List of Prime Ministers of Spain

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The following is the list of those who have served as President of the Government (i.e., the Prime Minister) of Spain. It also includes similar offices presiding over the Council of Ministries since the position gained a significant power.

Kingdom of Spain (1705–1873)[edit]

Secretaries of the Universal Bureau[edit]

Picture Name From Until Monarch
(Reign)
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Pedro Fernández del Campo y Angulo,
Marquis of Mejorada
11 July 1705 15 April 1714 King Philip V
Felipe V de España.jpg
(1700–1724)
Manuel de Vadillo y Velasco 15 April 1714 30 November 1714
José de Grimaldo y Gutiérrez de Solórzano
Marquis of Grimaldo
(1st time)
30 November 1714 14 January 1724
Juan Bautista de Orendáin y Azpilicueta
(1st time)
14 January 1724 4 September 1724 King Louis I
Luis I, rey de España.jpg
(1724)
José de Grimaldo y Gutiérrez de Solórzano
Marquis of Grimaldo
(2nd time)
4 September 1724 12 December 1725 King Philip V
Felipe V de España.jpg
(1724–1746)
Johan Willem Ripperda.jpg Juan Guillermo Ripperdá
Duke and Baron of Ripperdá
12 December 1725 14 April 1726
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg José de Grimaldo y Gutiérrez de Solórzano
Marquis of Grimaldo
(3rd time)
14 April 1726 1 October 1726
Juan Bautista de Orendáin y Azpilicueta
Marquis of La Paz
(2nd time)
1 October 1726 21 November 1734

First Secretaries of State[edit]

Picture Name From Until Monarch
(Reign)
JoséPatiñoMuseoNaval.jpg José de Patiño y Rosales 21 November 1734 3 November 1736 King Philip V
Felipe V de España.jpg
(1724–1746)
Sebastian de la Cuadra.jpg Sebastián de la Cuadra y Llerena
1st Marquis of Villarías
26 November 1736 4 December 1746
José de Carvajal y Lancaster.jpg José de Carvajal y Lancaster 4 December 1746 9 April 1754 King Ferdinand VI
Rey Fernando VI.jpg
(1746–1759)
12th Duke of Alba by Mengs.jpg Fernando de Silva Mendoza y Toledo
Duke of Huéscar
9 April 1754 15 May 1754
Ricardo Wall.jpg Ricardo Wall y Devreux 15 May 1754 10 August 1759
10 August 1759 9 October 1763 King Charles III
Charles III of Spain.jpg
(1759–1788)
Jerónimo Grimaldi.jpg Pablo Jerónimo de Grimaldi y Pallavicini
Duke of Grimaldi
9 October 1763 19 February 1777
The Count of Floridablanca by Francisco Goya.jpg José Moñino y Redondo
Count of Floridablanca
19 February 1777 14 December 1788
14 December 1788 28 February 1792 King Charles IV
Carlos IV de rojo.jpg
(1788–1808)
Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, Count of Aranda.jpg Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea y Ximénez de Urrea
Count of Aranda
Acting First Secretary of State
28 February 1792 15 November 1792
Manuel de Godoy, por Antonio Carnicero (Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando).jpg Manuel de Godoy y Álvarez de Faria
Duke of Alcudia
15 November 1792 28 March 1798
Francisco-Saavedra-by-Goya.jpg Francisco Saavedra de Sangronis
Acting First Secretary of State until 6 September 1798
30 March 1798 21 February 1799
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Mariano Luis de Urquijo y Muga
Acting First Secretary of State
12 February 1799 13 December 1799
Pedro Cevallos Guerra
(1st time)
13 December 1799 3 March 1808
Gonzalo O'Farrill y Herrera
Acting First Secretary of State
3 March 1808 19 March 1808
Pedro Cevallos Guerra
(2nd time)
19 March 1808 7 July 1808 King Ferdinand VII
Ferdinand VII of Spain (1814) by Goya.jpg
(1808)
Mariano Luis de Urquijo y Muga
(2nd time)
7 July 1808 27 June 1813 King Joseph I
Joseph-Bonaparte.jpg
(1808–1813)
JuanODonoju.jpg Juan O'Donoju O'Ryan
Acting First Secretary of State
10 October 1813 17 October 1813
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Fernando de Laserna
Acting First Secretary of State
17 October 1813 3 December 1813
José Luyando
Acting First Secretary of State
3 December 1813 4 May 1814 King Ferdinand VII
Ferdinand VII of Spain (1814) by Goya.jpg
(1813–1833)
Retrato del Duque de San Carlos.jpg José Miguel de Carvajal-Vargas y Manrique de Lara
Duke of San Carlos
4 May 1814 15 November 1814
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Pedro Cevallos Guerra
(3rd time)
15 November 1814 24 January 1816
Juan Esteban Lozano de Torres 24 January 1816 26 January 1816
Pedro Cevallos Guerra
(4th time)
26 January 1816 30 October 1816
José García de León y Pizarro 30 October 1816 14 September 1818
Carlos Martínez de Irujo y Tacón.jpg Carlos Martínez de Irujo y Tacón
Marquis of Casa Irujo
Acting First Secretary of State
14 September 1818 12 June 1819
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Manuel González Salmón y Gómez de Torres
Acting First Secretary of State
12 June 1819 12 September 1819
Joaquín José Melgarejo y Saurín
Duke of San Fernando de Quiroga
12 September 1819 18 March 1820
Juan Jabat Aztal
Acting First Secretary of State
18 March 1820
Evaristo Pérez de Castro.jpg Evaristo Pérez de Castro y Brito 18 March 1820 2 March 1821
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Joaquín Anduaga Cuenca
Acting First Secretary of State
2 March 1821 23 April 1821
Francisco de Paula Escudero
Acting First Secretary of State
23 April 1821
Eusebio Bardají y Azara 23 April 1821 8 January 1822
Ramón López Pelegrín
Acting First Secretary of State
8 January 1822 24 January 1822
José Gabriel de Silva y Bazán
Marquis of Santa Cruz
24 January 1822 30 January 1822
Ramón López Pelegrín
Acting First Secretary of State
30 January 1822 28 February 1822
MartinezRosa-1-.jpg Francisco Martínez de la Rosa 28 February 1822 5 August 1822
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Evaristo Fernández San Miguel y Valledor
Acting First Secretary of State from 28 February 1822
5 August 1822 25 April 1823
José Manuel Vadillo
Acting First Secretary of State
25 April 1823 7 May 1823
Santiago Usoz y Mozi
Acting First Secretary of State
7 May 1823 13 May 1823
José María Pando de la Riva y Ramírez de Laredo 13 May 1823 29 August 1823
Luis María de Salazar y Salazar
Acting First Secretary of State
29 August 1823 4 September 1823
Juan Antonio Yandiola Garay
Acting First Secretary of State
4 September 1823 6 September 1823
José Luyando
(2nd time)
6 September 1823 1 October 1823
Víctor Damián Sáez y Sánchez-Mayor
Acting First Secretary of State until 7 August 1823
(counter-government until 1 October 1823.)
25 April 1823 2 December 1823
Carlos Martínez de Irujo y Tacón.jpg Carlos Martínez de Irujo y Tacón
Marquis of Casa Irujo
(2nd time)
2 December 1823 18 January 1824
Conde de Ofalia.JPG Narciso Fernández de Heredia y Begines de los Ríos
Count of Ofalia
18 January 1824 11 July 1824
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Luis María de Salazar y Salazar
Acting First Secretary of State
11 July 1824
Francisco Cea Bermúdez
(1st time)
11 July 1824 24 October 1825
Pedro de Alcántara Álvarez de Toledo y Salm Salm, XIII duque del Infantado (Museo del Prado).jpg Pedro Alcantara Álvarez de Toledo y Salm Salm
Duke of the Infantado
24 October 1825 19 August 1826
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Manuel González Salmón y Gómez de Torres
Acting First Secretary of State until 15 October 1830
19 August 1826 20 January 1832
Francisco Tadeo Calomarde.jpg Francisco Tadeo Calomarde y Arría
Acting First Secretary of State
20 January 1832 22 February 1832
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Antonio de Saavedra y Frígola, conde de Alcudia
Acting First Secretary of State
22 February 1832 1 October 1832
José Cafranga Costilla
Acting First Secretary of State
1 October 1832 29 November 1832
Francisco Cea Bermúdez
(2nd time)
29 November 1832 15 January 1834

