Assembly of the Republic (Portugal)

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Assembly of the Republic

Assembleia da República
14th Assembly of the Republic
Coat of arms or logo
Emblem of the Assembly of the Republic
Logo
Flag of the Assembly of the Republic
Type
Type
Leadership
Eduardo Ferro Rodrigues, PS
since 23 October 2015
Vice-Presidents
Structure
Seats230
Political groups
Government (108)
  •      PS (108)

Opposition (122)

  •      PPD/PSD (79)
  •      BE (19)
  •      PCP (10)
  •      CDS-PP (5)
  •      PAN (4)
  •      PEV (2)
  •      CH (1)
  •      IL (1)
  •      L (1)
Elections
Party-list proportional representation
D'Hondt method
Closed list
Last election
6 October 2019
Meeting place
Lisbon, Portugal (Sharon Hahn Darlin) São Bento.jpg
Parlamento-IPPAR1.jpg
São Bento Palace, Lisbon, Portugal
Website
parlamento.pt
Coat of arms of Portugal
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Portugal
Constitution
Foreign relations

The Assembly of the Republic (Portuguese: Assembleia da República, pronounced [ɐsẽˈblɐjɐ dɐ ʁɛˈpublikɐ]) is the parliament of the Portuguese Republic. According to the Portuguese Constitution, the unicameral parliament "is the representative assembly of all Portuguese citizens." The constitution names the assembly as one of the country's organs of supreme authority.

It is located in a historical building in Lisbon, referred to as Palácio de São Bento (Palace of Saint Benedict), the site of an old Benedictine monastery. The Palácio de São Bento has been the seat of the Portuguese parliaments since 1834 (Cortes until 1910, Congress from 1911 to 1926 and National Assembly from 1933 to 1974).

Powers and duties of the Assembly[edit]

The Assembly of the Republic's powers derives from its power to dismiss a government through a vote of no confidence, to change the country's laws, and to amend the constitution (this one requires a majority of two-thirds). In addition to these key powers, the constitution grants to the Assembly extensive legislative powers and substantial control over the budget, the right to authorize the government to raise taxes and grant loans, the power to ratify treaties and other kinds of international agreements, and the duty to approve or reject decisions by the President of the Republic to declare war and make peace. The assembly also appoints many members of important state institutions, such as ten of the thirteen members of the Constitutional Court and seven of the sixteen members of the Council of State.

The constitution requires the assembly to quickly review and approve an incoming government's program. Parliamentary rules allow the assembly to call for committees of inquiry to examine the government's actions. Political opposition represented in the assembly has the power to review the cabinet's actions, even though it is unlikely that the actions can be reversed. Party groups can also call for interpellations that require debates about specific government policies.

Structure[edit]

The assembly consisted at first of 250 members, but the constitutional reforms of 1989 reduced its number to between 180 and 230. Members are elected by popular vote for legislative terms of four years from the country's twenty-two constituencies (eighteen in mainland Portugal corresponding to each district, one for each autonomous region, Azores (Portuguese: Açores) and Madeira, one for Portuguese living in Europe and a last one for those living in the rest of the world. Except for the constituencies for Portuguese living abroad, which are fixed at two members each, the number of voters registered in a constituency determines the number of its members in the assembly, using the D'Hondt method of proportional representation. Constituencies vary greatly in size; from as large as the district of Lisbon, which returns 48 representatives, to as small as the district of Portalegre, which elects just two.

For the 2015 legislative elections, the MPs distributed by districts were as follows:[1]

District Number of MPs Map
Lisbon 48 Portuguese electoral district apportionment - 2019.svg
Porto 40
Braga 19
Setúbal 18
Aveiro 16
Leiria 10
Coimbra, Faro and Santarém 9 each
Viseu 8
Madeira and Viana do Castelo 6 each
Azores and Vila Real 5 each
Guarda and Castelo Branco 4 each
Beja, Bragança, Évora e Guarda 3 each
Portalegre, Europe and Outside Europe 2 each

According to the constitution, members of the assembly represent the entire country, not the constituency from which they are elected. This directive has been reinforced in practice by the strong role of political parties in regard to members of the assembly. Party leadership, for example, determines in which areas candidates are to run for office, thus often weakening members' ties to their constituencies. Moreover, members of the assembly are expected to vote with their party and to work within parliamentary groups based on party membership. Party discipline is strong, and insubordinate members can be coerced through a variety of means. A further obstacle to members' independence is that their bills first have to be submitted to the parliamentary groups, and it is these groups' leaders who set the assembly's agenda.

