Name of Ukraine
||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (January 2014)|
The name "Ukraine" (Ukrainian: Україна Ukrayina [ukrɑˈjinɑ]) has been used in a variety of ways since the twelfth century. Today, it is the official name of Ukraine, the country in Eastern Europe. Prior to Ukraine's independence from the USSR, the country was generally called "the Ukraine" (with the definite article appended before the name) in English, but this usage is on the waneusage of article and officially deprecated by the Ukrainian government and many English language media publications.
- 1 History
- 2 Etymology
- 3 Syntax
- 4 Phonetics and orthography
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
The oldest mention of the word ukraina dates back to the year 1187. In connection with the death of the Vladimir Glebovich, the ruler of Principality of Pereyaslavl which was Kiev's southern shield against the Wild Fields, the Hypatian Codex says “ukraina groaned for him”, ѡ нем же оукраина много постона (o nem že ukraina mnogo postona). In the following decades and centuries this term was applied to fortified borderlands of different principalities of Rus' without a specific geographic fixation: Halych-Volhynia, Pskov, Ryazan etc.:183[unreliable source?]
As Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary tells, after the South-Western Rus' was subordinated to the Polish Crown in 1569, a particular part of its territory from eastern Podolia to Zaporozhie got the unofficial name Ukraina due to its border function to the nomadic Tatar world in the south. The Polish chronicler Samuel Grądzki who wrote about the Khmelnytsky Uprising in 1660 explained the word Ukraina as the land located at the edge of the Polish kingdom. Thus, in the course of the 16th-18th centuries Ukraine became a concrete regional name among other historic regions such as Podolia, Severia, or Volhynia. It was used for the middle Dnieper territory controlled by the Cossacks.:184 The people of Ukraina were called Ukrainians (українці, українники). This term had no ethnic meaning since it was also used for Polish soldiers who were on duty in this territory.[unreliable source?] Later, the term Ukraine was used for the Hetmanate lands on both sides of the Dnieper although it didn't become the official name of the state.
From the 18th century on, the term Ukraine becomes equally well known in the Russian Empire as the official and colonial term Little Russia.:183–184 With the growth of national self-consciosness the significance of the term rose and it was perceived not only as a geographic but also as an ethnic name. In the 1830s, Nikolay Kostomarov and his Brotherhood of Saints Cyril and Methodius in Kiev started to use the name Ukrainians. Their work was suppressed by Russian authorities, and associates including Taras Shevchenko were sent into internal exile, but the idea gained acceptance. It was also taken up by Volodymyr Antonovych and the Khlopomany ('peasant-lovers'), former Polish gentry in Eastern Ukraine, and later by the 'Ukrainophiles' in Galicia, including Ivan Franko. The evolution of the meaning became particularly obvious at the end of the 19th century.:186 The term is also mentioned by the Russian scientist and traveler Nicholas Miklouho-Maclay (1846-1888). At the turn of the 20th century the term Ukraine became independent and self-sufficient, pushing aside regional self-definitions:186 In the course of the political struggle between the Little Russian and the Ukrainian identitites, it challenged the traditional term Little Russia ("Малороссия") and ultimately defeated it in the 1920s during the Bolshevik policy of Korenization and Ukrainization.[page needed]
||This section contains wording that promotes the subject in a subjective manner without imparting real information. (September 2014)|
During the period of Romantic nationalism it was popular to trace the origin of the country name to an ancient ethnonym. After this pseudo-historical view was discarded, two main versions of the etymology emerged. Naturally, the versions have different implications from a nationalist point of view. They are also based on different possible or certain meanings of the lexeme ukraina as occurring in historical sources (see above) – "borderland", "homeland", "country", "region" or simply "land".
"Mainstream" interpretation as ‘borderland’
The traditional theory (which was widely supported by historians and linguists in the 19–20th centuries, see e.g. Max Vasmer's etymological dictionary of Russian) is that the modern name of the country is derived from the term "ukraina" in the sense ‘borderland, frontier region, marches’ etc. These meanings can be derived from the Proto-Slavic noun *krajь, meaning ‘edge, border’. Contemporary parallels for this are Russian okráina ‘outskirts’ and kraj ‘border district’.
In the sixteenth century, the only specific ukraina mentioned very often in Polish and Ruthenian texts was the south-eastern borderland around Kiev, and thus ukraina came to be synonymous with ‘the voivodship of Kiev’ and later ‘the region around Kiev’. In the nineteenth century, when Ukrainian romanticism and nationalism came into existence this name was adopted as the name of the country.
The etymology of the word Ukraine is seen this way among Russian and the most influential Ukrainian and Western historians such as Orest Subtelny, Paul Magocsi, Omeljan Pritsak, Mykhailo Hrushevskyi, Ivan Ohiyenko, Petro Tolochko and others. It's supported by the Encyclopedia of Ukraine and the Etymological dictionary of the Ukrainian language.
