The Mylar sheet wrapped cover of Sex, showing Madonna's face
|Cover artist||Steven Meisel|
|October 21, 1992|
|Media type||Print (hardback)|
Sex is a 1992 coffee table book written by American singer Madonna, with photography by Steven Meisel Studio and Fabien Baron. It was edited by Glenn O'Brien and published by Warner Books, Maverick and Callaway. The book features adult content including softcore pornography and simulations of sexual acts including sadomasochism.
Madonna developed Sex after Judith Regan of Simon & Schuster publishers suggested a book of erotic photographs. She wrote it as a character named "Mistress Dita", inspired by 1930s film actress Dita Parlo. It was influenced by punk rock and fashion figures including Guy Bourdin, Helmut Newton and Robert Mapplethorpe. The photos were shot in early 1992 in New York City and Miami, in locations including hotels, burlesque theaters, and city streets. The book includes cameos by actress Isabella Rossellini, rappers Big Daddy Kane and Vanilla Ice, model Naomi Campbell, gay porn star Joey Stefano, actor Udo Kier, and socialite Princess Tatiana von Fürstenberg. The cover is made of aluminium, spiral bound and wrapped in a Mylar sheet.
Sex attracted extensive media attention and controversy. Madonna's publishers were apprehensive about the release and the book's commercial potential. Released on October 21, 1992, the day after Madonna's fifth studio album Erotica, it sold over 150,000 copies on its first day, and topped the New York Times Best Seller list. It remains the fastest-selling coffee table book. Erotica was also packaged with the book.
Though it initially received negative reviews from fans and critics, who felt Madonna had "gone too far", later reviews have been more positive, with academics deeming it a defining phase in Madonna's career. Sex is noted for its impact on Madonna's career and is considered a bold post-feminist work. It has become one of the most sought-after out-of-print books.
Background and development
According to Giselle Benatar of Entertainment Weekly, there are two versions that explain how Madonna came up with the idea for the book. One is that she conceived the idea of an erotic photography book during the shooting of the film A League of Their Own in the summer of 1991. The other is that Judith Regan, vice-president and editor-in-chief of Simon & Schuster, armed with a proposal for a collection of photo-erotica, flew to Los Angeles in March 1991 to meet with Madonna and her manager Freddy DeMann. The singer verified Regan had not approached other celebrities with the concept as she was only interested in the project if it was a unique idea. By the end of the meeting Madonna had agreed "in principle" to do a book titled Madonna's Book of Erotica and Sexual Fantasies. She told Regan that DeMann would call her and work out the book's details. However, Madonna never got back to Regan who assumed the singer did not want to go ahead with the idea. Madonna's publicist Liz Rosenberg has never confirmed nor denied Regan's claim they had an agreement.
According to Benatar Madonna began working on Sex before wrapping up shooting A League of Their Own. At first Warner Bros. Records and the executive directors of Time Warner were reluctant to allow Madonna to publish such a book but finally agreed. Madonna had to sign a contract that forbade the book from including images of child pornography, bestiality, or religious imagery. Not long after signing the agreement Madonna founded Maverick, a multi-media entertainment company in partnership with Time Warner. Since by contract she had total artistic control over any work released by Maverick, who were now the book's publisher, the agreement she signed with Time Warner over the content in Sex was null and void.
Sex's stylized, sado-masochistic look had a range of influences from punk rock, to early fashion iconoclasts like Guy Bourdin and his surrealism, and Helmut Newton. Photographs from Brassaï's 1933 book Paris de nuit (Paris by Night) also inspired several of the book's series of images. The book was also influenced by Robert Mapplethorpe's infamous three-part XYZ portfolio, particularly the X portfolio. Madonna had considered using X as a title during the formative stages of Sex, but she changed her mind when promotion for Spike Lee's film Malcolm X began. (It was released three weeks after the book). She would go on to tell Vogue magazine: "We were gonna call it X [...] but then the whole thing with the Malcolm X movie started. At first I thought, 'Fuck it, it's a really good symbol and I thought of it first'. But I realized it might be confusing or look like I was copying Spike [Lee]. Besides, Sex is almost as powerful: it's universal, it doesn't need translation – and it's only two letters more than X."