The President of the Assembly of the Republic is the second hierarchical figure in the Portuguese state, after the President of the Portuguese Republic, and is elected by secret vote of the members of parliament. The President of the Assembly is aided by four vice-presidents, nominated by the other parties represented in the parliament, and is usually the speaker.[original research?] When he is not present, one of the vice-presidents takes the role of speaker. When the President of the Republic is, for any reason, unable to perform to job, the President of the Assembly of the Republic becomes his substitute.

Current composition[edit]

Party Caucus leader Seats %
Socialist Party 108 47.0
Social Democratic Party 79 34.4
Left Bloc 19 8.2
Portuguese Communist Party 10 4.4
People's Party 5 2.2
People–Animals–Nature 4 1.7
Ecologist Party "The Greens" 2 0.9
CHEGA 1 0.4
Liberal Initiative 1 0.4
LIVRE 1 0.4
 Total 230 100.0

Latest election[edit]

National summary[edit]

Summary of the 6 October 2019 Assembly of the Republic elections results
AR Eleicoes 2019.svg
Parties Votes % ±pp swing MPs MPs %/
votes %
2015 2019 ± % ±
Socialist 1,903,687 36.35 Increase4.0 86 108 Increase22 46.96 Increase9.6 1.29
Social Democratic 1,454,283 27.77 [a] 89 79 Decrease10 34.35 Decrease4.3 1.24
Left Bloc 498,549 9.52 Decrease0.7 19 19 Steady0 8.26 Steady0.0 0.87
Unitary Democratic Coalition 332,018 6.34 Decrease1.9 17 12 Decrease5 5.22 Decrease2.2 0.82
People's 221,094 4.22 [a] 18 5 Decrease13 2.17 Decrease5.6 0.51
People–Animals–Nature 173,931 3.32 Increase1.9 1 4 Increase3 1.74 Increase1.3 0.52
CHEGA 67,502 1.29 N/A N/A 1 N/A 0.43 N/A 0.33
Liberal Initiative 67,443 1.29 N/A N/A 1 N/A 0.43 N/A 0.33
LIVRE 56,940 1.09 Increase0.4 0 1 Increase1 0.43 Increase0.4 0.39
Alliance 40,175 0.77 N/A N/A 0 N/A 0.00 N/A 0.0
Portuguese Workers' Communist 36,006 0.69 Decrease0.4 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
React, Include, Recycle 35,169 0.67 N/A N/A 0 N/A 0.00 N/A 0.0
National Renovator 16,992 0.32 Decrease0.2 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Earth 12,888 0.25 Decrease0.2 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
We, the Citizens! 12,346 0.24 Decrease0.2 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Democratic Republican 11,674 0.22 Decrease0.9 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
United Party of Retirees and Pensioners 11,457 0.22 Decrease0.1 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Together for the People 10,552 0.20 Decrease0.1 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
People's Monarchist 8,389 0.16 Decrease0.1 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Labour 8,271 0.16 [b] 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Socialist Alternative Movement 3,243 0.06 [b] 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Total valid 4,982,609 95.14 Decrease1.1 230 230 Steady0 100.00 Steady0
Blank ballots 131,302 2.51 Increase0.4
Invalid ballots 123,573 2.36 Increase0.7
Total 5,237,484 100.00
Registered voters/turnout 10,777,258 48.60 Decrease7.3
Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições
Vote share
PS
36.35%
PSD
27.77%
BE
9.52%
CDU
6.34%
CDS-PP
4.22%
PAN
3.32%
CH
1.29%
IL
1.29%
L
1.09%
Alliance
0.77%
PCTP/MRPP
0.69%
RIR
0.67%
Others
1.83%
Blank/Invalid
4.87%
Parliamentary seats
PS
46.96%
PSD
34.35%
BE
8.26%
CDU
5.22%
CDS-PP
2.17%
PAN
1.74%
CH
0.43%
IL
0.43%
L
0.43%

