Characters in the Mario franchise

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A handful of characters in the Mario franchise (from left to right): Goomba, Koopa Paratroopa, Wario, Daisy, Toad, Donkey Kong, Peach, Mario, Bowser, Luigi, Yoshi, Rosalina, Waluigi, Boo, and Koopa Troopa.

The Mario franchise is a video game series by Nintendo. While Nintendo is usually the developer and publisher of games in the franchise, various series are developed by third-party companies, such as Hudson Soft and Intelligent Systems. Games in the Mario franchise primarily revolve around the protagonist Mario and often involve the trope of Bowser as the antagonist kidnapping Princess Peach, with Mario then rescuing her. Many characters have goals or plot arcs that vary from series to series; for example, the Luigi's Mansion games focus on Luigi ridding a haunted building of ghosts, while Wario stars in games that center around his greed and desire for money and treasure.

Character roots begin with Donkey Kong where Mario, Donkey Kong, and Pauline originate. Designed by Japanese video game designer Shigeru Miyamoto; they were built off the base of characters from Popeye. Unable to obtain licensing rights for the characters, Miyamoto made later changes to their appearances and personalities, such as making them more lighthearted in tone. Due to the critical and commercial success of Donkey Kong when it was released in July 1981, Mario reappeared in Mario Bros. and Super Mario Bros. in 1983 and 1985, respectively. Mario Bros. introduced Mario's fraternal twin Luigi, and Super Mario Bros. introduced Toad alongside numerous enemies, with Bowser and Princess Peach replacing Donkey Kong and Pauline.

Throughout each series of games, numerous characters have been introduced, and have since become recurring. Some have starred in their own games while others tend to appear in supporting roles. Other main and supporting antagonists appear as a hindrance to the main character. The games all typically share common enemies.

Primary protagonists[edit]


Mario[a] (voiced by Charles Martinet) is the mascot of the Mario franchise and Nintendo as a whole. He originally appeared in 1981's Donkey Kong as "Jumpman", designed by Shigeru Miyamoto.[1] While Mario was initially a carpenter, he later took the role of a plumber.[2] Since 1992, Mario has been voiced by Charles Martinet.[3] In most of his appearances, Mario rescues a damsel in distress (typically Princess Peach) from an antagonist (typically Bowser).[4] Mario's younger brother is Luigi,[5] and his greedy rival is Wario.[6] Yoshi serves as Mario's steed in several games, including Super Mario World.[7] Since his introduction, Mario has used several different abilities, most notably his jump, which can be used in both defense and offense, such as by jumping onto an enemy's head as an attack.[1] Mario also makesuse of power-ups throughout his appearances, such as the Super Mushroom (which allows him to grow larger and survive an additional hit), the Super Star (which grants him temporary invincibility), and the Fire Flower (which allows him to throw fireballs).[1] Several power-ups also grant Mario the ability to fly, such as the Super Leaf from Super Mario Bros. 3.[8] According to Guiness World Records, Mario is the second most recognizable video game character, only behind Pac-Man.[9] Mario has seen numerous cultural appearances, such as during the closing ceremony of the 2016 Summer Olympics, where Japanese prime minister Shinzō Abe appeared dressed as the character.[10]


Luigi[b] (voiced by Charles Martinet) is the younger brother of Mario,[5] who Luigi feels a sense of envy and reverence towards.[11] In the 1983 game Mario Bros., Luigi was introduced as the second player character, with many similarities to Mario.[12] While he was initially identical to Mario, he began developing differences in Super Mario Bros.: The Lost Levels (1986), which gave him a higher and further jump at the expense of responsiveness and precision.[13] In the North American version of Super Mario Bros. 2 (1988), Luigi was given a taller and thinner appearance than Mario, which played a key role in shaping his modern appearance.[1][11] Luigi's first starring role was in 1993's Mario Is Missing!, though he played only minor roles in subsequent games until 2001 with Luigi's Mansion, where he plays the role of a frightened, unsure, and goofy protagonist attempting to save his brother.[11] The Year of Luigi was celebrated in 2013, which saw many Luigi games released to commemorate the character's 30th anniversary.[14]

Princess Peach[edit]

