Names of Rusʹ, Russia and Ruthenia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Rus (name))

Originally, the name Rusʹ (Cyrillic: Русь) referred to the people,[1] regions, and medieval states (9th to 12th centuries) of the Kievan Rusʹ. In Western culture, it was better known as Ruthenia from the 11th century onwards.[2] Its territories are today distributed among Belarus, Northern Ukraine, Eastern Poland, and the European section of Russia. The term Россия (Rossija), comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rusʹ, Ρωσσία Rossía—related to both Modern Greek: Ρως, romanizedRos, lit.'Rusʹ', and Ρωσία (Rosía, "Russia", pronounced [roˈsia]).

One of the earliest written sources mentioning the people called Rusʹ (as Rhos) dates to 839 in the Annales Bertiniani. This chronicle identifies them as a Germanic tribe called the Swedes. According to the Kievan Rusʹ Primary Chronicle, compiled in about 1113, the Rusʹ were a group of Varangians, Norsemen who had relocated somewhere from the Baltic region (literally "from beyond the sea"), first to Northeastern Europe, then to the south where they created the medieval Kievan state.[3] In the 11th century, the dominant term in the Latin tradition was Ruscia. It was used, among others, by Thietmar of Merseburg, Adam of Bremen, Cosmas of Prague and Pope Gregory VII in his letter to Izyaslav I. Rucia, Ruzzia, Ruzsia were alternative spellings. During the 12th century, Ruscia gradually made way for two other Latin terms, "Russia" and "Ruthenia". "Russia" (also spelled Rossia and Russie) was the dominant Romance-language form, first used by Liutprand of Cremona in the 960s and then by Peter Damian in the 1030s. It became ubiquitous in English and French documents in the 12th century. Ruthenia, first documented in the early 12th century Augsburg annals, was a Latin form preferred by the Apostolic Chancery of the Latin Church.

The modern name of Russia (Rossija), which came into use in the 15th century,[4][5][6] is derived from the Greek Ρωσία, which in turn derives from Ῥῶς, the self-name of the people of Rusʹ.[7]

A hypothetical predecessor of Kievan Rusʹ is the 9th-century Rusʹ Khaganate, whose name and existence are inferred from a handful of early medieval Byzantine and Persian and Arabic sources.


Scandinavia with what later became Sweden, here in the 9th century. Roslagen is located in Uppland, the southeastern part of the yellow area of Svealand.

The most common theory about the origins of Russians is the Germanic version. The name Rus', like the Proto-Finnic name for Sweden (*Ruotsi), supposed to be descended from an Old Norse term for "the men who row" (rods-) as rowing was the main method of navigating the rivers of Eastern Europe, and that it could be linked to the Swedish coastal area of Roslagen (Rus-law) or Roden, as it was known in earlier times.[8][9] The name Rus' would then have the same origin as the Finnish, Estonian, Võro and Northern Sami names for Sweden: Ruotsi, Rootsi, Roodsi and Ruoŧŧa.[10] The local Finnic and Permic peoples in northern Russia proper use the same (Rus'-related) name both for Sweden and Russia (depending on the language): thus the Veps name for Sweden and Swedish is Ročinma / Ročin,[11] while in the Komi language spoken further east the etymologically corresponding term Roćmu / Roć means already Russia and Russian instead.[12][13] The Finnish scholar Tor Karsten has pointed out that the territory of present-day Uppland, Södermanland and East Gothland in ancient times was known as Roðer or roðin. Thomsen accordingly has suggested that Roðer probably derived from roðsmenn or roðskarlar, meaning seafarers or rowers.[14][page needed] Ivar Aasen, the Norwegian philologist and lexicographer, noted proto-Germanic root variants Rossfolk, Rosskar, Rossmann.[15]

George Vernadsky theorized about the association of Rus and Alans. He claimed that Ruxs in Alanic means "radiant light", thus the ethnonym Roxolani could be understood as "bright Alans".[16] He theorized that the name Roxolani a combination of two separate tribal names: the Rus and the Alans.[16]

