeley campus. The California Department of Public Health authorized the free vaccination of the entire student and staff population of the campus (more than 35,000 people).

National Hockey League (2014) (2017)[edit]

Republic of Moldova (2007–2008)[edit]

  • 24 January 2008: more than 2000 confirmed cases. Most affected are the regions of Chişinău, Orhei, Străşeni, Nisporeni, Ialoveni, Cahul, Comrat, Ungheni, Teleneşti, Hânceşti, Anenii Noi, Rezina, Floreşti.[62]

The Netherlands (2008–2010)[edit]

  • 19 April 2008, the areas of Zeeland and Veluwe, inhabited by a large number of conservative Protestants who oppose vaccination, has confirmed 60 cases by blood test.[63]
  • March 2010, at least 100 vaccinated students were confirmed having the mumps. Especially in Zuid-Holland and Utrecht.[64]

Ireland (2009)[edit]

  • April 2009, there have been more than 2,000 cases of mumps reported in the Irish outbreak and it is having the biggest effect on 18- to 21-year-olds. It has spread throughout secondary schools, colleges and Universities in Ireland and demand for vaccinations has increased considerably. The outbreak has been blamed on failure to take the MMR vaccine due to media sensationalist claims linking the vaccine to autism and delays in rolling it out due to budgetary problems.[65][66][67] High-profile people to fall victim to the mumps outbreak include Leinster Rugby player Rob Kearney.[68][69]

Belgium (2012)[edit]

  • April 2012, over 200 cases of mumps were reported. The mild epidemic probably started at the Ghent University.[70][71]

Iraq[edit]

  • from October 2015 to February 2016, around 4600 cases of mumps were reported in Iraq.[72]

Palestine[edit]

In 2014, there were 18,535 cases of mumps, while in 2015, there were 1143 cases.[73]

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See also[edit]