Princess Peach Toadstool[c] (voiced by Samantha Kelly), is the princess of the Mario franchise's Mushroom Kingdom. In the main series games, she typically plays the role of a damsel in distress who needs to be rescued by Mario.[15][16] When playable, she typically has the ability to float in the air, and is physically taller than Mario.[16] Her first playable appearance in a main series Mario game was 1988's Super Mario Bros. 2, while her second was 2013's Super Mario 3D World.[17] Peach played a starring role in Super Princess Peach (2005), where she aims to rescue Mario, Luigi, and Toad,[15] aided by a parasol and several abilities based on her emotions–or "vibes".[18] She makes frequent appearances in spin-off Mario games, such as the Mario Kart series and the Mario sports games. In the 2017 game Super Mario Odyssey, after being captured by and forced to marry Bowser, and subsequently rescued by Mario, she rejects both of them and instead takes a trip around the world.[16]

Princess Daisy[edit]

Princess Daisy[d] (voiced by Deanna Mustard) is the princess of Sarasaland, the setting of Super Mario Land (1989).[19] Since then, she has primarily appeared as a playable character in spin-off Mario games, especially Mario sports games.[20] Super Mario Run (2016) marks Daisy's playable debut in a main series game, where she is able to perform a double jump.[21] She acts more tomboyish than Princess Peach, exemplified by her appearances in the Mario sports games. Some consider her and Luigi to be a couple, despite Daisy typically being rescued by Mario.[22]


Rosalina[e] (voiced by Laura Faye Smith) is a princess character introduced in 2007's Super Mario Galaxy. As a child who fled into space after grieving her mother's death, she becomes the adoptive mother of the Lumas — mysterious and friendly star-like creatures that inhabit space in the Mario franchise.[16] She resides in the Cosmet Observatory, a starship used to traverse the Mario universe.[23] In later appearances, she typically takes the role of a supporting character, and primarily appears in spin-off titles such as the Mario sports games, Mario Kart series, and Super Smash Bros. series. In Super Mario 3D World (2013), she is a playable character, and is unlocked through gameplay.[16]


Toad[f] (voiced by Samantha Kelly) is an anthropomorphic mushroom-like character.[24] The character first appeared in Super Mario Bros. (1985),[25] though his first starring role was in Wario's Woods (1994), in which the player is able to control Toad to solve puzzles.[26] Toad made his playable debut in a main series Mario game in 1988 with Super Mario Bros. 2, and frequently acts as a non-playable character in Mario role-playing games. The character is also a member of the eponymous Toad species, which includes characters such as Captain Toad, Toadette, and Toadsworth.[25] Keegan-Michael Key voices Toad in The Super Mario Bros. Movie (2023).[27]


Toadette[g] (voiced by Samantha Kelly) is a pink Toad girl character who first appeared in the 2003 video game Mario Kart: Double Dash!! as a playable driver. Toadette is depicted with two long round pigtails braids and a dress to distinguish herself from Toad. Since Super Mario Odyssey, Toadette is a member of the Toad Brigade and has the role of an archivist.[28] Depending on the game, she is either a supporting character or a protagonist, playable in most of the Mario spin-off games. In New Super Mario Bros. U Deluxe, gameplay allows Toadette to transform into Peachette, a form that highly resembles Princess Peach, with her power-up called the Super Crown. As Peachette, she can use Peach's floating jump to hover, and can perform a double jump.

Captain Toad[edit]

Captain Toad[h] (voiced by Samantha Kelly) is an explorer, and the leader of the Toad Brigade who first appears in Super Mario Galaxy. He makes several appearances within the Mario series, like in Super Mario Galaxy 2 or Super Mario Odyssey, and as a "treasure tracker".[29] He makes several cameos within Super Smash Bros. and made his Mario Kart debut in Mario Kart Tour as a playable racer. He is the main protagonist in the subset of levels in Super Mario 3D World called Captain Toad's Adventures, and in the game Captain Toad: Treasure Tracker.


Yoshi[i] (English: /ˈjʃi, ˈjɒʃi/, once Romanized as Yossy; voiced by Kazumi Totaka) is a green anthropomorphic dinosaur character. He is depicted with a long tongue that can be used to eat enemies, and can turn the enemies he eats into eggs that can be thrown. Yoshi is a rideable character for the heroes or a playable character in most of the Mario spin-offs, including his own series.


Birdo, also known as Birdette, and known in Japan as Catherine[j], (voiced by Kazumi Totaka) is depicted as a pink, anthropomorphic creature who wears a red bow on her head, and has a round mouth that can fire eggs as projectiles. Birdo first appeared in Super Mario Bros. 2 as a recurring boss character. Since then, she has been a recurring playable character in various franchise spin-offs. Birdo has been referred to as a "man who thinks of himself as female" in earlier depictions, such as in the Japanese manual for the early prototype game Doki Doki Panic, and was considered female in later games. It is heavily speculated that Birdo is transgender; she was considered to be one of the first ever transgender video game characters.[30][31][32]


Pauline[k] (voiced by Kate Higgins) debuted in Donkey Kong (1981),[33] and is further featured in Donkey Kong (1994) for Game Boy,[34] and the Mario vs. Donkey Kong series. She was created by Shigeru Miyamoto, is the earliest example of a female with a speaking role in a video game, and is cited as a famous example of a damsel in distress in fiction.[35][36][37] She is the mayor of New Donk City in Super Mario Odyssey.