Early evidence[edit]

In Old East Slavic literature, the East Slavs refer to themselves as "[muzhi] ruskie" ("Rus' men") or, rarely, "rusichi." The East Slavs are thought to have adopted this name from the Varangian elite,[citation needed] which was first mentioned in the 830s in the Annales Bertiniani. The Annales recount that Louis the Pious's court at Ingelheim am Rhein in 839 (the same year as the first appearance of Varangians in Constantinople), was visited by a delegation from the Byzantine emperor. The delegates included two men who called themselves "Rhos" ("Rhos vocari dicebant"). Louis inquired about their origins and learned that they were Swedes. Fearing that they were spies for their brothers the Danes, he jailed them. They were also mentioned in the 860s by Byzantine Patriarch Photius under the name "Rhos."

Rusiyyah was used by Ahmad ibn Fadlan for Varangians near Astrakhan, and by the Persian traveler Ahmad ibn Rustah who visited Veliky Novgorod[17] and described how the Rus' exploited the Slavs.

As for the Rus, they live on an island ... that takes three days to walk round and is covered with thick undergrowth and forests; it is most unhealthy... They harry the Slavs, using ships to reach them; they carry them off as slaves and... sell them. They have no fields but simply live on what they get from the Slav's lands... When a son is born, the father will go up to the newborn baby, sword in hand; throwing it down, he says, "I shall not leave you with any property: You have only what you can provide with this weapon."[18]

When the Varangians arrived in Constantinople, the Byzantines considered and described the Rhos (Greek Ῥῶς) as a different people from the Slavs.

The earliest written mention of the word Rus' appears in the Primary Chronicle under the year 912. When describing a peace treaty signed by the Varangian Oleg of Novgorod during his campaign on Constantinople, it contains the following passage, "Oleg sent his men to make peace and sign a treaty between the Greeks and the Rus', saying thus: [...] "We are the Rus': Karl, Inegeld, Farlaf, Veremud, Rulav, Gudi, Ruald, Karn, Frelav, Ruar, Aktevu, Truan, Lidul, Vost, Stemid, sent by Oleg, the great prince of Rus', and all those under him[.]"[citation needed]

Later, the Primary Chronicle tells us, they conquered Kiev and created what we now call Kievan Rus'. The territory they conquered was named after them as were, eventually, the local people (cf. Normans).

However, the Synod Scroll of the Novgorod First Chronicle, which is partly based on the original list of the late 11th Century and partly on the Primary Chronicle, does not name the Varangians asked by the Chuds, Slavs and Krivichs to reign their obstreperous lands as the "Rus'". One can assume that there was no original mention of the Varangians as the Rus' due to the old list predating the Primary Chronicle and the Synod Scroll only referred to the Primary Chronicle if the pages of the old list were blemished.[citation needed]

Other spellings used in Europe during the 9th and 10th centuries were as follows: Ruzi, Ruzzi, Ruzia and Ruzari. Sources written in Latin routinely confused the Rus' with the Rugii, an ancient East Germanic tribe related to the Goths. Olga of Kiev, for instance, was called "queen of the Rugii" (regina Rugorum) in the Lotharingian Chronicle compiled by the anonymous continuator of Regino of Prüm.[19]

Spread further east[edit]

The word for "Russian" can be reconstructed for Proto-Permic as *rôć [rotɕ]. Besides Komi-Zyrian роч / roć, this develops also into Komi-Yazva ruć, Udmurt ӟыч / dźuć.[20] The word serves further as a source for exonyms of the Russians in several languages spoken in Siberia. The name surfaces in Mansi as roš, ruš, in Khanty as ruś, ruť, rüť depending on the variety, and in Selkup as ruš.[21]

Alternate anti-Normanist theories[edit]

A number of alternative etymologies have been suggested. These are derived from the "anti-Normanist" school of thought in Russian historiography during the 19th century and in the Soviet era. These hypotheses are considered unlikely in Western mainstream academia.[10] Slavic and Iranian etymologies suggested by "anti-Normanist" scholars include:

  • The Roxolani, a Sarmatian (i. e., Iranian) people who inhabited southern Ukraine, Moldova and Romania;[citation needed]
  • Several river-names in the region contain the element rus/ros and these might be the origin of the name of the Rus'.[22] In Ukraine, the Ros and Rusna, near Kiev and Pereyaslav, respectively, whose names are derived from a postulated Slavic term for "water", akin to rosa (dew), rusalka (water nymph), ruslo (stream bed). (A relation of rosa to the Sanskrit rasā́- "liquid, juice; mythical river" suggests itself; compare Avestan Raŋhā "mythical stream" and the ancient name of the Volga River, Ῥᾶ , from a cognate Scythian name.)[citation needed]
  • Rusiy (Русый), light-brown, said of hair color (the translation "reddish-haired", cognate with the Slavic "ryzhiy", "red-haired", is not quite exact);[citation needed]
  • A postulated proto-Slavic word for "bear", cognate with arctos and ursus.[citation needed]

The name Rus' may have originated from the Iranian name of the Volga River (by F. Knauer, Moscow 1901), as well as from the Rosh of Ezekiel.[23] Prof. George Vernadsky has suggested a derivation from the Roxolani or from the Aryan term ronsa[verification needed] (moisture, water). River names such as Ros are common in Eastern Europe.[14][page needed]

The Russian linguist Igor Danilevsky, in his Ancient Rus as Seen by Contemporaries and Descendants, argued against these theories, stating that the anti-Normanists neglected the realities of the Ancient Slavic languages and that the nation name Rus' could not have arisen from any of the proposed origins.[citation needed]

  • The populace of the Ros River would have been known as Roshane;
  • Red-haired or bear-origined people would have ended their self-name with the plural -ane or -ichi, and not with the singular -s' (red hair is one of the natural hair colors of Scandinavians and other Germanic peoples);
  • Most theories are based on a Ros- root, and in Ancient Slavic an o would never have become the u in Rus'.

Danilevskiy further argued[citation needed] that the term followed the general pattern of Slavic names for neighboring Finnic peoples—the Chud', Ves', Perm', Sum', etc.—but that the only possible word that it could be based on, Ruotsi, presented a historical dead-end, since no such tribal or national name was known from non-Slavic sources. "Ruotsi" is, however, the Finnish name for Sweden.[24] Danilevskiy shows that the oldest historical source, the Primary Chronicle, is inconsistent in what it refers to as the "Rus'": in adjacent passages, the Rus' are grouped with Varangians, with the Slavs, and also set apart from the Slavs and Varangians. Danilevskiy suggests that the Rus' were originally not a nation but a social class, which can explain the irregularities in the Primary Chronicle and the lack of early non-Slavic sources.[citation needed]

From Rus' to Russia[edit]

In modern English historiography, common names for the ancient East Slavic state include Kievan Rus or Kyivan Rus (sometimes retaining the apostrophe in Rus', a transliteration of the soft sign, ь),[25] Kievan or Kyivan Rus, and Kyivan or Kievan Ruthenia. It is also called the Princedom or Principality of Kyiv or Kiev, or just Kyiv or Kiev.[citation needed]

The term Kievan Rus' was established by modern historians to distinguish the period from the 9th century to the beginning of the 12th century, when Kiev was the center of a large state.[26]

The vast political state was subsequently divided into several parts. The most influential were, in the south, Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and in the north, Vladimir-Suzdal and the Novgorod Republic.

Patriarch Callistus I of Constantinople in 1361 created two metropolitan sees with their own names (in Greek) for the northern and southern parts: respectively, Μεγάλη Ῥωσσία (Megálē Rhōssía,[27] Great Russia) in Vladimir and Kiev and Μικρὰ Ῥωσσία (Mikrà Rhōssía, Russia Minor or Little Russia) with the centers in Halych and Novogrudok.