This version is supported by the fact that in some medieval Latin maps and documents, the word Ukraine is explained or translated as Marginalia. On a map of Russia, published in Amsterdam in 1645, the sparsely inhabited region to the north of the Azov sea is called Okraina and is characterized to the proximity to the Dikoia pole (Wild Fields), a posing a constant threat of raids of Turkic nomads (Crimean Tatars and the Nogai Horde). There is, however, also a specialised map published in 1648 of the Lower Dnieper region by Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan called "Delineatio Generalis Camporum Desertorum vulga Ukraina" (General illustration of desert planes, in common speech Ukraine), attesting to the fact that the term Ukraina was also in use.
Alternative interpretation as ‘region, country’
Some Ukrainian scholars, such as Hryhoriy Pivtorak, Fedir Shevchenko, Mykola Andrusyak, Serhiy Shelukhin believe that the name is derived from ukraina in the sense of ‘region, principality, country’ (an alternative etymology would be to derive this meaning from the previously mentioned one by generalization). Many medieval occurrences of the word can be interpreted as having that meaning. In this sense, the word can be associated with contemporary Ukrainian krajina, Belarusian kraina and Russian and Polish kraj, all meaning ‘country’ (see Translations, 'region of land').
Pivtorak starts with the meaning of kraj as ‘land parcel, territory’, attested to in many Slavic languages and states of having acquired the meaning ‘a tribe's territory’ from early in Slavic morphology; *ukraj and *ukrajina would then mean "a separated land parcel, a separate part of a tribe's territory". Later, as Kievan Rus' disintegrated in the 12th century, its ukrainas would become independent principalities, hence the new (and earliest attested) meaning of ukraina as ‘principality’. Still later, lands that became part of Lithuania (Chernigov and Seversk Principalities, Kiev Principality, Pereyaslav Principality and the most part of the Volyn Principality) were sometimes called Lithuanian ukraina, while lands that became part of Poland (Halych Principality and part of the Volyn Principality) were called Polish Ukrayina. Simultaneously, Pivtorak and other scholars claim that the words Okraina and Ukraine always had strictly separate meanings, which has been countered by other historical sources.
The same meaning, being ‘region, principality, country’, can additionally be understood to be derived from another meaning of the word *kraj-, namely ‘to cut’ — as in Church Slavonic кроити (kroiti), краяти (krajati) — that is, ‘the land someone carved out for themselves’.
Claims of Pivtorak, Shelukhin and other promoters of Ukraine's alternative etymology have faced critical feedback for methodological inaccuracy, exclusively by modern Russian historians.[unreliable source?][unreliable source?]
"Ukraine" versus "the Ukraine"
Since the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine the English-speaking world has changed its usage from "the Ukraine" to "Ukraine". From November 1991, several American journalists began to refer to Ukraine as Ukraine instead of the Ukraine. The Associated Press dropped the article 'the' on 3 December 1991. This approach has become established in journalism and diplomacy since (other examples are the style guides of The Guardian and The Times). In 1993 the Ukrainian government requested that the article be dropped.
The use of the definite article is standard in some other languages such as French (l'Ukraine) or German (die Ukraine), but this is not a marked feature, since the article in French is required for all countries (except minor countries like Singapore and Israel), and in German, for all non-neuter countries.
Ukraine is both the conventional short and long name of the country. This name is stated in the Ukrainian Declaration of Independence and Constitution. Before independence in 1991, Ukraine was a republic of the Soviet Union known as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
Preposition usage in Ukrainian, Russian and other Slavic languages
In the Ukrainian language, there was an official change in the way of saying "in Ukraine" following the country's independence. Traditional usage is na Ukrajini (with the preposition na, "on"), but recently Ukrainian authorities have begun using v Ukrajini (with the preposition v, "in") and highly politicize the issue. Linguistic prescription in Russian dictates usage of na. Russian-language media in Ukraine are increasingly using the parallel form v Ukraine. However, the media in Russia continue to use the standard na Ukraine. The difference between two preposition is not clear and mostly rely on tradition. There are number of examples for both preposition use. A number of countries like Cuba, Philippines and Madagascar are used with na in Russian language. And despite some rumours about their island nature it is not a general rule too. In Russian language some island countries are traditionally used with v preposition like Iceland and Ireland. The preposition na continues to be used with Ukraine (and with Rus') in other Slavic languages, including Polish, Czech, and Slovak. This is a usage typically found with lands that have not always been considered distinct political entities (for example, Polish also uses na with its names for Hungary, Slovakia, Latvia, Belarus and Lithuania, but also the regions of Masovia, Masuria or Podlasie). However, Serbo-Croatian and Slovene never use na Ukrajini, u/v Ukrajini being the proper form - despite the fact that in Slovene, a great number of other countries are used with the preposition na.