Kong family[edit]

Donkey Kong[edit]

Donkey Kong[l] (voiced by Takashi Nagasako) is a male gorilla that stars in the Donkey Kong franchise. He the leader of the Kong Family, a group of various primates.

Diddy Kong[edit]

Diddy Kong[m] (Diddy) (voiced by Katsumi Suzuki) is an anthropomorphic monkey character who is Donkey Kong's nephew, sidekick, and best friend, appearing in the Donkey Kong and Mario franchises. He is the main protagonist of Diddy Kong Racing and its DS remake. He is depicted as a cheerful and kind character. Created by Rare, the name Diddy is a British term meaning "little".

Cranky Kong[edit]

Cranky Kong[n] is an older Kong. His first appearance was in 1981's Donkey Kong, where, as the game's antagonist, he kidnapped Pauline, though he was stopped by Mario.

Other supporting characters[edit]


Poochy[o] is portrayed as Yoshi's helper dog. He debuted in Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island and continued through the Yoshi series such as in Poochy & Yoshi's Woolly World. In the games, he can do things that Yoshi cannot, such as sniff out hidden items, cross over dangerous terrain, and jump over walls to give Yoshi a boost out of his wall jumps.

Professor E. Gadd[edit]

Professor Elvin Gadd[p] (voiced by Kazumi Totaka), more commonly known as Professor E. Gadd, is a scientist and inventor. He primarily appears in the Luigi's Mansion series, in which he invented several objects, such as Luigi's Poltergust 3000 and Gooigi from Luigi's Mansion 3.[38] He is referenced in Super Mario Sunshine as the inventor of Mario's F.L.U.D.D., a device that allows him to spray water.[39] The character has also made cameo appearances in series such as Mario Party and Mario & Luigi.[39]


Toadsworth[q] (voiced by Scott Burns)[40][41] is an elderly Toad character who is Princess Peach's steward. He is depicted showing concern for the princess' safety and acts as a prime caretaker for the Toads. He debuted in Super Mario Sunshine for GameCube, in which he goes on vacation with Mario, Peach and the other Toads. In Mario & Luigi: Partners in Time, he is revealed to have cared for the princess since she was a baby.


The Lumas are depicted as friendly star-like creatures. They first appear in Super Mario Galaxy, where they have the ability to transform into various game objects, explorable planetoids, and entire levels. Lumas come in a variety of colors, though are most commonly yellow. One particular Luma, also referred to as Baby Luma, or Young Master Luma, is a major character in the Super Mario Galaxy games, granting Mario or Luigi the power to Star Spin.



Bowser[r] or King Koopa (voiced by Kenneth W. James) is the king of the turtle-like Koopa race,[42] a selfish troublemaker who wants to take over the Mushroom Kingdom. He is depicted as Mario's nemesis, and is the final boss of most Mario games. He is playable in all Mario spin-off games.

Dry Bowser[s] is a recurring antagonist in the Mario series. Debuting as a form of Bowser after losing his flesh in New Super Mario Bros., the character has appeared as his own being starting with Mario Kart Wii, often serving as the final antagonist in the main games. Dry Bowser appears in Mario Party: Island Tour, and is a playable character in several of the Mario spin-off games.

Bowser Jr.[edit]

Bowser Jr. (known as Koopa Jr.[t] in Japan; voiced by Caety Sagoian), or sometimes simply Jr. or Junior, is the son of Bowser, who first appeared in the 2002 game Super Mario Sunshine. He is often depicted as the secondary antagonist throughout the Mario series. In the games, Bowser Jr. looks up to his dad, and shares his ambition to defeat Mario, and take over the Mushroom Kingdom. Bowser Jr. is playable in most of the spin-off Mario games, and in Super Smash Bros. He is the main protagonist of Bowser Jr.'s Journey (2018) included in the remake of Mario & Luigi: Bowser's Inside Story.