Distribution by constituency[edit]

e • d Results of the 2019 election of the Portuguese Assembly of the Republic
by constituency
Constituency % S % S % S % S % S % S % S % S % S Total
S
PS PSD BE CDU CDS–PP PAN CH IL L
Azores 40.1 3 30.2 2 8.0 - 2.5 - 4.8 - 2.7 - 0.9 - 0.7 - 0.9 - 5
Aveiro 34.3 7 33.6 6 10.0 2 3.1 - 5.7 1 3.0 - 0.7 - 1.0 - 0.7 - 16
Beja 40.7 2 13.3 - 9.1 - 22.8 1 2.3 - 2.0 - 2.0 - 0.4 - 0.6 - 3
Braga 36.4 8 34.1 8 8.9 2 4.0 - 4.1 1 2.6 - 0.7 - 0.8 - 0.7 - 19
Bragança 36.5 1 40.8 2 6.0 - 2.1 - 4.5 - 1.3 - 0.8 - 0.4 - 0.3 - 3
Castelo Branco 40.9 3 26.3 1 11.1 - 4.8 - 3.7 - 2.4 - 1.3 - 0.6 - 0.9 - 4
Coimbra 39.0 5 26.6 3 11.2 1 5.6 - 3.5 - 2.6 - 0.9 - 0.8 - 0.9 - 9
EvoraÉvora 38.3 2 17.5 - 9.0 - 18.9 1 3.4 - 2.0 - 2.2 - 0.7 - 0.7 - 3
Faro 36.8 5 22.3 3 12.3 1 7.1 - 3.8 - 4.8 - 2.1 - 0.8 - 1.0 - 9
Guarda 37.6 2 34.3 1 7.8 - 3.0 - 5.0 - 1.6 - 1.5 - 0.6 - 0.5 - 3
Leiria 31.1 4 33.5 5 9.4 1 4.3 - 5.3 - 2.9 - 1.5 - 0.9 - 0.9 - 10
Lisbon 36.7 20 22.6 12 9.7 5 7.8 4 4.4 2 4.4 2 2.0 1 2.5 1 2.1 1 48
Madeira 33.4 3 37.1 3 5.2 - 2.1 - 6.1 - 1.8 - 0.7 - 0.7 - 0.4 - 6
Portalegre 44.7 2 20.1 - 10.5 - 8.1 - 3.8 - 1.7 - 2.7 - 0.5 - 0.6 - 2
Porto 36.7 17 31.2 15 10.1 4 4.8 2 3.3 1 3.5 1 0.6 - 1.5 - 1.0 - 40
Santarém 37.1 4 25.2 3 10.2 1 7.6 1 4.7 - 2.6 - 2.0 - 0.8 - 0.9 - 9
Setúbal 38.6 9 14.4 3 12.1 2 15.8 3 3.0 - 4.4 1 1.9 - 1.1 - 1.2 - 18
Viana do Castelo 34.8 3 33.8 3 8.5 - 4.0 - 6.2 - 2.4 - 0.7 - 0.6 - 0.6 - 6
Vila Real 37.2 2 39.0 3 6.1 - 2.5 - 4.5 - 1.7 - 0.8 - 0.4 - 0.6 - 5
Viseu 35.4 4 36.2 4 7.9 - 2.3 - 5.9 - 2.1 - 1.0 - 0.6 - 0.5 - 8
Europe 29.1 1 18.8 1 5.7 - 2.5 - 3.0 - 4.9 - 0.9 - 0.8 - 1.1 - 2
Rest of the World 20.2 1 33.4 1 3.5 - 1.0 - 4.7 - 4.3 - 0.9 - 2.5 - 0.7 - 2
Total 36.4 108 27.8 79 9.5 19 6.3 12 4.2 5 3.3 4 1.3 1 1.3 1 1.1 1 230
Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições

Composition of the Assembly of the Republic since 1975[edit]

Presidents of the Assembly of the Republic[edit]

Members[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b The Social Democratic Party (PSD) and the People's Party (CDS–PP) contested the 2015 election in a coalition called Portugal Ahead (PàF) and won a combined 38.6% of the vote and elected 107 MPs to parliament.
  2. ^ a b The Socialist Alternative Movement (MAS) and the Portuguese Labour Party (PTP) contested the 2015 election in a coalition called AGIR! (Act!) and won a combined 0.4% of the vote.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mapa Oficial nº 2-A 2015" (PDF). CNE - Comissão Nacional de Eleições - Diário da República, 1.a série—N.o 154-10 de agosto de 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2016.

External links[edit]