Phonetics and orthography
Among the western European languages, there is inter-language variation (and even sometimes intra-language variation) in the phonetic vowel quality of the ai of Ukraine, and its written expression. It is variously:
- Treated as a diphthong (for example, English Ukraine //) or //)
- Treated as a pure vowel (for example, French Ukraine [ykʁɛn])
- Transformed in other ways (for example, Spanish Ucrania [uˈkɾanja])
- Treated as two juxtaposed vowel sounds, with some phonetic degree of an approximant [j] between that may or may not be recognized phonemically: German Ukraine [ukʀaˈiːnə] (although the realisation with the diphthong [aɪ̯] is also possible: [uˈkʀaɪ̯nə]). This version of pronunciation is represented orthographically with a dieresis, or tréma, in Dutch Oekraïne or Ukraïne, an often-seen Latin-alphabet transliteration of Україна that is an alternative to Ukrayina. This version most closely resembles the vowel quality of the Ukrainian version of the word.
In Ukrainian itself, there is a "euphony rule" sometimes used in poetry and music which changes the letter У (U) to В (V) at the beginning of a word when the preceding word ends with a vowel or a diphthong. When applied to the word Україна, this can produce the form Вкраїна (Vkrajina), as in song lyric Най Вкраїна вся радіє (Let all Ukraine rejoice!).
|Look up Ukraine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Etymology of Rus’ and derivatives
- List of etymologies of country subdivision names: "Ukraine"
- All-Russian nation
- Little Russia
- History of Kiev's name in English
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- General illustration of desert planes, in common speech Ukraine
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- Fyodor Gaida (2013-08-25). "Why Ukraine is "borderland", not "country"" (in Russian).
- Alexander Fidel (2013-04-24). "Ukraine: "country" or "borderland"?" (in Russian).
- Ukraine or the Ukraine: Why do some country names have 'the'?, BBC News (7 June 2012)
- Why Ukraine Isn't 'The Ukraine,' And Why That Matters Now, Business Insider (9 December 2013)
- The "the" is gone, The Ukrainian Weekly (8 December 1991)
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- "The Times Style Guide: Section 'U'". London. 2005-12-16. Retrieved 2011-01-07.[dead link]
- Граудина, Л. К.; Ицкович, В. А.; Катлинская, Л. П (2001). Грамматическая правильность русской речи [Grammatically Correct Russian Speech] (in Russian). Москва. p. 69.
В 1993 году по требованию Правительства Украины нормативными следовало признать варианты в Украину (и соответственно из Украины). Тем самым, по мнению Правительства Украины, разрывалась не устраивающая его этимологическая связь конструкций на Украину и на окраину. Украина как бы получала лингвистическое подтверждение своего статуса суверенного государства, поскольку названия государств, а не регионов оформляются в русской традиции с помощью предлогов в (во) и из...
- See for example, Rudnyc'kyj, J. B., Матеріали до українсько -канадійської фольклористики й діялектології / Ukrainian-Canadian Folklore and Dialectological Texts, Winnipeg, 1956
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|History of Ukraine|
- Andrusjak, M. (1951). Nazva Ukrajina. Chicago.
- Balušok, Vasyl’ (2005). "Jak rusyny staly ukrajincjamy (How Rusyns became Ukrainians)". Dzerkalo tyžnja (in Ukrainian) 27.
- Borschak, E. (1984). "Rus, Mala Rossia, Ukraina". Revue des Etudes Slaves 24.
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- Ohijenko, Ivan (2001) . "Naši nazvy: Rus’ – Ukrajina – Malorosija (Our names: Rus’ – Ukraine – Little Russia)". Istorija ukrajins’koji literaturnoji movy (History of the Ukrainian standard language) (in Ukrainian). Kiev: Naša kul’tura i nauka. pp. 98–105. ISBN 966-7821-01-3.
- Pivtorak, Hryhorij Petrovyč (1998). Pochodžennja ukrajinciv, rosijan, bilorusiv ta jichnich mov (The origin of Ukrainians, Belarusians, Russians and their languages) (in Ukrainian). Kiev: Akademia. ISBN 966-580-082-5..
- Rudnyc’kyj, Jaroslav B.; Volodymyr Sichynskyi (1949). "Nazva Ukraïna (The name Ukraine)". Ent͡syklopedii͡a ukraïnoznavstva (Encyclopedia of Ukrainian studies) 1. Munich/New York. pp. 12–16.
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- Skljarenko, Vitalij (1991). "Zvidky pochodyt' nazva Ukrajina? (What is the origin of the name Ukraine?)". Ukrajina (in Ukrainian) 1.
- Vasmer, Max (1953–58). Russisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German) 1–3. Heidelberg: Winter. Russian translation: Fasmer, Maks (1964–73). Ėtimologičeskij slovar’ russkogo jazyka 1–4. transl. Oleg N. Trubačev. Moscow: Progress.