Prime Ministers (Presidents of the Council of Ministers)[edit]

Political Persuasion:   Moderate   Progressive   Liberal Union   Radical Democratic

Portrait Name Term of office Political Party Government Monarch
(Reign)
MartinezRosa-1-.jpg Francisco de Paula Martínez de la Rosa y Berdejo 15 January 1834 7 June 1835 Moderate Royalist Martínez de la Rosa Queen Dowager Maria Christina
Regent for
Queen Isabella II

María Cristina de Borbón-Dos Sicilias, reina de España.jpg
(1833–1840)
José María Queipo de Llano, conde de Toreno (Museo del Prado).jpg José María Queipo de Llano Ruiz de Saravia, 7th Count of Toreno 7 June 1835 14 September 1835 Toreno
Don Miguel Ricardo de Alava by William Salter cropped.jpg Miguel Ricardo de Álava y Esquivel
(rejected his nomination, staying as
the Spanish ambassador in London.
)
14 September 1835 25 September 1835 Progressive Álava
Juan Álvarez Mendizábal.jpg Juan Álvarez Mendizábal 25 September 1835 15 May 1836 Mendizábal
Francisco Javier Istúriz.jpg Francisco Javier Isturiz y Montero
(1st time)
15 May 1836 14 August 1836 Moderate Isturiz I
Calatrava.jpg José María Calatrava y Peinado 14 August 1836 18 August 1837 Progressive Calatrava
Baldomero Espartero.jpg Baldomero Espartero, Count of Luchana
(1st time)
18 August 1837 18 October 1837 Espartero I
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Eusebio Bardají y Azara 18 October 1837 16 December 1837 Moderate Bardají
Conde de Ofalia.JPG Narciso de Heredia y Begines de los Ríos, Count of Ofalia 16 December 1837 6 September 1838 Heredia
Bernardino Fernández de Velasco y Benavides-Duque de Frías.JPG Bernardino Fernández de Velasco, 14th Duke of Frías 6 September 1838 9 December 1838 Frías
Alaix-galería.jpg Isidro de Alaix Fábregas
Acting Prime Minister
9 December 1838 3 February 1839
Evaristo Pérez de Castro.jpg Evaristo Pérez de Castro y Brito (9 December 1838)
3 February 1839
18 July 1840 Pérez de Castro
Antonio González González.jpg Antonio González y González
(1st time)
20 July 1840 12 August 1840 Progressive González I
Ferraz.JPG Valentín Ferraz y Barrau 12 August 1840 28 August 1840 Ferraz
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Modesto Cortázar
Acting Prime Minister
29 August 1840 11 September 1840
Vicente Sancho redondeado.png Vicente Sancho y Cobertores 11 September 1840 16 September 1840 Sancho
Baldomero Espartero.jpg Baldomero Espartero, Duke of la Victoria
(2nd time)
16 September 1840 10 May 1841 Progressive Espartero II Baldomero Espartero
Regent for
Queen Isabella II