Wario[u] (English: /ˈwɑːri, ˈwær-/; voiced by Charles Martinet) is an obese yet muscular, hot-tempered, and greedy man. He is depicted as Mario's yellow-and-purple clad arch-rival. He initially debuted as an antagonist, but over the years has become an anti-hero, even being playable in a few titles. Wario is the protagonist of the Wario series and is playable in most of the Mario spin-off games where he is shown to be Waluigi's partner. His name is portmanteau of "warui", the Japanese word for "bad", and "Mario". Wario's favorite food is garlic, often used in gameplay to restore health when he gets defeated.


Waluigi[v] (English: /ˌwɑːluˈi/; voiced by Charles Martinet) is a tall, thin, and mischievous man who was introduced in Mario Tennis as Wario's partner. He is Luigi's black-and-purple clad arch-rival. Waluigi is often an antagonist who teams up with Wario to accomplish their schemes. He is playable in most of the Mario spin-off games, and makes several cameos within the Super Smash Bros. series. Like with Wario, his name is a portmanteau of "warui" and "Luigi".


The Koopalings[w] are seven siblings who first appeared as boss characters in the 1988 game Super Mario Bros. 3. Their individual names are Ludwig, Lemmy, Roy, Iggy, Wendy, Morton, and Larry. They were originally depicted as the children of the series antagonist Bowser, and later referred to as his minions. They have since appeared in subsequent Super Mario games, spin-off Mario games, and the Super Smash Bros. series.


Kamek[x] (English: /kəˈmɛk, ˈkæmɪk/; voiced by Atsushi Masaki) is a member of the fictional Magikoopa species who is Bowser's childhood caretaker, and then one of his high-ranking minions. Kamek is the main antagonist of the Yoshi series. In his various game appearances, his magic includes self-duplication, teleportation, shooting magical blasts, and changing the size of other creatures. He is often distinguished from other Magikoopas by the broom he rides on. In Japan, his species is also named Kamek, but outside Japan they are called Magikoopas. This will sometimes lead to a literal translation, as in Super Princess Peach where a boss is described as "A Kamek made huge by magic". Some Japanese sources such as the guide for Super Mario Advance 3: Yoshi's Island call him "Fang" to distinguish him from regular Magikoopas.

King Boo[edit]

King Boo[y] (voiced by Toru Asakawa) is the king of the Boos, and is the main antagonist of the Luigi's Mansion series. He plays minor roles, occasionally playable, in various other Mario games, including the Mario Kart and Mario Party series. King Boo's first major debuted role was as the final boss of Luigi's Mansion, where he disguised himself as Bowser. He is depicted as much larger than the average Boos that appear in games after Luigi's Mansion. He dons a crown with a large ruby, and has glowing, sunken eyes in the Luigi's Mansion franchise. A similar character named Big Boo is an enemy in Super Mario World, and a boss in Super Mario 64 DS. Additionally, a different character also named King Boo, known as Boss Boo in Japan, appears as a boss in Super Mario Sunshine.

Petey Piranha[edit]

Petey Piranha, known as Boss Pakkun[z] in Japan,[43] (voiced by Toru Minegishi) is a large, powerful Piranha Plant character. Whereas normal Piranha Plants are usually depicted growing from pipes, Petey's leaves and roots are foot-like and arm-like appendages, allowing the character to use objects such as tennis rackets and golf clubs when playable in the various Mario sports games. He has also been shown to be able to use his leaves to fly around in the air. He first appeared as the primary boss of Bianco Hills in the game Super Mario Sunshine. Similar Piranha Plant boss characters later appear in Super Mario Galaxy and its sequel.[44]


Fawful[aa] (voiced by Nami Funashima), known in Japan as Gerakobits, is a recurring antagonist in the Mario & Luigi series. The character is considered to be "insane," and speaks in a "schizophasic" manner. He served as the secondary antagonist of Superstar Saga, and the main antagonist of Bowser's Inside Story.

Enemy characters[edit]

