Energy in Poland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Renewable energy in Poland)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Polish energy sector is the sixth largest in Europe. The scale of energy consumption in 1996-2015 increased from 139,593 GWh to 161,438 GWh.[1] According to the data of Polskie Sieci Elektroenergetyczne (PSE),[2] electricity production in October 2020 amounted to 13,553 GWh; domestic consumption amounted to 14,798 GWh.

The Polish energy mix is dominated by hard coal - approx. 48% and lignite - 24%. When it comes to green energy, wind installations had the highest contribution of 9%. Other RES played a minor role, only 1%, but they are the ones that show the greatest growth dynamics.[3]

In September 2020, the draft of Poland's Energy Policy until 2040 was presented, which describes the transformation of the Polish energy sector in the coming years, taking into account e.g. climate challenges, the need to ensure energy security and a just transition.[4]

Poland's Energy Policy until 2040[edit]

PEP2040 is a response to the most important challenges facing the Polish energy sector in the coming decades and sets the directions for the development of the energy sector, taking into account the tasks necessary for implementation in the short term. The implementation of PEP2040 will take place through eight directions of activities in the fuel and energy sector, divided into executive tasks.

PEP2040 is based on 3 pillars:

I - Just Transition

II - Zero-emissions energy system

III - Good air quality

In 2040, more than half of the installed capacity in Poland will be zero-emission sources. The implementation of offshore wind energy into the Polish power system and the commissioning of a nuclear power plant will play a special role in this process. These will be two strategic new areas and industries that will be built in Poland.[5]

Overview[edit]

Energy in Poland[6]
Population
(million)
Primary energy
(TWh)
Production
(TWh)
Import
(TWh)
Electricity
(TWh)
CO2-emission
(Mt)
2004 38.2 1,067 917 157 131 296
2007 38.1 1,129 845 294 140 305
2008 38.1 1,138 830 352 142 299
2009 38.2 1,093 785 352 137 287
2010 38.2 1,180 784 373 144 305
2012 38.5 1,178 797 402 148 300
2012R 38.5 1,138 831 360 148 294
2013 38.5 1,135 825 301 150 292
Change 2004-13 0.0% 6.4% -11.2% 91.7% 14.5% -1.4%
Mtoe = 11.63 TWh, Prim. energy includes energy losses that are 2/3 for nuclear power[7]

2012R = CO2 calculation criteria changed, numbers updated

2015 fuel taxes, in PLN[8]
Diesel Gasoline Natural gas Coal Electricity
per unit liter liter m3 GJ GJ MWh
Excise 1.459 1.669 1.28 1.28
Environment

Coal[edit]

In 2009 Poland produced 78 megatonnes (Mt) of hard coal and 57 Mt of brown coal. As of 2020, extraction is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive, and has become uncompetitive so reliant on government subsidies.[clarification needed] In September 2020, the government and mining unions agreed a plan to phase out coal by 2049.[9]

Coal and the environment[edit]

Coal mining has far-reaching effects on local water resources. Coal mining requires large amounts of water. Mining activities have dropped the water level of Lake Ostrowskie by almost two meters in the KuyaviaPomerania and the lakes in the Powidz Landscape Park. According to Poznań's University of Agriculture, the water drainage in the Kleczew brown coal mining areas has formed craters in the area.[10] Statistics from Eurostat shows that Poland accounts for 30% of the European Union’s annual consumption of coal.[11]

Coal and the public[edit]

In April 2008, five thousand people demonstrated in Kruszwica to protect cultural heritage and the nature reserve at Lake Gopło. This was the first protest of its kind in the country's history. Gopło Millennium Park (Nadgoplański Park Tysiąclecia) is protected by the European Union's Natura 2000 program and includes a major bird sanctuary. The Tomisławice opencast mine (less than 10 kilometers away from the Kruszwica mine) was due to open in 2009.[10]

Coal and business[edit]

The Bełchatów Power Station in the Łódź region supplies almost 20% of Poland's energy. It is the largest brown coal power plant in Europe.

