Pingelapese language

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Native to Micronesia
Region Pingelap
Native speakers
3,000  (1991)[1]
Latin script
Language codes
ISO 639-3 pif
Glottolog ping1243[2]

Pingelapese is a Micronesian language spoken on the Pingelap atoll.

It is a language featuring both reduplication and triplication.


Historical Sound Changes[edit]

Pingelapese reflexes of Proto Oceanic consonants[3]
Proto Oceanic *mp *mp,ŋp *p *m *m,ŋm *k *ŋk *y *w *t *s,nj *ns,j *j *nt,nd *d,R *l *n
Proto Micronesian *p *pʷ *f *m *mʷ *k *x *y *w *t *T *s *S *Z *c *r *l *n
Proto Chuukic-Pohnpeic *p *pʷ *f *m *mʷ *k *r,∅ *y *w *t *j *t *t * ̻t *r *l *n
Proto Pohnpeic *p *pʷ *p, ∅ *m *mʷ *k *r,∅ *y *w *j,∅ *j *t *t * ̻t *r *l *n *∅,n
Pingelapese *p *pʷ *p, ∅ *m *mʷ *k *r,∅ *∅,y *w *s,∅{_i,u,e} *s *t *t *s *r *l *n *∅,n{V+hi_}


  1. ^ Pingelapese at Ethnologue (13th ed., 1996).
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Pingelapese". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Bender, Byron W. (2003). "Proto-Micronesian Reconstructions: 1". Oceanic Linguistics 42: 4, 5.