  • Angry Sun - A sentient sun that swoops down at the player character. A moon variant of this enemy appears in Super Mario Maker 2, which defeats all enemies when touched.
  • Blooper - A sentry-like squid that chases after the player, debuting in Super Mario Bros. Blooper Nannies thrust smaller versions of themselves toward the player.[45]
  • Bob-omb - A bomb enemy introduced in Super Mario Bros. 2 with a wind-up key and a fuse, which explodes after a set amount of time or when thrown. King Bob-omb, previously Big Bob-omb, was introduced in Super Mario 64,[46] as a boss character there and in Mario Party 9, Mario & Luigi: Paper Jam, and Mario Party: Star Rush.
  • Boo - A spherical ghost enemy introduced in Super Mario Bros. 3, which sneaks up on the player from behind while they are facing away from it. Inspired by a rage that Takashi Tezuka's wife went into after he came home from work late.[47]
  • Bullet Bill - A bullet with angry eyes and clenched fists that is shot out of a cannon called a "Bill Blaster". They have a larger counterpart with a shark-like face, known as Banzai Bills.[45]
  • Chain Chomp - A metallic ball-and-chain creature that lunges at the player when he approaches it. Inspired by a childhood experience of Shigeru Miyamoto's with a violent dog.[48]
  • Cheep Cheep - A red, circular fish that made their first appearance in Super Mario Bros. They are found primarily in the water, but some can jump in an arc, or fly within a limited range. There are many different species of Cheep Cheeps, and they come in different colors, such as green, yellow, and purple. Giant varieties of Cheep Cheep who leap out of the water or pursue and attempt to swallow the player have been known as Boss Bass, Big Bass, and Big Bertha. Some big Cheep Cheeps have spikes on their backs and are known as Porcupuffers. Skeletal variants of Cheep Cheep known as Fish Bones charge at the player when they get close and break apart if they collide with a wall.
  • Dry Bones - A walking Koopa Troopa skeleton that reassembles itself after being hit. It can only be defeated by a Super Star, a Cape Feather, Super Leaf, or an Ice Flower.[45]
  • Fuzzy - A spiked creature which hangs in the air, and sometimes moves on trail. It makes its debut in Super Mario World.
  • Goomba - A sentient mushroom creature, which is the first enemy that the player typically encounters in the games' first levels. Implemented late in the development of Super Mario Bros as a basic, easy-to-defeat enemy.[49] Variants of the Goomba may have wings, known as the Paragoomba, and similar creatures include the Galoomba, which flips over and can be thrown when stomped on, and the Goombrat, which turns at edges.
  • Hammer Bro - A type of helmet-wearing Koopa who throws hammers at the player.[50] It has several variations that throw other projectiles, such as the Boomerang Bro and the Fire Bro, and a bigger variant known as a Sledge Bro which can stun the player.[45]
  • Koopa Troopa - A foot soldier of Bowser. It retracts in its shell when stomped on, after which it can be used to attack other foes.[45] Variants of the Koopa may have wings, where it is known as the Paratroopa or the Koopa Paratroopa. There are many other varieties of the Koopa Troopa such as red, yellow, and blue. Several other subspecies appear throughout the Mario games.
    • Buzzy Beetle - A black or blue beetle-like creature with a hard, fireproof shell that renders it immune to fire attacks. It can crawl on ceilings and drop down when the player gets too close.
    • Chargin' Chuck - A Koopa wearing football gear that mostly charges at the player, but can also use items such as baseballs and shovels.
    • Mechakoopa - A robot with a wind-up key that becomes disabled and can be thrown after being stomped on. A variant introduced in Super Mario Galaxy is capable of breathing fire.
    • Spike Top - A red wall-crawling beetle-like creature which combines the Buzzy Beetle's immunity to fire and the Spiny's immunity to being jumped on, although it can be spin-jumped on.
    • Spiny - A red beetle-like creature that damages the player if touched from above. They are often thrown by Lakitus in unlimited supplies, but can also be found individually.
  • Lakitu - A cloud-riding Koopa with aviator goggles that drops an endless supply of Spinies.[45][51] It also appears in Mario spin-off games with various roles including Mario Tennis and Mario Kart.
  • Magikoopa - A wizard Koopa capable of casting magic spells, turning blocks into foes, power-ups, or coins. Magikoopas first appeared in Super Mario World. Kamek and Kammy Koopa are recurring individuals of this species, appearing in the Yoshi and Paper Mario series, respectively.
  • Monty Mole - A mole-like enemy that burrows underground, and springs out of the ground when the player gets close. A similar enemy known as the Rocky Wrench pops out of airship manholes and throws wrenches at the player.
  • Piranha Plant - A leafy, stalk-topped carnivorous plant with sharp teeth that typically lives within pipes.[45] Known as Pakkun Flower in Japan, it has made numerous appearances outside of the Mario franchise, including as a playable character in Super Smash Bros. Ultimate via downloadable content.[52]
  • Podoboo[53][54] - A fireball that jumps out of lava and can bounce off walls. It is also referred to as a Lava Bubble (a name shared with other lava based enemies). A Blue Podoboo homes in on the player and jumps out of blue lava and is found in Super Princess Peach, and a variant of the Lava Bubble that chases after the player and spits fireballs appears mainly in the Paper Mario games.
  • Pokey - A spiked cactus with detachable green or yellow body segments, which first appeared in the international Super Mario Bros. 2.[45]
  • Shy Guy - A timid masked creature wearing a robe, which comes in many different colors and variations. Introduced in the international Super Mario Bros. 2, but more commonly portrayed as an enemy to Yoshi since Yoshi's Island. Some variants include the Snifit, a Shy Guy with a cannon on its mask which it uses to fire bullets, and the Fly Guy, a Shy Guy with a propeller on its head that can fly.[45] Voiced by Nintendo of America localization manager Nate Bihldorff.[55]
  • Spike - A green Koopa creature that attacks with spiked balls, which it throws out of its mouth. First appeared in Super Mario Bros. 3.[45]
  • Thwomp - A large stone block with an angry face that is mainly encountered in castles. It attempts to crush the player, usually from above. There is a smaller variation of the Thwomp called a Thwimp.
  • Whomp - An anthropomorphic stone slab that slams its face on the ground when the player gets near. It can only be defeated by ground pounding its back. Inspired by the Japanese mythical wall monster, the nurikabe.
  • Wiggler - A caterpillar enemy introduced in Super Mario World, which changes color and charges at the player when stomped on. It is a playable character in Mario Kart 7. Some Wigglers, known as Flutters, have butterfly wings.[45]