Baldomero Espartero, Prince of Vergara.jpg
(1840–1843)
Joaquín María Ferrer por Francisco de Goya.jpg Joaquín María de Ferrer y Cafranga 10 May 1841 20 May 1841 Ferrer
Antonio González González.jpg Antonio González y González
(2nd time)
20 May 1841 17 June 1842 González II
Retrato del general Rodil (Dionisio Fierros Álvarez).jpg José Ramón Rodil y Campillo, Marquis of Rodil 17 June 1842 9 May 1843 Rodil
Joaquín María López.png Joaquín María López y López
(1st time)
9 May 1843 19 May 1843 López I
Álvaro Gómez Becerra (Palacio del Senado de España).jpg Álvaro Gómez Becerra 19 May 1843 23 July 1843 Gómez Becerra
Joaquín María López.png Joaquín María López y López
(2nd time)
23 July 1843 20 November 1843 López II Queen Isabella II
Isabel II of Spain.jpg
(1833/1843–1868)
Salustiano Olózaga.jpg Salustiano de Olózaga y Almandoz 20 November 1843 5 December 1843 Olózaga
Luis gonzalez bravo.jpg Luis González-Bravo y López de Arjona
(1st time)
5 December 1843 3 May 1844 Moderate González-Bravo
Ramon Maria de Narvaez by Vicente Lopez 1772 1850.jpg Ramón María Narváez, 1st Duke of Valencia
(1st time)
3 May 1844 12 February 1846 Moderate Década Moderada
Marques de miraflores.jpg Manuel de Pando, 6th Marquis of Miraflores
(1st time)
12 February 1846 16 March 1846
Ramon Maria de Narvaez by Vicente Lopez 1772 1850.jpg Ramón María Narváez, 1st Duke of Valencia
(2nd time)
16 March 1846 5 April 1846
Francisco Javier Istúriz.jpg Francisco Javier Isturiz y Montero
(2nd time)
5 April 1846 28 January 1847
Carlos mirujo sotomayor.jpg Carlos Martínez de Irujo
Marquis of Casa Irujo, Duke of Sotomayor
28 January 1847 28 March 1847
JoaquinFranciscoPacheco.jpg Joaquín Francisco Pacheco y Gutiérrez Calderón 28 March 1847 31 August 1847
Marqués de Salamanca joven.jpg José de Salamanca y Mayol 31 August 1847 12 September 1847
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Florencio García Goyena 12 September 1847 4 October 1847
Ramon Maria de Narvaez by Vicente Lopez 1772 1850.jpg Ramón María Narváez, 1st Duke of Valencia
(3rd time)
4 October 1847 19 October 1849
Serafín María de Sotto (Museo del Ejército).JPG Serafín María de Sotto, 3rd Count of Clonard
(appointment revoked before he could take office.)
19 October 1849 20 October 1849
Ramon Maria de Narvaez by Vicente Lopez 1772 1850.jpg Ramón María Narváez, 1st Duke of Valencia
(4th time)
20 October 1849 14 January 1851
Juan Bravo Murillo.jpg Juan Bravo Murillo 14 January 1851 14 December 1852
Conde de alcoy.JPG Federico de Roncali, 1st Count of Alcoy 14 December 1852 14 April 1853
Francisco Lersundi Hormaechea.jpg Francisco de Lersundi y Hormaechea 14 April 1853 19 September 1853
Luis José Sartorius.jpg Luis José Sartorius, 1st Count of San Luis 19 September 1853 17 July 1854
Fernándo Fernández de Córdova, 2nd Marquis of Mendigorría.jpg Fernando Fernández de Córdova 17 July 1854 18 July 1854
DuquedeRivas.jpg Ángel de Saavedra, 3rd Duke of Rivas 18 July 1854 19 July 1854
Baldomero Espartero.jpg Baldomero Espartero, Duke of la Victoria
(3rd time)
19 July 1854 14 July 1856 Progressive Bienio progresista
Leopoldo ODonnell.jpg Leopoldo O'Donnell y Jorris
(1st time)
14 July 1856 12 October 1856 Liberal Union O'Donnell I
Ramon Maria de Narvaez by Vicente Lopez 1772 1850.jpg Ramón María Narváez, 1st Duke of Valencia
(5th time)
12 October 1856 15 October 1857 Moderate Narváez V
FranciscoArmeroYFernándezDePañarandaAnónimoSigloXIX.jpg Francisco Armero y Peñaranda, 1st Marquis of Nervión 15 October 1857 14 January 1858 Nervión
Francisco Javier Istúriz.jpg Francisco Javier Isturiz y Montero
(3rd time)
14 January 1858 30 June 1858 Isturiz III
Leopoldo ODonnell.jpg Leopoldo O'Donnell y Jorris
(2nd time)
30 June 1858 2 March 1863 Liberal Union O'Donnell II
O'Donnell III
Marques de miraflores.jpg Manuel de Pando, 6th Marquis of Miraflores
(2nd time)
2 March 1863 17 January 1864 Moderate Miraflores II
Lorenzo Arrazola y García.jpg Lorenzo Arrazola y García 17 January 1864 1 March 1864 Arrazola
Alejandro Mon.png Alejandro Mon y Menéndez 1 March 1864 16 September 1864 Moderate Mon
Ramon Maria de Narvaez by Vicente Lopez 1772 1850.jpg Ramón María Narváez, 1st Duke of Valencia
(6th time)
16 September 1864 21 June 1865 Moderate Narváez VI
Leopoldo ODonnell.jpg Leopoldo O'Donnell y Jorris
(3rd time)
21 June 1865 10 July 1866 Liberal Union O'Donnell IV
Ramon Maria de Narvaez by Vicente Lopez 1772 1850.jpg Ramón María Narváez, 1st Duke of Valencia
(7th time)
10 July 1866 23 April 1868 Moderate Narváez VII
Luis gonzalez bravo.jpg Luis González-Bravo y López de Arjona
(2nd time)
23 April 1868 19 September 1868 Moderate González-Bravo II
José de la Concha, en La Ilustración Ibérica.jpg José Gutiérrez de la Concha, 1st Marquis of Havana 19 September 1868 30 September 1868 Moderate Havana
Pascual madoz.jpg Pascual Madoz Ibáñez
Acting Prime Minister
30 September 1868 3 October 1868 Progressive No formal
Head of State
Francisco-serrano.jpg Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, 1st Duke of La Torre
(1st time)
3 October 1868 18 June 1869 Liberal Union Serrano I
Prim madrazo.jpeg General Juan Prim y Prats, 1st Marquis of Los Castillejos 18 June 1869 27 December 1870
(assassinated:
died 30 December 1870)
Progressist Liberal Prim Regent Francisco Serrano y Domínguez
(1869–1870)
JuanBatistaTopeteYCarballoPorRafaelMonleón.jpg Juan Bautista Topete y Carballo
Acting Prime Minister
27 December 1870 4 January 1871 Liberal Union King Amadeo
Amadeo I, rey de España.jpg
(1870–1873)
Francisco-serrano.jpg Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, 1st Duke of La Torre
(2nd time)
4 January 1871 24 July 1871 Serrano II
RuizZorrilla.png Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla
(1st time)
24 July 1871 5 October 1871 Radical Democratic Party Ruiz Zorrilla I
José Malcampo, 3rd Marquis of San Rafael.jpg José Malcampo y Monge, 3rd Marquis of San Rafael 5 October 1871 21 December 1871 Democratic Malcampo
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta 1877 (cropped).jpg Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
(1st time)
21 December 1871 26 May 1872 Progressist Liberal Sagasta I
JuanBatistaTopeteYCarballoPorRafaelMonleón.jpg Juan Bautista Topete y Carballo
Acting Prime Minister
26 May 1872 4 June 1872 Liberal Union
Francisco-serrano.jpg Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, 1st Duke of La Torre
(3rd time)
4 June 1872 13 June 1872 Serrano III
Fernándo Fernández de Córdova, 2nd Marquis of Mendigorría.jpg Fernando Fernández de Córdova, 2nd Marquis of Mendigorría
Acting Prime Minister
13 June 1872 16 June 1872 Radical Democratic Party
RuizZorrilla.png Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla
(2nd time)
16 June 1872 12 February 1873 Radical Democratic Party Ruiz Zorrilla II

First Spanish Republic (1873–1874)[edit]

Prime Ministers (Presidents of the Provisional Government)[edit]

Political Persuasion:   Federal Republican   Conservative faction   Constitutional