Eastern Russia[edit]

In the 14th–16th centuries most of Eastern Russian principalities were united under the power of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, once a part of Vladimir-Suzdal, and formed a large state.[28] While the oldest endonyms of the Grand Duchy of Moscow used in its documents were Rus' (Russian: Русь) and the Russian land (Russian: Русская земля),[29] a new form of its name, Rusia or Russia, appeared and became common in the 15th century.[4][5][6] In the 1480s Russian state scribes Ivan Cherny and Mikhail Medovartsev mention Russia under the name Росиа, Medovartsev also mentions "the sceptre of Russian lordship (Росийскаго господства)".[30] In the following century Russia co-existed with the old name Rus' and appeared in an inscription on the western portal of the Transfiguration Cathedral of the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Monastery in Yaroslavl (1515), on the icon case of the Theotokos of Vladimir (1514), in the work by Maximus the Greek,[31] the Russian Chronograph written by Dosifei Toporkov (?–1543/44[32]) in 1516–22 and in other sources.[33]

By the 15th century, the rulers of the Grand Duchy of Moscow had incorporated the northern parts of the former Kievan Rus'. Ivan III of Russia was the first local ruler to be proclaimed "Grand Prince of all Rus'" (similarly, see Ivan I of Moscow and the Mongol invasion of Rus'). This title was used by the Grand Dukes of Vladimir since the early 14th century, and the first prince to use it was Mikhail of Tver. Ivan III was styled by Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor as rex albus and rex Russiae. Later, Rus’ — in the Russian language specifically — evolved into the Byzantine-influenced form, Rossiya (Russia is Ῥωσσία (Rhōssía) in Greek).

In 1547, Ivan IV assumed the title of “Tsar and Grand Duke of all Rus'” (Царь и Великий князь всея Руси) and was crowned on 16 January,[34] thereby turning the Grand Duchy of Moscow into Tsardom of Russia, or "the Great Russian Tsardom", as it was called in the coronation document,[35] by Constantinople Patriarch Jeremiah II[36][37] and in numerous official texts,[38][39][40][41][42][43] but the state partly remained referred to as Moscovia (English: Muscovy) throughout Europe, predominantly in its Catholic part, though this Latin term was never used in Russia.[44] The two names "Russia" and "Moscovia" appear to have co-existed as interchangeable during the later 16th and throughout the 17th century with different Western maps and sources using different names, so that the country was called "Russia, or Moscovia" (Latin: Russia seu Moscovia) or "Russia, popularly known as Moscovia" (Latin: Russia vulgo Moscovia). In England of the 16th century, it was known both as Russia and Muscovy.[45][46] Such notable Englishmen as Giles Fletcher, author of the book Of the Russe Common Wealth (1591), and Samuel Collins, author of The Present State of Russia (1668), both of whom visited Russia, were familiar with the term Russia and used it in their works.[47] So did numerous other authors, including John Milton, who wrote A brief history of Moscovia and of other less-known countries lying eastward of Russia, published posthumously,[48] starting it with the words: "The Empire of Moscovia, or as others call it, Russia..."[49]

In the Russian Tsardom, the word Russia replaced the old name Rus' in official documents, though the names Rus' and Russian land were still common and synonymous to it,[50] and often appeared in the form Great Russia (Russian: Великая Россия), which is more typical of the 17th century,[51] whereas the state was also known as Great-Russian Tsardom (Russian: Великороссийское царствие).[38]