Electricity[edit]

Poland electricity generation by source

In 2018 48% of electricity produced in Poland came from hard coal, 29% from brown coal, 13% from renewable sources (mostly wind power) and 7% from natural gas.[12] In parts of 2020, electricity costs in Poland were the highest in Europe.[13]

Renewable energy[edit]

A binding European Union resolution, the Renewable Energy Directive 2009, stipulates a 15% renewable energy target for total energy use in Poland by 2020. According to the Polish National Renewable Energy Action Plan, the 2020 figure is set to exceed this target by 0.5% at 15.5% of overall energy use, broken down as 19.1% of total electricity consumption, 17% in the heating and cooling sector, and 10.1% in the transport sector.[14]

As of 2014 - 2015 renewable energy provided around 10% of total primary energy supply in Poland as well as around 13% of total electricity generation.[15]

Progress towards targets[edit]

Renewable energy Progress Report Poland, 2013 and 2014.
2013[16] 2014[16] 2015[17] 2016[17] 2017[17] 2018[17]
Renewable energy share of heating and cooling sector 14.07% 13.95% 14.54% 14.68% 14.48% 14.56%
Renewable energy share of electricity sector 10.73% 12.40% 13.43% 13.36% 13.09% 13.03%
Renewable energy share of transport sector 6.03% 5.67% 5.62% 3.92% 4.20% 5.63%
Renewable energy share of total energy consumption 11.34% 11.45% 11.74% 11.27% 10.90% 11.16%

As of year end 2014 Poland had achieved an 11.45% share of renewable energy use as a percentage of overall energy usage. The overall 2014 share breaks down as 13.95% of the heating and cooling sector, 12.40% of the electricity sector and 5.67% of the transport sector.

Sources[edit]

Biomass and waste[edit]

As of 2015 Biomass and waste was the largest source of renewable energy in Poland providing an estimated 8.9% of total primary energy supply (TPES) in that year and an estimated 6.1% of electricity generation.[15] In 2019 there were 1,142 MW installed capacity power.[18]

Solid biomass is the most important source by volume, providing fuel for heat and power plants or consumed directly for industrial or household heat requirements. Biogasses are also used in heat and power plants as well whilst waste is mainly used as a fuel in industry.[15] In 2014 0.7 Mtoe of biofuels were used in transport, 81% as biodiesel and 19% as biogasoline, making up 5% of the total energy consumption in the transport sector in 2014.[15]

Wind power[edit]

EU and Poland Wind Energy Capacity (MW)[19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26]
No Country 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998
- EU-27 153,641[26] 142,042[26] 128,751[27] 117,384[27] 105,696 93,957 84,074 74,767 64,712 56,517 48,069 40,511 34,383 28,599 23,159 17,315 12,887 9,678 6,453
9 Poland 5,782[26] 5,100[26] 3,834[27] 3,390[27] 2,497 1,616 1,107 725 544 276 153 83 63 63 27 0 0 0 0

Wind power is estimated to have provided 6.6% of total electricity generation in 2015.[15]

The Polish NREAP plan is targeting 6,700 MW of wind power by 2020 whilst EWEA's 2009 forecast suggests a higher wind capacity of 10–12 GW is possible.[28]

The total capacity in Poland was 6,293.9 MW as of 1 October 2020.[29] The Polish government had plans to reach 2,000 MW in wind power capacity and a 2.3% share of wind generation in domestic energy consumption by 2010.[30] By the end of 2010, the capacity stood at 1,107 MW.[31] If Poland had the same wind power density as Denmark, there would have been 23 GW of wind power by the end of 2008.[32]

Offshore Wind

In September 2020, the government announced a 130 billion zloty (£26.5 billion) plan to invest in offshore wind.[9]

The “Offshore Wind Act” which is being prepared by the Government is expected to enter into force in 2020.[33] The main purpose of the Act is to set the framework for a dedicated subsidy scheme for offshore wind projects. However, it also addresses other relevant issues pertaining to the development and operation of offshore projects.[34]

According to Polish Wind Energy Association (PWEA), offshore wind farms in the Baltic Sea with an overall capacity of 5.9 GW are set to "receive support under a two-sided contract for difference between the investor and the regulator. Awarding support under this formula will be time-limited until the end of June 2021." In a second phase, contracts are planned to be awarded by auctions. The first is to take place in 2025. The PWEA said that support will be available for projects with a total capacity of 2.5 GW in each of the auctions.[35] By 2050, Poland wants a massive 28 GW in offshore sector, which would make Poland the largest operator of offshore wind in the Baltic Sea.