Portrait Name Term of office Political Party Government Head of State
(Term)
Figueras y Moragas.jpg Estanislao Figueras y Moragas 12 February 1873 11 June 1873 Federal Democratic Republican Party Figueras Prime Minister
was also
Head of State
Pi y margall.jpg Francesc Pi i Margall 11 June 1873 18 July 1873 Pi i Margall
Nicolas Salmeron.jpg Nicolás Salmerón Alonso 18 July 1873 7 September 1873 Salmerón
Castelar by Josep Nin i Tudó.jpg Emilio Castelar y Ripoll 7 September 1873 4 January 1874 Castelar
Francisco-serrano.jpg Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, 1st Duke of La Torre
(4th time)
4 January 1874 26 February 1874 Conservative faction Conservative republican dictatorship
Juan de Zavala y de la Puente.jpg Juan de Zavala y de la Puente, 1st Marquis of Sierra Bullones 26 February 1874 3 September 1874
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta 1877 (cropped).jpg Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
(2nd time)
3 September 1874 31 December 1874 Constitutional Party Sagasta II
Amadeo I abdicates.
Republic declared
Seville declares itself a Canton
The cantonal revolution starts
Military coup by Gen. Pavía
Coup by Gen. Martínez Campos.
Monarchy restored in Alfonso XII
1873
1874
1875

Prime Ministers of Spain during the First Republic

Restoration Spain (1874–1931)[edit]

Parties
Colour key
(for political parties)
  Liberal Democratic Party
  Military
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political Party Government Legislature Monarch
(Reign)
Took office Left office Days
Político Cánovas del Castillo.JPG Antonio Cánovas del Castillo
(1828–1897)
31 December 1874 10 January 1875 255 Alfonsine Party Ministry-Regency —— ——
10 January 1875 12 September 1875 Cánovas I —— King Alfonso XII
ALFONSO 12º.jpg
(1874–1885)
First time. President of the Minister-Regency until King Alfonso XII's return from exile.
General Joaquin Jovellar y Soler painting.jpg Joaquín Jovellar
(1819–1892)
12 September 1875 3 December 1875 82 Alfonsine Party Jovellar ——
Named to the post to organize the 1876 election.
Político Cánovas del Castillo.JPG Antonio Cánovas del Castillo
(1828–1897)
3 December 1875 15 February 1876 1191 Conservative Party Cánovas II ——
15 February 1876 8 March 1879 I (1876)
Second time. Spanish Constitution of 1876. End of Third Carlist War. 1877 Electoral Law. 1878 Pact of Zanjón; end of Ten Years' War. 1878 Electoral Law.
Arsenio Martinez Campos cph.3c34807.jpg Arsenio Martínez Campos
(1831–1900)
8 March 1879 1 June 1879 278 Conservative Party Martínez Campos I (——)
1 June 1879 11 December 1879 II (1879)
Proposed for the post by Cánovas del Castillo.
Político Cánovas del Castillo.JPG Antonio Cánovas del Castillo
(1828–1897)
11 December 1879 10 February 1881 427 Conservative Party Cánovas III II (——)
Third time. Build up of Restoration system of turnismo.
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta 1877 (cropped).jpg Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
(1825–1903)
10 February 1881 20 September 1881 976 Liberal Party Sagasta I II (——)
20 September 1881 14 October 1883 III (1881)
First time under Restoration system; third overall. First turno PM. 1882 Electoral Law. Advances in press freedom and labour movement claims.
José de Posada Herrera.jpg José Posada Herrera
(1814–1885)
14 October 1883 20 January 1884 98 Dynastic Left Posada III (——)
Resigned due to opposition from Sagasta's supporters.
Político Cánovas del Castillo.JPG Antonio Cánovas del Castillo
(1828–1897)
20 January 1884 20 May 1884 678 Conservative Party Cánovas IV III (——)
20 May 1884 28 November 1885 IV (1884)
Fourth time. Start of 1885 Caroline Crisis. 1885 Pact of El Pardo and subsequent death of King Alfonso XII.
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta, de Christian Franzen (cropped).jpg Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
(1825–1903)
28 November 1885 10 May 1886 1683 Liberal Party Sagasta II IV (——) Queen Dowager Maria Christina
Regent for
King Alfonso XIII