See also[edit]

  • Bowsette — a fan-made character based upon Bowser and Peachette


  1. ^ Japanese: マリオ, Hepburn: Mario, pronounced [maɾi.o]; English: /ˈmɑːri, ˈmær-/, Italian: [ˈmaːrjo]
  2. ^ Japanese: ルイージ, Hepburn: Ruīji, [ɾɯiꜜːʑi], English: /luˈi/, Italian: [luˈiːdʒi]
  3. ^ Japanese: ピーチ姫, Hepburn: Pīchi-hime, [piːtɕiꜜ çime]
  4. ^ Japanese: デイジー姫, Hepburn: Deijī-hime, [deːʑiꜜː çime]
  5. ^ Japanese: ロゼッタ, Hepburn: Rosetta
  6. ^ Japanese: キノピオ, Hepburn: Kinopio
  7. ^ Japanese: キノピコ, Hepburn: Kinopiko
  8. ^ Japanese: キノピオ隊長, Hepburn: Kinopio Taichō
  9. ^ Japanese: ヨッシー, Hepburn: Yosshī, [joꜜɕɕiː]
  10. ^ Japanese: キャサリン, Hepburn: Kyasarin
  11. ^ Japanese: ポリーン, Hepburn: Porīn
  12. ^ Japanese: ドンキーコング, Hepburn: Donkī Kongu
  13. ^ Japanese: ディディーコング, Hepburn: Didī Kongu
  14. ^ Japanese: クランキーコング, Hepburn: Kurankī Kongu
  15. ^ Japanese: ポチ, Hepburn: Pochi
  16. ^ Japanese: オヤ・マー博士, Hepburn: Oya Mā Hakase, known in Japan as Professor Oya Mā
  17. ^ Japanese: キノじい, Hepburn: Kinojī
  18. ^ Japanese: クッパ, Hepburn: Kuppa
  19. ^ Japanese: ほねクッパ, Hepburn: Hone Kuppa
  20. ^ Japanese: クッパJr., Hepburn: Kuppa Junia
  21. ^ Japanese: ワリオ, Hepburn: Wario, [waꜜɾio]
  22. ^ Japanese: ワルイージ, Hepburn: Waruīji, [waɾɯiꜜːʑi]
  23. ^ Japanese: コクッパ, Hepburn: Kokuppa
  24. ^ Japanese: カメック, Hepburn: Kamekku
  25. ^ Japanese: キングテレサ, Hepburn: Kingu Teresa
  26. ^ Japanese: ボスパックン, Hepburn: Bosu Pakkun
  27. ^ Japanese: ゲラコビッツ, Hepburn: Gerakobittsu


