Renewable Energy Directive 2009

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Directive 2009/28/EC
European Union directive
Title Renewable Energy Directive
Made by European Parliament and Council
Journal reference L 140, 5 June 2009, pp. 16–62
Other legislation
Replaces 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC
Amends 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC

The Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC is a European Union directive which mandates levels of renewable energy use within the European Union.[1] The directive was published on 23 April 2009 and amends and repeals the 2001 Directive on Electricity Production from Renewable Energy Sources 2001/77/EC. The directive requires that 20% of the energy consumed within the European Union is renewable. This target is pooled among the member states.[2]

EU leaders had already reached agreement in March 2007 that, in principle, 20% of the bloc's final energy consumption should be produced from renewable energy sources by 2020 as part of its drive to cut carbon dioxide emissions.[3] This policy later became part of the EU 2020 Energy Strategy dated 10 November 2010.[4] The key objectives of the strategy are to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 20%, to increase the share of renewable energy to 20%, and to achieve energy savings of 20% or more. The targets are mutually dependent.[5]

The draft report on the directive was published by the European Commission in January 2008. Claude Turmes served as rapporteur on the draft.

Members states were obliged to notify the European Commission by 30 June 2010 of a National Renewable Energy Action Plan which sets out the road map of the trajectory. Member states also have to submit progress reports explaining their implementation of the directive and their progress towards their targets, as is required by article 22 of the directive.

A June 2015 report from the European Commission shows that EU countries are on track to meet the aggregate 20% goal.[6][7]

National targets for renewable energy sources[edit]

The overall EU target for renewable energy use is 20% by the year 2020. Targets for renewable energy in each country vary from a minimum of 10% in Malta to 72% of total energy use in Iceland.

National overall targets for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final consumption of energy in 2020
National overall targets 2005 share 2020 target
Austria 23.3% 34%
Belgium 2.2% 13%
Bulgaria 9.4% 16%
Cyprus 2.9% 13%
Czech Republic 6.1% 13%
Denmark 17.0% 30%
Estonia 18.0% 25%
Finland 28.5% 38%
France 10.3% 23%
Germany 5.8% 18%
Greece 6.9% 18%
Hungary 4.3% 13%
Iceland * 63.4% 72%
Ireland 3.1% 16%
Italy 5.2% 17%
Latvia 32.6% 40%
Lithuania 15.0% 23%
Luxembourg 0.9% 11%
Malta 0.0% 10%
Netherlands 2.4% 14%
Norway * 60.1% 67.5%
Poland 7.2% 15%
Portugal 20.5% 31%
Romania 17.8% 24%
Slovak Republic 6.7% 14%
Slovenia 16.0% 25%
Spain 8.7% 20%
Sweden 39.8% 49%
United Kingdom 1.3% 15%
* Iceland and Norway have submitted Renewable Energy Action Plans to the EU Commission with 2020 targets and details of their development steps.[8]

Future developments[edit]

The current renewable energy directive ends in 2020. As of 2016 a new directive is being negotiated.

Documents leaked in late-2016 reveal that a confidential European Union impact assessment analyses four scenarios for paring back the 'priority dispatch' system afforded to renewable generation in many countries. The assessment concludes that removing priority dispatch could increase carbon emissions by 45 million to 60 million tonnes per annum or up to 10%, with the aim of making European energy generators more flexible and cost-competitive. Priority dispatch is mandated under the current EU renewable energy directive, although the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Sweden do not comply. Industry sources told The Guardian that it is "highly likely" that priority dispatch will be removed from the next EU directive, which takes effect from 2020. Sources also said that renewable generators would seek financial compensation if priority dispatch is eliminated. The WindEurope trade association reacted strongly to the news.[9]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC (PDF). Brussels, Belgium: European Council. 5 June 2009. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
  2. ^ "Deal secured on ambitious EU renewables law". EurActiv. 9 December 2008. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
  3. ^ "EU renewable energy policy". EurActiv. 7 November 2007. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
  4. ^ Report from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – Energy 2020: a strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy – COM(2010) 639 final. European Commission. Brussels, Belgium. 10 November 2010. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  5. ^ "EU 2020 Energy Strategy". European Commission. Brussels, Belgium. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  6. ^ "EU on track to meeting 20% renewable energy target". European Commission. Brussels, Belgium. 16 June 2015. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  7. ^ Report from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – Renewable energy progress report – COM(2015) 293 final. European Commission. Brussels, Belgium. 15 June 2015. Retrieved 20 September 2016. The URL points to a zip file.
  8. ^ "National action plans". European Commission. Brussels, Belgium. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
  9. ^ Neslen, Arthur (1 November 2016). "Renewables could lose European power grid priority, documents reveal". The Guardian. London, United Kingdom. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 1 November 2016.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]