On 1 July 2020 representatives of the Polish government and Polish wind energy industry signed a “Letter of Intent on cooperation for development of offshore wind power in Poland”. The letter acknowledges the role of offshore wind in meeting the European Union’s Green Deal objectives while increasing the security of energy supply and reducing Poland’s CO2 emissions.[36]

In its National Energy and Climate Plan (NECP) Poland identified offshore wind as one of key technologies to meet its goals for renewable energy for 2030. Offshore wind has also been described as strategic in the draft of Poland’s Energy Policy until 2040. It will help diversifying the Polish national power generation structure that today heavily depends on coal.[37]

Hydroelectric power[edit]

Name Location Coordinates Capacity, MWe Type Ref
Żarnowiec Pomorskie 680 pumped storage [38]
Żar Śląskie 500 pumped storage [39]
Solina Solina 200 pumped storage [40]
Włocławek Kujawsko-Pomorskie 160 river dam [41]
Żydowo Zachodnio-Pomorskie 150 pumped storage [42]
Niedzica Małopolskie 92.75 pumped storage [43][44]
Dychów Lubuskie 90 pumped storage [45]
Rożnów Małopolskie 50 run of the river [46][47]
Grajówka Lubuskie 2.79 run of the river [48][49]
Future planned plants
Mloty Dolnośląskie 750 pumped storage [44][50]

In 2014 there were 2,364 MW installed capacity of hydroelectric power as well as 1,406 MW pumped storage capacity.[51] In 2015 hydroelectricity generated approximately 1.1% of total electricity in Poland.[52] In 2019 there were 2,391 MW installed capacity of hydroelectric power [53]

Solar power[edit]

In 2019, the Polish government launched a scheme called "Mój Prąd",[54] which is dedicated to supporting the development of prosumer energy, and specifically supporting the segment of photovoltaic (PV) micro-installations. The budget of the program is currently PLN 1,1 billion.[55]

As a result, in recent years there has been a significant increase in power in this segment of the energy sector.

PV in Poland (MWpeak)[56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70]
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2020
0.3 0.4 0.6 1 1 21.83.44.229.9 110.9 193.9 287 486.5 3144.6

Air quality[edit]

Air quality information on PM10 displayed in Katowice, Poland

The PM10 warning limit is 300 μg/m3 in Poland, whereas it is 80 in Paris.[71]

Global warming[edit]