  1. ^ a b c d McLaughlin, Rus (September 14, 2010). "IGN Presents The History of Super Mario Bros". IGN. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on November 9, 2019. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
  2. ^ Mike Snider (November 8, 2010). "Q&A: 'Mario' creator Shigeru Miyamoto". USA Today. Archived from the original on May 23, 2012. Retrieved November 9, 2010.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  3. ^ Savage, Mark (October 1, 2012). "The actors hiding inside your video games". BBC News. Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  4. ^ "Mario Biography". IGN. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on December 20, 2009. Retrieved January 23, 2010.
  5. ^ a b "Luigi Biography". IGN. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on August 17, 2009. Retrieved January 26, 2010.
  6. ^ "Wario Biography". IGN. Archived from the original on July 12, 2009. Retrieved January 23, 2010.
  7. ^ "Yoshi Biography". IGN. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on June 2, 2010. Retrieved January 23, 2009.
  8. ^ Provo, Frank (November 9, 2007). "Super Mario Bros. 3 Review for Wii". GameSpot. Red Ventures. Archived from the original on March 10, 2009. Retrieved May 4, 2022.
  9. ^ Turi, Tim (December 21, 2009). "Gain Knowledge From Guinness 2010 Gamer's Edition". Game Informer. GameStop. Archived from the original on December 13, 2021. Retrieved December 13, 2021.
  10. ^ Samuelson, Kate (August 22, 2016). "Shinzo Abe Dresses as Super Mario for Rio Closing Ceremony". Time. Archived from the original on August 22, 2016. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
  11. ^ a b c "Why Luigi Is a Better Character Than Mario". Hardcore Gamer. DoubleJump Publishing. December 31, 2013. Retrieved November 16, 2022.
  12. ^ "Super Mario: The New Craze in Japan". New Straits Times. August 10, 1986. p. 10.
  13. ^ Hayward, Andrew (October 1, 2007). "VC Update: Sin and Punishment, Mario: Lost Levels". Archived from the original on June 29, 2011.
  14. ^ Whitehead, Thomas (February 14, 2013). "New Super Luigi U Confirmed as Future DLC for New Super Mario Bros. U". Nintendo Life. Hookshot Media. Archived from the original on March 19, 2022. Retrieved March 22, 2022.
  15. ^ a b Knorr, Alyse (November 14, 2018). "How Princess Peach's Story Draws On 2000 Years Of Women In Peril". Kotaku. Univision Communications. Retrieved November 16, 2022.
  16. ^ a b c d e Sholars, Mike (January 1, 2021). "Princess Peach Floated So Rosalina Could Fly". Kotaku Australia. G/O Media. Archived from the original on October 4, 2022. Retrieved November 16, 2022.
  17. ^ Riendeau, Danielle (June 12, 2013). "Nintendo thinking on a different frequency with playable Princess Peach". Polygon. Retrieved November 16, 2022.
  18. ^ Harris, Craig (February 23, 2006). "Super Princess Peach". IGN. Ziff Davis. Retrieved November 16, 2022.
  19. ^ Walker, Ian (February 10, 2022). "Daisy Is The Only Super Mario Girl With Teeth, Apparently". Kotaku. G/O Media. Archived from the original on February 15, 2022. Retrieved November 17, 2022.
  20. ^ Notis, Ari (May 13, 2022). "The Princess Daisy Fandom Is Ready To Riot Against Mario Strikers". Kotaku Australia. G/O Media. Archived from the original on November 12, 2022. Retrieved November 17, 2022.
  21. ^ Osborn, Alex (September 23, 2017). "Super Mario Run Update Will Add Daisy, New World, New Mode". IGN. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on April 23, 2022. Retrieved November 17, 2022.
  22. ^ Saul, Louise (October 15, 2022). "10 Top Mario Cosplays - From Plumbers To Princesses". Nintendo Life. Hookshot Media. Archived from the original on October 25, 2022. Retrieved November 17, 2022.
  23. ^ Brown, Andrew (October 7, 2013). "Major Details About Super Mario 3D World's...World Secretly Revealed". Nintendo World Report. Archived from the original on August 15, 2020. Retrieved November 22, 2022.
  24. ^ Corriea, Alexa Ray (November 17, 2014). "Nintendo Reveals the Toads' Gender Secret". GameSpot. Fandom. Archived from the original on October 14, 2022. Retrieved December 9, 2022.
  25. ^ a b Sholars, Mike (January 15, 2021). "You're Toad, Not Mario. And That's OK". Kotaku. G/O Media. Archived from the original on August 11, 2022. Retrieved December 9, 2022.
  26. ^ Fenlon, Wesley (December 2, 2008). "Born for Wii: Wario's Woods (page 2)". Engadget. Yahoo! Inc. Archived from the original on February 27, 2022. Retrieved December 9, 2022.
