American theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Siddiq Barmak|
Julie Le Brocquy
|Written by||Siddiq Barmak|
Zabih ullah Frotan
|Music by||Mohammad Reza Darvishi|
|Edited by||Siddiq Barmak|
Osama (Persian: اسامه) is a 2003 drama film made in Afghanistan by Siddiq Barmak. The film follows a preteen girl living in Afghanistan under the Taliban regime who disguises herself as a boy, Osama, to support her family. It was the first film to be shot entirely in Afghanistan since 1996, when the Taliban régime banned the creation of all films. The film is an international co-production between companies in Afghanistan, the Netherlands, Japan, Ireland, and Iran.
In the film, the Taliban are ruling Afghanistan. Their regime is especially repressive for women, who, among other things, are not allowed to work. This situation becomes difficult for one family consisting solely of three women, representing three successive generations: a young girl, her mother, and her grandmother. With the mother's husband and uncle dead, having been killed in battle during the Soviet invasion and their civil wars, there are no men left to support the family. The mother had been working as a nurse in a hospital, but the Taliban cut off funding to the hospital, leaving it completely dysfunctional with no medicines and very little equipment. One foreign woman working as a nurse in the hospital is arrested by the Taliban. The mother does some nursing outside the hospital and receives payment from the caretaker of a patient, but after the patient dies the mother cannot find any more work.
The mother and grandmother then make what they feel is the only decision they can to survive: they will have their preteen daughter disguise herself as a boy so that she can get a job to support the family. Osama's grandmother tells a story to Osama about a boy who changed to a girl when he went under a rainbow, to help persuade her to accept the plan. The daughter, feeling powerless, agrees despite being afraid that the Taliban will kill her if they discover her masquerade. Partly as a symbolic measure, the daughter plants a lock of her now cut hair in a flowerpot. The only people outside the family who know of the ruse are the milk vendor who employs the daughter – he who was a friend of her deceased father – and a local boy named Espandi, who recognises her despite her outward change in appearance. Espandi is the one who renames her Osama. The masquerade becomes more difficult when the Taliban recruit all the local boys for school, which includes military training. At the training school, they are taught how to fight and conduct ablutions, and an ablution is taught to boys that should be done when they experience nocturnal emission or come in contact with their wife when they grow older. Osama attempts to avoid joining the ablution session, and the master grows suspicious of Osama's gender. Osama realises it can only be so long before she is found out. Several of the boys begin to pick on her, and although Espandi is at first able to protect her, her secret is eventually discovered when she menstruates.
Osama is arrested and put on trial, along with a Western journalist, and the foreign woman who was arrested in the hospital. The journalist and the nurse are both condemned and put to death, but, as Osama is destitute and helpless, her life is spared; she is instead given in marriage to a much older man. Osama's new husband already has three wives, all of whom hate him and say he has destroyed their lives. They take pity on Osama, but are powerless to help her. The husband shows Osama the padlocks he uses on his wives' rooms, reserving the largest for Osama. The film ends with the new husband conducting an ablution in an outdoor bath, which the boys were earlier taught to conduct after coming in contact with their wives.
- Marina Golbahari – Osama
- Arif Herati – Espandi
- Zubaida Sahar – Mom
- Gol Rahman Ghorbandi – Lady No. 1
- Mohamad Haref Harat – Lady No. 2
- Mohamad Nader Khadjeh – Lady No. 3
- Khwaja Nader – Jadi
- Hamida Refah – Rohmi
Siddiq Barmak's inspiration was found in a news story he read while in Peshawar. The paper told the story of a girl who had dressed as a boy to attend school but was eventually discovered by the Taliban. Barmak would go onto add elements of other stories that were shared with him by people who had lived in Afghanistan under Taliban rule cumulating into the story of the film.
The film was shot on location in Kabul, Afghanistan. Work began in June 2002 and was completed in March 2003 with a budget of approximately $46,000 US$. All the actors in the film are amateurs found by the director on the streets of Kabul.
According to Marina, a documentary about actress Marina Golbahari shot concurrently with the film. Osama was originally titled Rainbow and ended on a hopeful note, with Osama passing under a rainbow and gaining her freedom. As time went on, the director grew dissatisfied with the ending and changed it and cut out other scenes in the film that expressed hope.
Osama was very well received by the Western cinematic world. It gathered a rating of 96% based on 100 reviews collected by Rotten Tomatoes, a website which tabulates the reviews from professional film critics into a single rating.
Awards and nominations
- Awarded: Special Mention
- Nominated: Grand Prix for F1
- Awarded: AFCAE Award
- Awarded: Cannes Junior Award
- Awarded: Golden Camera – Special Mention
- Awarded: Best Actress – Marina Golbahari
- Nominated: Lino Brocka Award
- Awarded: Golden Globe Best Foreign Language Film – Afghanistan
- Nominated: Golden Satellite Award Best Motion Picture, Foreign Language – Afghanistan
- Won: Golden Trailer Best Foreign
- Won: Sutherland Trophy
- Won: Best Film Award Best Full – Length Fiction Film
- Won: Best Young Actor Award – Marina Golbahari
- Won: New Currents Award – Special Mention
- Won: PSB Audience Award
- Won: Golden Spike
- Nominated: Young Artist Award Best International Feature Film
- Bacha posh, the practice depicted in the film where a family without sons may pick a daughter to live as a boy
- The Breadwinner (film)
- Cross-dressing in film and television
- "OSAMA (12A)". British Board of Film Classification. 12 December 2003. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Osama at Box Office Mojo
- "Osama and Afghan cinema: an interview with Siddiq Barmak". Opendemocracy,net. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
- "Tri City Voice: Interview with Osama Director, Siddiq Barmak by Christopher Cobb - February 17, 2004". Tricityvoice.com. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
- "Osama (2003)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 14 July 2010.