According to historians like Alexander Zimin and Anna Khoroshkevich, the continuous use of the term Moscovia was a result of traditional habit[citation needed] and the need to distinguish between the Muscovite and the Lithuanian part of the Rus', as well as of the political interests of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, which competed with Moscow for the western regions of the Rus'. Due to the propaganda of the Commonwealth,[52][53] as well as of the Jesuits, the term Moscovia was used instead of Russia in many parts of Europe where prior to the reign of Peter the Great there was a lack of direct knowledge of the country. In Northern Europe and at the court of the Holy Roman Empire, however, the country was known under its own name, Russia or Rossia.[54] Sigismund von Herberstein, ambassador of the Holy Roman Emperor in Russia, used both Russia and Moscovia in his work on the Russian tsardom and noted: "The majority believes that Russia is a changed name of Roxolania. Muscovites ("Russians" in the German version) refute this, saying that their country was originally called Russia (Rosseia)".[55] Pointing to the difference between Latin and Russian names, French captain Jacques Margeret, who served in Russia and left a detailed description of L’Empire de Russie of the early 17th century that was presented to King Henry IV, stated that foreigners make "a mistake when they call them Muscovites and not Russians. When they are asked what nation they are, they respond 'Russac', which means 'Russians', and when they are asked what place they are from, the answer is Moscow, Vologda, Ryasan and other cities".[56] The closest analogue of the Latin term Moscovia in Russia was “Tsardom of Moscow”, or “Moscow Tsardom” (Московское царство), which was used along with the name "Russia",[57][58] sometimes in one sentence, as in the name of the 17th century Russian work On the Great and Glorious Russian Moscow State (Russian: О великом и славном Российском Московском государстве).[59]

Western Russia[edit]

In the 13th–14th centuries many of Western Rus principalities were united under the power of the Kingdom of Rus (Latin: Regnum Rusiae), but unlike its eastern counterpart it declined by mid-14th century with Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Rus, Samogitia becoming its successor state and Kingdom of Poland absorbing Galicia as the Rus Voivodeship. Latter one in 1434 became Voivodeship of Russia (Latin: Palatinatus Russiae).

Engraving of 1617 with the inscription "Premislia celebris Rvssiae civitas" (Peremyshl – the famous city of Rus)

While in the Grand Principality of Moscow the rulers called their realm Rus, the residents of Western Rus lands called themselves Rusyny, Rusniaky or Rus'ki.

While gradually most of the territories of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Rus, Samogitia retained the name Rus', some of them got more color-specific names:

  • "White Rus" (Russia (Ruthenia) Alba, Belarus, Ruś Biała)
  • "Black Rus" (Russia (Ruthenia) Nigra, Chorna Rus, Ruś Czarna)
  • "Red Rus" (Russia (Ruthenia) Rubra, Chervona Rus, Ruś Czerwona)

Official names[edit]

Polity name Timespan Notes
Tsardom of Russia 1547–1721
Russian Empire 1721–1917
Russian Republic 1917–1918 Government abolished in 1918 after the October Revolution.
Russian Democratic Federal Republic 1918 Name used in the 1918 constitution.
Russian Soviet Republic 1917–1918
Russian State 1918–1920 Located in Ufa.
Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic 1918–1936 Constituent republic of the USSR from 1922.
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic 1936–1991
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1922–1991 Commonly known as the “Soviet Union”.
Russian Federation 1991–present Official name defined in the 1993 Constitution of Russia.

From Rus' to Ruthenia[edit]

Although the name Ruthenia arises as a Latinized form of the name Rus' in Western European documents in Medieval times, Russia was still the predominant name for Western Russian territories up until 19th century.

Later application of the name "Ruthenia" became narrowed to Carpathian Ruthenia (Karpats'ka Rus’), the northeastern part of the Carpathian Mountains, in the Kingdom of Hungary where the local Slavs had Rusyn identity. Carpathian Ruthenia incorporated the cities of Mukachevo (Hungarian: Munkács), Uzhhorod (Hungarian: Ungvár) and Prešov (Pryashiv; Hungarian: Eperjes). Carpathian Rus' had been part of the Kingdom of Hungary since 907, and had been known as "Magna Rus'" but was also called "Karpato-Rus'" or "Zakarpattya".