Poland opposed the 2009 EU proposal to support developing countries in applying measures against global warming, at a cost of 5-7 billion during the years 2010–2012.[72]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Wyzwania sektora energetycznego w Polsce (...)" (PDF).
  2. ^ "Polskie Sieci Elektroenergetyczne S.A. - PSE". www.pse.pl. Retrieved 2020-11-27.
  3. ^ "Produkcja energii elektrycznej w Polsce | Rynek Elektryczny". Retrieved 2020-11-27.
  4. ^ "Zaktualizowany projekt Polityki energetycznej Polski do 2040 r."
  5. ^ "Minister Kurtyka: „Polityka energetyczna Polski do 2040 r." udziela odpowiedzi na najważniejsze wyzwania stojące przed krajową energetyką w najbliższych dziesięcioleciach".
  6. ^ IEA Key World Energy Statistics Statistics 2015, 2014 (2012R as in November 2015 + 2012 as in March 2014 is comparable to previous years statistical calculation criteria, 2013 Archived 2014-09-02 at the Wayback Machine, 2012 Archived 2013-03-09 at the Wayback Machine, 2011 Archived 2011-10-27 at the Wayback Machine, 2010 Archived 2010-10-11 at the Wayback Machine, 2009 Archived 2013-10-07 at the Wayback Machine, 2006 Archived 2009-10-12 at the Wayback Machine IEA October, crude oil p.11, coal p. 13 gas p. 15
  7. ^ "Energy in Sweden Facts and Figures" (PDF). The Swedish Energy Agency. 2010. p. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-17. Retrieved 2011-05-22.
  8. ^ Michel, Sharon. ENERGY PRICES AND TAXES, COUNTRY NOTES, 3rd Quarter 2015 Archived January 19, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, page 40. International Energy Agency, 2015
  9. ^ a b Gatten, Emma; Suszko, Agnieszka (22 October 2020). "Can Poland, the dirty man of Europe, end its love affair with coal?". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  10. ^ a b "The True Cost of Coal" (PDF). Greenpeace. November 27, 2008. pp. 6, 54–57. Archived from the original on 2009-12-30. Retrieved 2011-05-22.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  11. ^ "Poland accounts for almost a third of the EU's coal consumption". Emerging Europe | News, Intelligence, Community. 2019-08-26. Retrieved 2019-08-27.
  12. ^ "Energy statistics in 2017 and 2018" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 February 2020. Retrieved 2020-03-18.
  13. ^ "Poland's wholesale electricity prices rise to the highest in Europe". Ember. 23 October 2020. Archived from the original on 4 November 2020. In April 2020, Poland’s wholesale electricity prices exceeded Greece’s and since then have continued to be the most expensive
  14. ^ "National action plans - Energy - European Commission". Energy. Retrieved 2017-06-27.
  15. ^ a b c d e "Publication: Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Poland 2016 Review". www.iea.org. Retrieved 2017-06-03.
  16. ^ a b "Progress reports - Energy - European Commission". Energy. Retrieved 2016-07-02.
  17. ^ a b c d "Renewable energy in Poland in 2018" (PDF) (in Polish). Statistics Poland. 18 November 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ EWEA Staff (2010). "Cumulative installed capacity per EU Member State 1998 - 2009 (MW)". European Wind Energy Association. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
  20. ^ EWEA Staff (February 2011). "EWEA Annual Statistics 2010" (PDF). European Wind Energy Association. Retrieved 2011-01-31.
  21. ^ EWEA Staff (February 2012). "EWEA Annual Statistics 2011" (PDF). European Wind Energy Association. Retrieved 2011-02-18.
  22. ^ Wind in power: 2012 European statistics February 2013
  23. ^ http://www.euractiv.com/sections/energy/polands-renewable-capacity-grows-94-6-gw-2014-311760
  24. ^ "Mapa odnawialnych źródeł energii na podstawie udzielonych przez Prezesa URE koncesji oraz wpisów do rejestrów prowadzonych przez Prezesa URE i Prezesa ARR". www.ure.gov.pl.
  25. ^ "Polish Wind Association Web Site". elektrownie-wiatrowe.org.pl. Archived from the original on 2008-10-13. Retrieved 2017-02-01.
  26. ^ a b c d e EWEA: "Wind in power: 2017 European statistics", February 2017
  27. ^ a b c d EWEA: "Wind in power: 2014 European statistics", February 2014
  28. ^ "EU Energy Police to 2050" (PDF). The European Wind Energy Association. March 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-22.
  29. ^ [2]