  27. ^ Welsh, Oli (October 14, 2022). "Evidence mounts that the Mario movie is a musical: Toad sings too". Polygon. Vox Media. Archived from the original on December 7, 2022. Retrieved December 9, 2022.
  28. ^ Reseigh-Lincoln, Dom (February 22, 2018). "Super Mario Odyssey - Talk to Toad at the Castle, Archivist Toadette achievements and what to do in Super Mario Odyssey's end game". Eurogamer. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
  29. ^ McWhertor, Michael (August 7, 2018). "Where Captain Toad: Treasure Tracker came from". Polygon. Retrieved April 29, 2020. "I really just want to make him someone that loves treasure and you can feel that from him,” Hiratake said. “I think honestly Captain Toad is someone that doesn’t really care what’s going on, but when he sees treasure he’s like, ‘I want it!’. “You know, I do question his loyalty to the Mushroom Kingdom a little bit. I think of him like a crow that loves shiny things or a moth to a flame. He just loves treasure so much that he can’t think about anything else — he’s just so happy finding treasure."—Game director Shinya Hiratake
  30. ^ Robbins, M. Brandon (September 15, 2017), "Diversity in Gaming", Library Journal, vol. 142, p. 51
  31. ^ Owens, Cassie (September 25, 2018), "Temple prof co-curates first exhibit on LGBTQ video game history", Philadelphia Inquirer
  32. ^ Shaw, Adrienne; Friesem, Elizaveta (2016), "Where is the Queerness in Games? Types of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Content in Digital Games", International Journal of Communication, vol. 10, pp. 3877–3889
  33. ^ "Donkey Kong". IGN. Retrieved July 6, 2010.
  34. ^ "Donkey Kong". IGN. Retrieved July 6, 2010.
  35. ^ Ray, Sheri Graner (2004). Gender inclusive game design ... - Google Books. ISBN 978-1-58450-239-5. Retrieved April 8, 2010.
  36. ^ Text technology: the journal of ... - Google Books. September 9, 2008. Retrieved April 8, 2010.
  37. ^ Lind, Rebecca Ann (September 3, 2009). Race, gender, media: considering ... - Google Books. ISBN 978-0-205-34419-2. Retrieved April 8, 2010.
  38. ^ Oxford, Nadia (October 11, 2019). "Professor E. Gadd from Luigi's Mansion is Nintendo's Most Dangerous Character". USgamer. Gamer Network. Retrieved November 16, 2022.
  39. ^ a b Hilliard, Kyle. "Luigi's Mansion's Professor Elvin Gadd Costume Coming To Super Mario Maker". Game Informer. GameStop. Retrieved November 16, 2022.
  40. ^ Gaming Reinvented (October 22, 2021). "Let's Interview: The Voice of Bowser, Scott Burns!". Archived from the original on October 26, 2021. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
  41. ^ "Confirmation from Scott Burns via e-mail". Archived from the original on January 8, 2022. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
  42. ^ Super Mario Bros. Instruction Manual. Nintendo. 1985. p. 14. Bowser, King of the Koopas
  43. ^ "MARIO KART - Double Dash!! The strongest character lineup of history". Nintendo. Retrieved July 6, 2008.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  44. ^ Kohler, Chris (February 25, 2010). "Hands On: Diggin' Holes, Ridin' Yoshis in Mario Galaxy 2". Wired – via
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Drake, Audrey (October 27, 2011). "Mario's Best Enemies". IGN. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  46. ^ Doolan, Liam (February 19, 2021). "Nintendo Might Have Revealed A New Mario Golf: Super Rush Character Ahead Of Schedule". Nintendo Life. Retrieved May 28, 2021.
  47. ^ Stuart, Keith (September 13, 2010). "Super Mario Bros: 25 Mario facts for the 25th anniversary | Technology |". Guardian. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
  48. ^ Sheff, David (1993). Game Over. Random House. ISBN 0-679-40469-4.
  49. ^ Eurogamer (September 7, 2015). "Miyamoto on World 1-1: How Nintendo made Mario's most iconic level" – via YouTube.
  50. ^ Chris Buffet (October 3, 2008). "Top 25 Mario Enemies". GameDaily. p. 21. Archived from the original on October 7, 2008. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
  51. ^ Chris Buffet (October 3, 2008). "Top 25 Mario Enemies". GameDaily. p. 20. Archived from the original on October 7, 2008. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
  52. ^ Buckley, Sean; Jackson, Ryan. "Super Smash Bros. Ultimate: Piranha Plant DLC is Available Now". CNET. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
  53. ^ Super Princess Peach Glossary.
  54. ^ Mario Kart Wii Prima Guide pg. 34
  55. ^ "Interview with Nate Bihldorff". Shinesparkers. February 23, 2011. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2014.

External links[edit]