Little Russia, New Russia[edit]

In 1654, under the Pereyaslav Agreement, the Cossack lands of the Zaporozhian Host were signed into the protectorate of the Tsardom of Russia, including the Cossack Hetmanate of Left-bank Ukraine, and Zaporozhia. In Russia, these lands were referred to as Little Russia (Malorossiya). Colonies established in lands ceded from the Ottoman Empire along the Black Sea were called Novorossiya "New Russia".

See also[edit]



  1. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: "Rus People"
  2. ^ "Ruthenians".
  3. ^ Duczko, Wladyslaw (2004). Viking Rus. Brill Publishers. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-90-04-13874-2. Retrieved 1 December 2009.
  4. ^ a b Boris Kloss. О происхождении названия “Россия”. М.: Рукописные памятники Древней Руси, 2012. С. 13
  5. ^ a b E. Hellberg-Hirn. Soil and Soul: The Symbolic World of Russianness. Ashgate, 1998. P. 54
  6. ^ a b Lawrence N. Langer. Historical Dictionary of Medieval Russia. Scarecrow Press, 2001. P. 186
  7. ^ Milner-Gulland, R. R. (1997). The Russians: The People of Europe. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 1–4. ISBN 9780631218494.
  8. ^ Blöndal, Sigfús (1978). The Varangians of Byzantium. Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 9780521035521. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  9. ^ Stefan Brink, 'Who were the Vikings?', in The Viking World, ed. by Stefan Brink and Neil Price (Abingdon: Routledge, 2008), pp. 4-10 (pp. 6–7).
  10. ^ a b "Russia," Online Etymology Dictionary
  11. ^ "Зайцева М. И., Муллонен М. И. Словарь вепсского языка (Dictionary of Veps language). Л., «Наука», 1972.
  12. ^ Zyri͡ansko-russkīĭ i russko-zyri͡anskīĭ slovarʹ (Komi – Russian dictionary) / sostavlennyĭ Pavlom Savvaitovym. Savvaitov, P. I. 1815–1895. Sankt Peterburg: V Tip. Imp. Akademīi Nauk, 1850.
  13. ^ Русско–коми словарь 12000 слов (Russian – Komi dictionary, Л. М. Безносикова, Н. К. Забоева, Р. И. Коснырева, 2005 год, 752 стр., Коми книжное издательство.
  14. ^ a b Samuel Hazzard Cross; Olgerd P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor, eds. (1953). The Russian Primary Chronicle: Laurentian Text (PDF). Translated by Samuel Hazzard Cross; Olgerd P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor. Mediaeval Academy of America, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN 978-0-910956-34-5. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  15. ^ Ivar Aasen, Norsk Ordbog, med dansk Forklaring, Kristiania 1918 (1873), p.612
  16. ^ a b George Vernadsky (1959). The Origins of Russia. Clarendon Press. In the Sarmatian period the Rus' were closely associated with the Alans. Hence the double name Rus- Alan (Roxolani). As has been mentioned,1 ruxs in Alanic means 'radiant light'. The name 'Ruxs-Alan' may be understood in two ways: ... of two clans or two tribes.1 That the Roxolani were actually a combination of these two clans may be seen from the fact that the name Rus (or Ros) was on many occasions used separately from that of the Alans. Besides, the armour of the ...
  17. ^ "RUSRIKET: Vikingar skapade Europas största rike". (in Swedish). 28 April 2022. Retrieved 15 December 2022.
  18. ^ Ahmad ibn Rustah, according to National Geographic, March 1985
  19. ^ Henrik Birnbaum (8 January 2021). "Christianity Before Christianization". In Boris Gasparov; Olga Raevsky-Hughes (eds.). California Slavic Studies, Volume XVI: Slavic Culture in the Middle Ages. Vol. XVI. Univ of California Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-520-30918-0.
  20. ^ Лыткин, В.И.; Гуляев, Е.С. (1970). Краткий этимологический словарь коми языка. Moscow: Nauka.