  30. ^ "Global Wind Report" (PDF). Global Wind Energy Council. 2006. p. 25. Retrieved 2011-05-22.
  31. ^ "Wind in Power – European Statistics" (PDF). The European Wind Energy Association. 2010. Retrieved 2011-05-22.
  32. ^ "Pure Power – Wind Energy Targets for 2020 and 2030" (PDF). The European Wind Energy Association. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-04-07. Retrieved 2011-05-22.
  33. ^ "The birth of offshore wind in Poland". WindEurope. 2020-07-02. Retrieved 2020-11-22.
  34. ^ "Polish Offshore Wind Act – current status". www.cms-lawnow.com. Retrieved 2020-11-22.
  35. ^ "Poland creates legal framework for offshore wind development in the Baltic Sea". Pinsent Masons. Retrieved 2020-11-22.
  36. ^ "Polish Govt and Wind Energy Industry Sign Offshore Wind Co-Op Deal". Offshore Wind. 2020-07-02. Retrieved 2020-11-22.
  37. ^ Vizzuality. "Energy Policy of Poland unt... - Poland - Climate Change Laws of the World". climate-laws.org. Retrieved 2020-11-22.
  38. ^ "Zarnowiec Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Power Plant". Global Energy Observatory. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  39. ^ "Porabka-Zar Pumped Storage Power Plant Poland". Global Energy Observatory. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  40. ^ "DHV Hydroprojekt Sp. z o.o." www.dhvhydroprojekt.com.pl (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2017-07-08. Retrieved 2017-06-22.
  41. ^ "Hydroelectric Power Plants in Poland - Pomorskie". Gallery. Power Plants Around The World. 8 February 2009. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  42. ^ "Zydowo Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Power Plant". Global Energy Observatory. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  43. ^ "ZEW Niedzica S.A." (in Polish). Retrieved 30 October 2014.
  44. ^ a b Administrator. "Hydro Power Plants". www.energoprojekt.pl. Retrieved 2017-06-25.
  45. ^ "ZEW Dychów" (in Polish). Retrieved 30 October 2014.
  46. ^ "TAURON Ekoenergia Sp. z o.o." (in Polish). Archived from the original on 30 October 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
  47. ^ "Central and Eastern European Hydroelectric Power Outlook, KPMG" (PDF).
  48. ^ "ZEW Dychów" (in Polish). Archived from the original on 21 August 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
  49. ^ "Grajówka". www.pgeeo.pl. Retrieved 2017-06-25.
  50. ^ "Mloty PSPS Project, EDF Polska" (PDF).[permanent dead link]
  51. ^ "Publication: Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Poland 2016 Review, pg 98". www.iea.org. Retrieved 2017-05-13.
  52. ^ "Energy policies of IEA countries, Poland 2016, pg95".
  53. ^ [3]
  54. ^ "Informacje szczegółowe o programie". Mój Prąd (in Polish). Retrieved 2020-11-22.
  55. ^ "Fotowoltaika: w listopadzie koniec budżetu „Mój prąd". Będzie bonus?". WysokieNapiecie.pl (in Polish). 2020-10-20. Retrieved 2020-11-22.
  56. ^ Photovoltaic energy barometer 2009 – EurObserv’ER[permanent dead link] Systèmes solaires Le journal des énergies renouvelables n° 190, p. 72-102, 3/2009
  57. ^ Photovoltaic energy barometer 2007 – EurObserv’ER[permanent dead link] Systèmes solaires Le journal des énergies renouvelables n° 178, p. 49-70, 4/2007
  58. ^ Photovoltaic energy barometer 2010 – EurObserv’ER[permanent dead link]
  59. ^ Photovoltaic energy barometer 2011 – EurObserv’ER[permanent dead link]
  60. ^ "Photovoltaic energy barometer 2012 – EurObserv'ER". eurobserv-er.org.[permanent dead link]
  61. ^ Photovoltaic energy barometer 2013 – EurObserv’ER
  62. ^ Photovoltaic energy barometer 2014 – EurObserv’ER
  63. ^ "Photovoltaic barometer 2016 - EurObserv'ER". www.eurobserv-er.org.
  64. ^ "Photovoltaic energy barometer 2017 – EurObserv'ER".
  65. ^ "Photovoltaic energy barometer 2018 – EurObserv'ER".
  66. ^ "Photovoltaic energy barometer 2019 – EurObserv'ER".
  67. ^ [4]
  68. ^ [5]
  69. ^ [6]
  70. ^ [pv-magazine.com/2020/10/16/poland-added-421-mw-of-pv-in-august-september-period/]
  71. ^ "Polish pollution akin to smoking 4,000 cigarettes a year". EurActiv.com. 20 January 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  72. ^ "Puola ei suostu ilmastotalkoisiin" (in Finnish). YLE. October 2, 2009. Retrieved 2011-05-22.

External links[edit]