(De Winton, 1899)
|Range map in red|
The reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata), also known as the Somali giraffe, is a subspecies of giraffe native to the Horn of Africa. It lives in Somalia, southern Ethiopia, and northern Kenya. There are approximately 8,500 individuals living in the wild. The reticulated giraffe was described and given its binomial name by British zoologist William Edward de Winton in 1899, however the IUCN currently recognizes only one species of giraffe with nine subspecies.
Reticulated giraffes can interbreed with other giraffe species in captivity or if they come into contact with populations of other species in the wild.
Together with the Rothschild's giraffe, it is by far the giraffe most commonly seen in zoos. Its coat consists of large, polygonal, liver-colored spots outlined by a network of bright-white lines. The blocks may sometimes appear deep red and may also cover the legs.
All living giraffes were originally classified as one species by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. The subspecies was described and given a binomial name Giraffa reticulata by British zoologist William Edward de Winton in 1899. The IUCN currently recognizes only one species of giraffe with nine subspecies, one of which is the reticulated giraffe.
Distribution and habitat
To save the remaining 9,000, or so, Reticulated giraffes, several conservation organizations have been formed. One of these organizations is the Reticulated Giraffe Conservation with Pastoralists initiative. Their work includes hiring and training local Kenyans to be Twiga Walinzi (Giraffe Guards). These guards are trained to monitor 120 trail cameras that capture footage of wild giraffes and other Kenyan wildlife; developing a photo ID database so individual giraffes can be tracked; informing rangers of poaching incidents and removing snares; caring for orphaned giraffes; and educating communities about giraffe conservation.
Along with the Rothschild's giraffe, the Reticulated giraffe is the most common giraffe found in zoos. However, these two subspecies of giraffe were bred together. This was done because it was thought that the giraffe subspecies interbred in the wild. However, new research that was done in 2016 discovered that the separate giraffe populations do not interbreed.
Few zoos have distinct Rothschild's giraffe or Reticulated giraffe herds. The San Diego Zoo Safari Park, Bronx Zoo, and Chester Zoo have herds of just Rothschild's giraffe. The Maryland Zoo and Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo both have strictly reticulated giraffe herds. However, some zoos still breed Rothschild's giraffe and Reticulated giraffes. At Utah's Hogle Zoo, their giraffe herd consists of male Riley, a Reticulated giraffe, and females Kipenzi, a Reticulated giraffe, and Pogo, a Rothschild's giraffe. In early 2016, Willow was born to Riley and Pogo. According to the new research discovered in 2016, Willow would be a hybrid. Because of the research done in 2016 that suggested there were actually four species of giraffe, this trend of exhibiting only Reticulated giraffe or only Rothschild's giraffe is becoming more popular.
- ISIS (2010). Giraffa. Version 1 October 2010
- IUCN. "Giraffa camelopardalis: Muller, Z., Bercovitch, F., Brand, R., Brown, D., Brown, M., Bolger, D., Carter, K., Deacon, F., Doherty, J.B., Fennessy, J., Fennessy, S., Hussein, A.A., Lee, D., Marais, A., Strauss, M., Tutchings, A. & Wube, T.". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. doi:10.2305/iucn.uk.2016-3.rlts.t9194a51140239.en.
- Bercovitch, Fred B.; Berry, Philip S.M.; Dagg, Anne; Deacon, Francois; Doherty, John B.; Lee, Derek E.; Mineur, Frédéric; Muller, Zoe; Ogden, Rob (2017-02-20). "How many species of giraffe are there?". Current Biology. 27 (4): R136–R137. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 28222287. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.12.039.
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