  21. ^ Steinitz, Wolfgang (1966–1988). Dialektologisches und etymologisches Wörterbuch der ostjakischen Sprache. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag. pp. 1288–1289.
  22. ^ P.B., Golden, “Rūs”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 26 July 2018 doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0942.
  23. ^ For the most thorough summary of this option see, Jon Ruthven, The Prophecy That Is Shaping History: New Research on Ezekiel's Vision of the End. Fairfax, VA: Xulon Press, 2003, 55–96. ISBN 1-59160-214-9 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2009.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  24. ^ Ruotsi – Wikipedia (FI)
  25. ^ Echoes of glasnost in Soviet Ukraine, by Romana M. Bahry, p. viii
  26. ^ J. B. Harley and D. Woodward, eds., The History of Cartography, Volume III, Part 1. P. 1852. Note 3. University of Chicago Press, Chicago & London. 2007. ISBN 978-0-226-90733-8
  27. ^ Vasmer, Max (1986). Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language. Moscow: Progress. p. 289. Archived from the original on 15 August 2011.
  28. ^ Robert O. Crummey. The Formation of Muscovy 1300–1613. Routledge. 2013. P. 29-84
  29. ^ Б. М. Клосс. О происхождении названия “Россия”. М.: Рукописные памятники Древней Руси, 2012. С. 3
  30. ^ Б. М. Клосс. О происхождении названия “Россия”. М.: Рукописные памятники Древней Руси, 2012. С. 30–38
  31. ^ Б. М. Клосс. О происхождении названия “Россия”. М.: Рукописные памятники Древней Руси, 2012. С. 55–56
  32. ^ Б. М. Клосс. О происхождении названия “Россия”. М.: Рукописные памятники Древней Руси, 2012. С. 61
  33. ^ Б. М. Клосс. О происхождении названия “Россия”. М.: Рукописные памятники Древней Руси, 2012. С. 57
  34. ^ Robert Auty, Dimitri Obolensky. Companion to Russian Studies: Volume 1: An Introduction to Russian History. Cambridge University Press, 1976. P. 99
  35. ^ "Образование и развитие единого русского государства – Виртуальная выставка к 1150-летию зарождения российской государственности".
  36. ^ Lee Trepanier. Political Symbols in Russian History: Church, State, and the Quest for Order and Justice. Lexington Books, 2010. P. 61: "so your great Russian Tsardom, more pious than all previous kingdoms, is the Third Rome"
  37. ^ Barbara Jelavich. Russia's Balkan Entanglements, 1806–1914. Cambridge University Press, 2004. P. 37. Note 34: "Since the first Rome fell through the Appollinarian heresy and the second Rome, which is Constantinople, is held by the infidel Turks, so then thy great Russian Tsardom, pious Tsar, which is more pious than previous kingdoms, is the third Rome"
  38. ^ a b Richard S. Wortman. Scenarios of Power: Myth and Ceremony in Russian Monarchy from Peter the Great to the Abdication of Nicholas II. Princeton University Press, 2013. P. 17
  39. ^ Maija Jansson. England and the North: The Russian Embassy of 1613–1614. American Philosophical Society, 1994. P. 82: "...the towns of our great Russian Tsardom", "all the people of all the towns of all the great Russian Tsardom".
  40. ^ Walter G. Moss. A History of Russia Volume 1: To 1917. Anthem Press, 2003. P. 207
  41. ^ Readings for Introduction to Russian civilization, Volume 1. Syllabus Division, University of Chicago Press, 1963. P. 253
  42. ^ Hans Georg Peyerle, George Edward Orchard. Journey to Moscow. LIT Verlag Münster, 1997. P. 47
  43. ^ William K. Medlin. Moscow and East Rome: A Political Study of the Relations of Church and State in Muscovite Russia. Delachaux et Niestl, 1952. P. 117: Addressing Patriarch Jeremiah, Tsar Feodor Ivanovich declares, "We have received the sceptre of the Great Tsardom of Russia to support and to watch over our pious and present Great Russian Tsardom and, with God's grace".