Alfonso XIII et sa mère photo valentin gomez.jpg
(1886–1902)
10 May 1886 16 June 1888 V (1886)
16 June 1888 12 December 1888 Sagasta III
12 December 1888 22 January 1890 Sagasta IV
22 January 1890 8 July 1890 Sagasta V
Second time under Restoration system; fourth overall. Longest Restoration Legislature. End of 1885 Caroline Crisis. Abolition of slavery in Cuba. 1887 Law regulating right of association; legalization of trade unions. 1888 Barcelona Universal Exposition. 1889 amnesty law for electoral crimes. 1890 Electoral Law.
Político Cánovas del Castillo.JPG Antonio Cánovas del Castillo
(1828–1897)
8 July 1890 2 March 1891 889 Conservative Party Cánovas V V (——)
2 March 1891 24 November 1891 VI (1891)
24 November 1891 13 December 1892 Cánovas VI
Fifth time. Weyler campaign in Mindanao. Resigned after Silvela's rebellion.
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta, de Christian Franzen (cropped).jpg Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
(1825–1903)
13 December 1892 5 April 1893 831 Liberal Party Sagasta VI VI (——)
5 April 1893 13 March 1894 VII (1893)
13 March 1894 5 November 1894 Sagasta VII
5 November 1894 24 March 1895 Sagasta VIII
Third time under Restoration system; fifth overall. Start of Cuban War of Independence.
Político Cánovas del Castillo.JPG Antonio Cánovas del Castillo
(1828–1897)
24 March 1895 11 May 1896 868 Conservative Party Cánovas VII VII (——)
11 May 1896 8 August 1897 VIII (1896)
Sixth time. 1896 Corpus procession bombing. Assassinated by Italian anarchist Michele Angiolillo.
Marcelo Azcárraga por Kaulak.png Marcelo Azcárraga
(1832–1915)
8 August 1897 22 August 1897 58 Conservative Party Cánovas VIII (interim) VIII (——)
22 August 1897 5 October 1897 Azcárraga I
First time. Served as interim PM after Cánovas' assassination. Appointed officeholder as provisional PM on 22 August 1897.
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta, de Christian Franzen (cropped).jpg Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
(1825–1903)
5 October 1897 21 May 1898 518 Liberal Party Sagasta IX VIII (——)
21 May 1898 7 March 1899 Sagasta X IX (1898)
Fourth time under Restoration system; sixth overall. Spanish–American War; 1898 Treaty of Paris. 1899 German–Spanish Treaty.
Francisco Silvela.JPG Francisco Silvela
(1843–1905)
7 March 1899 2 June 1899 596 Conservative Party Silvela I IX (——)
2 June 1899 19 April 1900 X (1899)
19 April 1900 24 October 1900 Silvela II
First time. Regenerationist reforms. Issues with Public Treasury leading to government's downfall.
Marcelo Azcárraga por Kaulak.png Marcelo Azcárraga
(1832–1915)
24 October 1900 7 March 1901 134 Conservative Party Azcárraga II X (——)
Second time. Named to the post to organize the 1901 election.
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta, de Christian Franzen (cropped).jpg Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
(1825–1903)
7 March 1901 11 June 1901 643 Liberal Party Sagasta XI X (——)
11 June 1901 20 March 1902 XI (1901)
20 March 1902 17 May 1902 Sagasta XII
17 May 1902 20 November 1902 Sagasta XIII King Alfonso XIII
Roi Alfonso XIII.jpg
(1886/1902–1931)
20 November 1902 10 December 1902 Sagasta XIV
Fifth time under Restoration system; seventh overall.
Francisco Silvela.JPG Francisco Silvela
(1843–1905)
10 December 1902 18 May 1903 223 Conservative Party Silvela III XI (——)
18 May 1903 21 July 1903 XII (1903)
Second time. Retirement from politics.
Raimundo Fernández Villaverde, de Franzen.jpg Raimundo Fernández Villaverde
(1848–1905)
21 July 1903 8 December 1903 140 Conservative Party Villaverde I XII (——)
First time.
Antonio Maura, de Kaulak (cropped) b.jpg Antonio Maura
(1853–1925)
8 December 1903 17 December 1904 375 Conservative Party Maura I XII (——)
First time. 1904 assassination attempt.
Marcelo Azcárraga por Kaulak.png Marcelo Azcárraga
(1832–1915)
17 December 1904 28 January 1905 42 Conservative Party Azcárraga III XII (——)
Third time.
Raimundo Fernández Villaverde, de Franzen.jpg Raimundo Fernández Villaverde
(1848–1905)
28 January 1905 24 June 1905 147 Conservative Party Villaverde II XII (——)
Second time.
Eugenio Montero Ríos 1914.jpg Eugenio Montero Ríos
(1832–1914)
24 June 1905 1 November 1905 162 Liberal Party Montero I XII (——)
1 November 1905 3 December 1905 Montero II XIII (1905)
¡Cu-Cut! incident. King Alfonso XIII's lack of support on Montero's stance against the military prompted his resignation.
Segismundo Moret, de Kaulak (cropped).jpg Segismundo Moret
(1833–1913)
3 December 1905 7 July 1906 216 Liberal Party Moret I XIII (——)
First time. 1906 Jurisdiction Law. 1906 assassination attempt on King Alfonso XIII leading to his resignation.
Jose-Lopez-Dominguez-1897.jpg José López Domínguez
(1829–1911)
7 July 1906 1 December 1906 147 Liberal Party López Dominguez XIII (——)
After a little over four months into office, Moret forced his resignation.
Segismundo Moret, de Kaulak (cropped).jpg Segismundo Moret
(1833–1913)
1 December 1906 5 December 1906 4 Liberal Party Moret II XIII (——)
Second time. Papelito crisis; Subject to censure vote that led to his resignation.
RetratoGrabadoAntonioAguilarYCorrea.jpg Antonio Aguilar
(1824–1908)
5 December 1906 26 January 1907 52 Liberal Party Aguilar XIII (——)
1907 budget.
Antonio Maura, de Kaulak (cropped) b.jpg Antonio Maura
(1853–1925)
26 January 1907 13 May 1907 1000 Conservative Party Maura II XIII (——)
13 May 1907 22 October 1909 XIV (1907)
Second time. "Long Government". 1907 Electoral Law. National Insurance Institute. Second Melillan campaign (1909). 1909 Tragic Week.
Segismundo Moret, de Kaulak (cropped).jpg Segismundo Moret
(1833–1913)
22 October 1909 10 February 1910 111 Liberal Party Moret III XIV (——)
Third time.
Don J. Canalejas.jpg José Canalejas
(1854–1912)
10 February 1910 15 June 1910 1006 Liberal Party Canalejas I XIV (——)