  44. ^ Шмидт С. О. Памятники письменности в культуре познания истории России. М., 2007. Т. 1. Стр. 545
  45. ^ Felicity Stout. Exploring Russia in the Elizabethan commonwealth: The Muscovy Company and Giles Fletcher, the elder (1546–1611). Oxford University Press. 2015
  46. ^ Jennifer Speake (editor). Literature of Travel and Exploration: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. 2014. P. 650
  47. ^ Marshall Poe (editor). Early exploration of Russia. Volume 1. Routledge. 2003
  48. ^ John T. Shawcross. John Milton: The Self and the World. University Press of Kentucky, 2015. P. 120
  49. ^ A brief history of Moscovia and of other less-known countries lying eastward of Russia as far as Cathay, gather'd from the writings of several eye-witnesses / by John Milton. January 2003.
  50. ^ Б. М. Клосс. О происхождении названия “Россия”. М.: Рукописные памятники Древней Руси, 2012. С. 4
  51. ^ Ruslan G. Skrynnikov. Reign of Terror: Ivan IV. BRILL. 2015. P. 189
  52. ^ Кудрявцев, Олег Фёдорович. Россия в первой половине XVI в: взгляд из Европы. Русский мир, 1997. [1]
  53. ^ Тихвинский, С. Л., Мясников, В. С. Восток—Россия—Запад: исторические и культурологические исследования. Памятники исторической мысли, 2001 — С. 69
  54. ^ Хорошкевич А. Л. Русское государство в системе международных отношений конца XV—начала XVI в. — М.: Наука, 1980. — С. 84
  55. ^ Sigismund von Herberstein. Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii. Synoptische Edition der lateinischen und der deutschen Fassung letzter Hand. Basel 1556 und Wien 1557. München, 2007. P. 29
  56. ^ Advertissement au Lecteur // Jacques Margeret. Estat de l'empire de Russie et grande duché de Moscovie, avec ce qui s'y est passé de plus mémorable et tragique... depuis l'an 1590 jusques en l'an 1606 en septembre, par le capitaine Margeret. M. Guillemot, 1607. Modern French-Russian edition: Маржерет Ж. Состояние Российской империи (Тексты, комментарии, статьи). Ж. Маржерет в документах и исследованиях. Серия: Studia historica М. Языки славянской культуры. 2007. С. 46, 117
  57. ^ Vernadsky V. Moscow Tsardom. in 2 v. Moscow: Agraph, 2001 (Russian)
  58. ^ "В некотором царстве, в некотором государстве..." Sigurd Schmidt, Doctor of history sciences, academician of RAN, Journal "Rodina", Nr. 12/2004 Archived 29 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  59. ^ О великом и славном Российском Московском государстве. Гл. 50 // Арсеньев Ю. В. Описание Москвы и Московского государства: По неизданному списку Космографии конца XVII века. М, 1911. С. 6–17 (Зап. Моск. археол. ин-та. Т. 11)


  • "How Rusyns Became Ukrainians", Zerkalo Nedeli (Mirror Weekly), July 2005. Available online in Russian and in Ukrainian.
  • "We Are More 'Russian' than Them: a History of Myths and Sensations", Zerkalo Nedeli (Mirror Weekly), 27 January – 2 February 2001. Available online in Russian and in Ukrainian.
  • "Such a Deceptive Triunity", Zerkalo Nedeli (Mirror Weekly), 2–8 May 1998. Available online in Russian and in Ukrainian[permanent dead link].
  • Hakon Stang, The Naming of Russia (Oslo: Meddelelser, 1996).
  • Y. M. Suzumov. Etymology of Rus (in Appendix to S. Fomin's "Russia before the Second Coming", available on-line in Russian.)
  • P. Pekarskiy. Science and Literature in Russia in the Age of Peter the Great. (St Petersburg, 1862)
  • S. M Solovyov. History of Russia since the Ancient Times. (Moscow, 1993)
  • E. Nakonechniy. The Stolen Name: How the Ruthenians became Ukrainians. (Lviv, 1998)