15 June 1910 3 January 1911 XV (1910)
3 January 1911 4 April 1911 Canalejas II
4 April 1911 12 November 1912 Canalejas III
Establishment of compulsory military service. 1910 limiting of religious congregation establishments by "Padlock Law". 1912 Spanish railway strike. Assassinated by Spanish anarchist Manuel Pardiñas.
García Prieto.jpg Manuel García Prieto
(1859–1938)
12 November 1912 15 November 1912 3 Liberal Party Canalejas III (interim) XV (——)
First time. Served as interim PM after Canalejas' assassination.
Romanones.jpg Álvaro Figueroa
(1863–1950)
15 November 1912 1 January 1913 347 Liberal Party Figueroa I XV (——)
1 January 1913 28 October 1913 Figueroa II
First time. 1912 French–Spanish Treaty; Spanish protectorate in Morocco.
EDato.jpg Eduardo Dato
(1856–1921)
28 October 1913 2 April 1914 773 Conservative Party Dato I XV (——)
2 April 1914 10 December 1915 XVI (1914)
First time. Establishment of Catalan Management Community in 1913. Breakout of First World War in Europe.
Romanones.jpg Álvaro Figueroa
(1863–1950)
10 December 1915 10 May 1916 497 Liberal Party Figueroa III XVI (——)
10 May 1916 20 April 1917 XVII (1916)
Second time.
García Prieto.jpg Manuel García Prieto
(1859–1938)
20 April 1917 12 June 1917 53 Liberal Democratic Party García Prieto I XVII (——)
Second time.
EDato.jpg Eduardo Dato
(1856–1921)
12 June 1917 4 November 1917 145 Conservative Party Dato II XVII (——)
Second time. Spanish Crisis of 1917.
García Prieto.jpg Manuel García Prieto
(1859–1938)
4 November 1917 23 March 1918 139 Liberal Democratic Party García Prieto II XVII (——)
Third time.
Antonio Maura, de Kaulak (cropped) b.jpg Antonio Maura
(1853–1925)
23 March 1918 10 November 1918 232 Conservative Party Maura III XVIII (1918)
Third time.
García Prieto.jpg Manuel García Prieto
(1859–1938)
10 November 1918 6 December 1918 26 Liberal Democratic Party García Prieto III XVIII (——)
Fourth time.
Romanones.jpg Álvaro Figueroa
(1863–1950)
6 December 1918 16 April 1919 131 Liberal Party Figueroa IV XVIII (——)
Third time.
Antonio Maura, de Kaulak (cropped) b.jpg Antonio Maura
(1853–1925)
16 April 1919 21 July 1919 96 Conservative Party Maura IV XVIII (——)
Fourth time.
Sánchez Toca.JPG Joaquín Sánchez de Toca
(1852–1942)
21 July 1919 13 December 1919 145 Conservative Party Sánchez de Toca XIX (1919)
Tasked with forming a government after Maura's failure to form a national unity cabinet.
Mallendesalazar.jpg Manuel Allendesalazar
(1856–1923)
13 December 1919 6 May 1920 145 Conservative Party Allendesalazar I XIX (——)
First time.
EDato.jpg Eduardo Dato
(1856–1921)
6 May 1920 4 January 1921 306 Conservative Party Dato III XIX (——)
4 January 1921 8 March 1921 XX (1920)
Third time. Start of Rif War. Assassinated by Spanish anarchist Pedro Mateu.
Gabino Bugallal.JPG Gabino Bugallal
(1861–1932)
8 March 1921 14 March 1921 6 Conservative Party Dato III (interim) XX (——)
Served as interim PM after Dato's assassination.
Mallendesalazar.jpg Manuel Allendesalazar
(1856–1923)
14 March 1921 15 August 1921 154 Conservative Party Allendesalazar II XX (——)
Second time. 1921 Disaster of Annual.
Antonio Maura, de Kaulak (cropped) b.jpg Antonio Maura
(1853–1925)
15 August 1921 9 March 1922 206 Conservative Party Maura V XX (——)
Fifth time.
J.SánchezGuerra.jpg José Sánchez-Guerra
(1859–1935)
9 March 1922 8 December 1922 274 Conservative Party Sánchez-Guerra XX (——)
Picasso report.
García Prieto.jpg Manuel García Prieto
(1859–1938)
8 December 1922 23 May 1923 282 Liberal Democratic Party García Prieto IV XX (——)
23 May 1923 16 September 1923 XXI (1923)
Fifth time. 1923 Primo de Rivera's coup d'etat.
General Primo de Rivera.jpg Miguel Primo de Rivera
(1870–1930)
16 September 1923 4 December 1925 2329 Spanish Patriotic Union Military Directory Directory
4 December 1925 31 January 1930 Civil Directory
Military dictatorship. 1925 Alhucemas landing. 1926 coup d'etat attempt. 1929 Ibero-American Exposition. 1929 Barcelona International Exposition. 1929 economic crisis.
Dámaso Berenguer, de Christian Franzen.jpg Dámaso Berenguer
(1873–1953)
31 January 1930 19 February 1931 384 Military Berenguer ——
Dictablanda. 1930 Pact of San Sebastián. 1930 Jaca Uprising.
Escudo de España 1874-1931.svg Juan Bautista Aznar-Cabañas
(1860–1933)
19 February 1931 14 April 1931 54 Military Aznar-Cabañas ——
Dictablanda. 1931 municipal elections. Establishment of Second Spanish Republic and a Provisional Government.
Juan Bautista Aznar-Cabañas Dámaso Berenguer Miguel Primo de Rivera Manuel García-Prieto, 1st Marquis of Alhucemas José Sánchez-Guerra y Martínez Antonio Maura Manuel Allendesalazar y Muñoz de Salazar Eduardo Dato Manuel Allendesalazar y Muñoz de Salazar Joaquín Sánchez de Toca Antonio Maura Álvaro de Figueroa, 1st Count of Romanones Manuel García-Prieto, 1st Marquis of Alhucemas Antonio Maura Manuel García-Prieto, 1st Marquis of Alhucemas Eduardo Dato Manuel García-Prieto, 1st Marquis of Alhucemas Álvaro de Figueroa, 1st Count of Romanones Eduardo Dato Álvaro de Figueroa, 1st Count of Romanones Manuel García-Prieto, 1st Marquis of Alhucemas José Canalejas Segismundo Moret Antonio Maura Antonio González de Aguilar, 8th Marquis of la Vega de Armijo Segismundo Moret José López Domínguez Segismundo Moret Eugenio Montero Ríos Raimundo Fernández-Villaverde, Marquis of Pozo Rubio Marcelo Azcárraga Palmero Antonio Maura Raimundo Fernández-Villaverde, Marquis of Pozo Rubio Francisco Silvela Práxedes Mateo Sagasta Marcelo Azcárraga Palmero Francisco Silvela Práxedes Mateo Sagasta Marcelo Azcárraga Palmero Antonio Cánovas del Castillo Práxedes Mateo Sagasta Antonio Cánovas del Castillo Práxedes Mateo Sagasta Antonio Cánovas del Castillo José Posada Herrera Práxedes Mateo Sagasta Antonio Cánovas del Castillo Arsenio Martínez Campos Antonio Cánovas del Castillo Joaquín Jovellar y Soler Antonio Cánovas del Castillo

Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939)[edit]

Parties
Colour key
(for political parties)
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political Party Government Legislature President
(Term)
Took office Left office Days
Bundesarchiv Bild 102-12783, Alcala Zamora.jpg Niceto Alcalá-Zamora
(1877–1949)
15 April 1931 15 October 1931 183 Liberal Republican Right Alcalá-Zamora Provisional ——
President of the Provisional Government. Writing of the Spanish Constitution of 1931. 1931 Burning of Convents.
Manuel Azaña, 1933.jpg Manuel Azaña
(1880–1940)
15 October 1931 17 December 1931 699 Republican Action Azaña I Provisional
17 December 1931 13 June 1933 Azaña II I (1931) Niceto Alcalá-Zamora
Bundesarchiv Bild 102-12783, Alcala Zamora.jpg
(1931–1936)
13 June 1933 13 September 1933 Azaña III
1931–33 "Reformist Biennium". Spanish Constitution of 1931 adopted. 1932 coup d'état attempt. 1932 Catalonia Statute of Autonomy. 1933 Casas Viejas incident. Extension of suffrage to women in 1933. 1933 Law Confessions and Religious Congregations Law. Growing parliamentary opposition resulted in his dismissal by President Alcalá-Zamora.
Lerroux face.jpg Alejandro Lerroux
(1864–1949)
13 September 1933 9 October 1933 26 Radical Republican Party Lerroux I I (——)
Named to the post after Azaña's resignation. Resigned after failing to form a stable government.
Martínez Barrio.JPG Diego Martínez Barrio
(1883–1962)
9 October 1933 17 December 1933 69 Radical Republican Party Martínez Barrio I I (——)
Named to the post to organize the 1933 election.
Lerroux face.jpg Alejandro Lerroux
(1864–1949)
17 December 1933 4 March 1934 133 Radical Republican Party Lerroux II II (1933)
4 March 1934 29 April 1934 Lerroux III
Start of the 1933–35 "Conservative Biennium". Elected to the post after reaching a parliamentary agreement with the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right (CEDA). Resigned after Alcalá-Zamora's refusal to sign an amnesty decree for the military personnel involved in the 1932 coupt d'etat attempt.
Ricardo Samper
(1881–1938)
29 April 1934 5 October 1934 159 Radical Republican Party Samper II (——)
Succeeded Lerroux after his resignation. Served for a few months before the CEDA withdrew support from him because of his perceived weakness to deal with social problems.
Lerroux face.jpg Alejandro Lerroux
(1864–1949)
5 October 1934 4 April 1935 356 Radical Republican Party Lerroux IV II (——)
4 April 1935 7 May 1935 Lerroux V
7 May 1935 26 September 1935 Lerroux VI
CEDA's entry into the government. Revolution of 1934, 1934 Asturian miners' strike and Events of October the 6th. Suspension of the Catalonia Statute of Autonomy. Resigned because of the 1935 Straperlo scandal.
Joaquín Chapaprieta.jpg Joaquín Chapaprieta
(1871–1951)
26 September 1935 15 December 1935 80 Independent Chapaprieta II (——)
Succeeded Lerroux. Served for a few months before resigning as a result of the CEDA and the PRR withdrawing support from the government.
Manuel Portela.png Manuel Portela Valladares
(1867–1952)
15 December 1935 31 December 1936 67 Independent Portela I II (——)
31 December 1935 20 February 1936 Portela II
Named to the post to organize the 1936 election.
Manuel Azaña, 1933.jpg Manuel Azaña
(1880–1940)
20 February 1936 8 April 1936 81 Republican Left Azaña IV III (1936)
8 April 1936 11 May 1936 Azaña V
Elected to the post after the Popular Front victory in the 1936 election. Left the office to become President of the Republic.
Coat of Arms of Spain (1931-1939).svg Augusto Barcía Trelles
(1881–1961)
11 May 1936 13 May 1936 2 Republican Left Azaña V (interim) III (——) Manuel Azaña
Manuel Azaña, 1933.jpg
(1936–1939)
Interim PM after Azaña's resignation.
Casares Quiroga.JPG Santiago Casares Quiroga
(1884–1950)
13 May 1936 19 July 1936 67 Republican Left Casares Quiroga III (——)
Spanish coup of July 1936. Start of 1936–39 Spanish Civil War and 1936–37 Spanish Revolution. Resigned after not being able to acknowledge the threat of the coup in time.
Martínez Barrio.JPG Diego Martínez Barrio
(1883–1962)
19 July 1936 20 July 1936 1 Republican Union Martínez Barrio II III (——)
Named to the post in order to convince coup leaders to stand down their weapons and surrender. Resigned after realizing that civil war was inevitable.
José Giral 1931.png José Giral
(1879–1962)
20 July 1936 5 September 1936 47 Republican Left Giral III (——)
1936 Siege of the Alcázas and Extremaduran and Gipuzkoa campaigns.
Francisco Largo Caballero 1927 (cropped).jpg Francisco Largo Caballero
(1869–1946)
5 September 1936 5 November 1936 255 Spanish Socialist Workers' Party Caballero I III (——)
5 November 1936 18 May 1937 Caballero II
1936 Siege of Madrid. 1937 Battles of Jarama and Guadalajara, Biscay Campaign, start of the War in the North. 1937 May Days.
Juan negrin.gif Juan Negrín
(1892–1956)
18 May 1937 6 April 1938 682 Spanish Socialist Workers' Party Negrín I III (——)
6 April 1938 31 March 1939 Negrín II
August Crisis. 1937 Battles of Belchite and Brunete. 1937 Asturias and Zaragoza Offensives. 1937–38 Battle of Teruel. 1938 Aragon and Levante Offensives. Thirteenth Points of Negrín. 1938 Battle of the Ebro. 1938–39 Battle of the Segre. 1939 Catalonia and Final Offensives. Segismundo Casado's coup d'etat.
José Miaja Juan Negrín Francisco Largo Caballero José Giral Diego Martínez Barrio Santiago Casares Quiroga Augusto Barcía Trelles Manuel Azaña Manuel Portela Valladares Joaquín Chapaprieta Alejandro Lerroux Ricardo Samper Alejandro Lerroux Diego Martínez Barrio Alejandro Lerroux Manuel Azaña Niceto Alcalá-Zamora

Spanish Republican government in exile (1939–1977)[edit]

Francoist Spain (1936–1975)[edit]

Parties
Colour key
(for political parties)
  Military
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political Party Government Legislature Head of State
(Term)
Took office Left office Days
Coat of Arms of Spain (1939-1945)-Bureaucratic Variant.svg Miguel Cabanellas
(1872–1938)
25 July 1936 30 September 1936 67 Military National Defense Junta —— ——
Named President of the National Defence Junta of the Nationalist side during the Civil War.
Franco0001.PNG Francisco Franco
(1892–1975)
30 September 1936 31 January 1938 13401 Falange State Technical Junta National Council of the Movement Caudillo Francisco Franco
Franco0001.PNG
(1936–1975)
31 January 1938 11 August 1939 Franco I
11 August 1939 20 May 1941 Franco II
20 May 1941 4 September 1942 Franco III
4 September 1942 21 July 1945 Franco IV I (1943)
II (1946)
III (1949)
IV (1952)
V (1955)
VI (1958)
VII (1961)
VIII (1964)
IX (1967)
X (1971)
21 July 1945 20 July 1951 Franco V
20 July 1951 16 February 1956 Franco VI
16 February 1956 26 February 1957 Franco VII
26 February 1957 11 July 1962 Franco VIII
11 July 1962 8 July 1965 Franco IX
8 July 1965 22 September 1967 Franco X
22 September 1967 30 October 1969 Franco XI
30 October 1969 9 June 1973 Franco XII
Spanish Civil War: defeated the Republicans in 1939, established Francoist Spain. Establishment of an autocratic one-party military dictatorship. White Terror. Fundamental Laws of the Realm. Spanish Miracle 1959–74. Named Prince Juan Carlos de Bourbon as heir apparent in 1969. Franco died on 20 November 1975.
Luis Carrero Blanco.jpg Luis Carrero Blanco
(1904–1973)
9 June 1973 20 December 1973 194 Falange Carrero X (——)
Assassinated by ETA members only 6 months into office.
Coat of Arms of Spain (1945-1977).svg Torcuato Fernández-Miranda
(1915–1980)
20 December 1973 31 December 1973 11 Falange Carrero (interim) X (——)
Served as interim PM after Carrero Blanco's assassination.
Carlos Arias Navarro 1975.jpg Carlos Arias Navarro
(1908–1989)
31 December 1973 11 March 1975 711 Falange Arias I X (——)
11 March 1975 12 December 1975 Arias II
Appointed to the office as a result of the assassination of Luis Carrero Blanco, Contrary to political liberalization. Garroting of Catalan anarchist Salvador Puig Antich. Green March (1975).
Carlos Arias Navarro Torcuato Fernández-Miranda Luis Carrero Blanco Francisco Franco Miguel Cabanellas

Kingdom of Spain (1975–present)[edit]

Parties
Colour key
(for political parties)
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political Party Government Legislature Monarch
(Reign)
Took office Left office Days
Carlos Arias Navarro 1975.jpg Carlos Arias Navarro
(1908–1989)
12 December 1975 2 July 1976 203 Falange Arias III —— King Juan Carlos I
Juan Carlos da Espanha.jpg
(1975–2014)
Instructed by King Juan Carlos I to enact reforms for the regime's opening towards democracy after Franco's death in 1975. Contrary to any change, resigned as a result of a power struggle with the King over political reform.
Coat of Arms of Spain (1945-1977).svg Fernando de Santiago
(1910–1994)
2 July 1976 5 July 1976 3 Military Arias III (interim) ——
Served as interim PM after Arias Navarro's resignation.
Adolfo Suárez 1977b (cropped).jpg Adolfo Suárez
(1932–2014)
5 July 1976 5 July 1977 1697 Falange Suárez I ——
5 July 1977 2 April 1979 Union of the Democratic Centre Suárez II Constituent (1977)
2 April 1979 26 February 1981 Suárez III I (1979)
Appointed in 1976 by King Juan Carlos I after Arias Navarro's resignation. Led Spain through the country's transition to democracy. 1976 political reform referendum. 1977 Massacre of Atocha. Legalization of the PCE. In 1977 became the first democratically elected PM in 40 years. 1978 Moncloa Pact. 1978 constitutional referendum; Spanish Constitution of 1978 adopted. Early 1980s recession. 1980 unsuccessful censure motion. Resigned due to loss of party support.
Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo 1978 (cropped).jpg Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo
(1926–2008)
26 February 1981 2 December 1982 644 Union of the Democratic Centre Calvo-Sotelo I (——)
Succeeded Suárez mid-term. 1981 failed coup d'état (23-F) during investiture. Legalization of divorce in 1981. Spain's entry into NATO (1981). Change of national flag. Disintegration of UCD. 1982 coup d'état attempt.
Felipe González 1986d (cropped).jpg Felipe González
(b. 1942)
2 December 1982 24 July 1986 4903 Spanish Socialist Workers' Party González I II (1982)
24 July 1986 6 December 1989 González II III (1986)
6 December 1989 10 July 1993 González III IV (1989)
10 July 1993 5 May 1996 González IV V (1993)
Four consecutive terms. Longest-serving democratically elected Spanish PM. Legalization of abortion in 1985. 1985 El Descanso bombing. Reorganization of education system. Establishment of welfare state. Spanish NATO membership referendum, 1986. Spain EEC membership. 1987 unsuccessful censure motion. 1987 Hipercor bombing. 1988 Spanish general strike. Legalization of private TV channels. Signing of 1992 Maastricht Treaty. 1992 Barcelona Olympics and Seville Expo '92. 1993 economic crisis. Signing of 1993 EEA Agreement. 1995 Toledo Pact. Mid–1990s PSOE corruption scandals (Filesa, Luis Roldán, GAL).
José María Aznar 2002c (cropped).jpg José María Aznar
(b. 1953)
5 May 1996 27 April 2000 2904 People's Party Aznar I VI (1996)
27 April 2000 17 April 2004 Aznar II VII (2000)
Two consecutive terms. 1996 reform on CCAA financing. 1997 economic boom. Privatization of public enterprises. Spain adoption of the euro. 1998 Land Law. ETA's 1998–99 ceasefire declaration. Abolition of the compulsory military service in 2001. National Hydrological Plan proposal. 2002 Political Parties Law and subsequent banning of Batasuna. Attempt of unemployment benefits' reform resulting in the 2002 general strike. 2002 Perejil Island crisis. 2002 Prestige oil spill. Intervention in the 2003 Iraq War and anti-war protests. Yak-42 air flight accident. 2004 Madrid train bombings (11-M).
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero 2009b (cropped).jpg José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero
(b. 1960)
17 April 2004 12 April 2008 2804 Spanish Socialist Workers' Party Zapatero I VIII (2004)
12 April 2008 21 December 2011 Zapatero II IX (2008)
Two consecutive terms. Spanish withdrawal from Iraq. Legalization of same-sex marriage in 2005. 2005 European Constitution referendum. ETA's 2006 ceasefire declaration. 2006 Catalonia Statute of Autonomy. 2006 Madrid–Barajas Airport bombing. Signing of 2007 Lisbon Treaty. Approval of less restrictive abortion law in 2010. 2008–11 Spanish financial crisis. Birth of 15-M Movement. PSOE swept away from nearly all its historical strongholds in the 2011 municipal and regional elections. 2011 constitutional reform of article 135 on budgetary stability. ETA's 2011 permanent ceasefire declaration.
Mariano Rajoy 2016i (cropped).jpg Mariano Rajoy
(b. 1955)
21 December 2011 22 December 2015 1953 People's Party Rajoy I X (2011)
22 December 2015 31 October 2016 Rajoy I (caretaker) XI (2015) King Felipe VI
King of Spain 2015 (cropped).JPG
(2014–present)
31 October 2016 Incumbent Rajoy II XII (2016)
2011–16 Spanish financial crisis. Two general strikes in 2012. 2012–16 Catalan independence crisis. 2013 Bárcenas affair. Mid–2010s PP corruption scandals (Gürtel, Púnica). Abdication of King Juan Carlos I in 2014. 2011–15 PP/PSOE credibility crisis. Podemos and C's surge. Anti-bipartisanship surge in the 2015 municipal elections. 2015–16 Spanish government formation. Longest-serving caretaker Spanish PM (314 days). Second term allowed by PSOE abstention.
Mariano Rajoy José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero José María Aznar Felipe González Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo Adolfo Suárez Fernando de Santiago y Díaz Carlos Arias Navarro

Living former Prime Ministers[edit]

There are three living former Spanish Prime Ministers:

The most recent former prime minister to die was Adolfo Suárez on 23 March 2014, aged 81.

See also[edit]