Madonna hired top-notch talent for the book's development, and counted on the help of friends from the music, film and fashion industry. She hired Fabien Baron as the art director, fashion photographer Steven Meisel, editor Glenn O'Brien, make-up artist Francois Nars and hairstylist Paul Cavaco. Madonna originally wanted the book to be an oval shape to simulate a condom, but its printing and manufacturing would have been too expensive. Meisel would later comment: "Madonna and I can keep up with each other", noting "I'm doing things to make people think too. It's not really to antagonize or to push people's buttons. It's really to present another way of seeing things." The pictures were shot almost entirely with Super 8 film. Most of the photo shoots took place in New York City and Miami. Locations in New York City included the Hotel Chelsea and Times Square's all-male burlesque Gaiety Theatre whose dancers participated in one of the book's photo sessions. In Miami most of the sessions were at a house Madonna had purchased just before beginning the project, and on several beaches and streets. One morning during the four-day Florida shoot Madonna was prancing naked around her 14-bedroom house in Miami when someone jokingly suggested she go out on the street. According to Baron on the street "cars screeched to a halt, motorists whistled, and one entranced cyclist fell off his bike". During the photo shoots Baron said, "[Madonna]'d do something crazy and then we'd come up with something even crazier". One of the most shocking photographs features two women in post-punk attire flanking Madonna with one of them holding a knife to her crotch. It was considered too violent to be used. While the book was being produced some of the photographs were stolen but were quickly recovered by the FBI. According to New York magazine, there were approximately 80,000 photographs taken for the book; only a handful of them were used. It took 15 days to print the book. The total production process took about eight months. Warner Bros. commented that Sex was very difficult to produce, requiring contributions from many printing companies. They noted that to make a profit the book needed to sell at least 350,000 copies.
Design and content
Wrapped and sealed in a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) Mylar bag, Sex has 128 pages and is spiral bound with an aluminium cover that has the word "Sex" stamped in the middle and a warning label. The front page shows Madonna against a sky blue backdrop. Three different types of paper were used for the printing. Madonna and Baron & Baron Inc. (consisting of Fabien Baron and the photographer Siung Fat Tjia), who also collaborated with the singer designing the cover art for her fifth studio album, Erotica, oversaw the design. As this was Maverick's first project, the packaging was crucial. Madonna had no faith in Warner Book's "mass-market" publication process, however, so Baron suggested they transfer the packaging job to Nicholas Callaway's bespoke Callaway Editions. Charles Melcher, the book's co-publisher with Callaway, said they usually published "exquisite art books, $100 high end, beautiful things". It was a challenge for them to process Madonna's ideas into reality. The artist wanted the packaging to be sealed, so the reader had to tear it open to read the book. They considered various kinds of clasps before deciding on a sealed bag as a reference to a condom package. The metal cover was Madonna's idea. She was inspired by the 1979 album Metal Box by Public Image Ltd. Melcher recalls, "We were talking about materials for the cover, and we went into her kitchen. [Madonna] pointed at the metal plate at the back of her stove and said, 'I want something like this'. I was very impressed with the way she interacted with her world to source things". The company bought about 1,500,000 pounds (680,000 kg) of aluminium, roughly a pound for each book. The designers oversaw the production of the front and back covers, which were stamped and ionized while the aluminium was rolling on a press.
The book opens with the introduction: "Everything you are about to see and read is a fantasy, a dream, pretend." Throughout Sex, Madonna offers poems, stories, and essays. She used the pseudonym "Mistress Dita" as an homage to German actress Dita Parlo; her friends in the stories are Bunny, Dex, Stella, Chiclet and Stranger. According to biographer J. Randy Taraborrelli, a big part of the book reads like a letter to a pornographic magazine. Madonna wanted to explore the notion of power in Sex. Melcher said she wanted to talk about "gentle and hard, soft and violent [in Sex]. She was playing out all those elements in her book. That was reflected in the materials: uncoated, soft paper on the inside and hard metal coating on the outside".
Like the text—which was mostly printed on the photographs—they are highly sexual and depict nudity, simulations of sexual acts, bondage, homosexuality and analingus, with accessories such as knives, whips, masks and chains; however, intercourse is never shown. Actress Isabella Rossellini, rappers Big Daddy Kane and Madonna's then-boyfriend Vanilla Ice, model Naomi Campbell, gay porn star Joey Stefano, actor Udo Kier, socialite Princess Tatiana von Fürstenberg, and nightclub owner Ingrid Casares and unknown models are featured in the book. Its heterosexual photos involve only Madonna and Vanilla Ice. Madonna herself is featured partially or completely naked. One of the book's most famous photographs shows a naked Madonna hitchhiking in Miami. The book also reflects Dita's perspective towards her own sexuality. She writes that her "pussy" is a temple of learning and exposing it, is really an homage to it. "It's hard to describe it smells like a baby to me fresh and full of life. I love my pussy, it is the complete summation of my life." Sex contains statements like "ass fucking is the most pleasurable way to get fucked and it hurts the most too". "There is something comforting about being tied up. Like when you were a baby and your mother strapped you in the car seat. She wanted you to be safe. It was an act of love". "I wouldn't want a penis. It would be like having a third leg. it seems like a contraption that would get in the way. I think I have a dick in my brain". Dita also points out "A lot of people are afraid to say what they want. That's why they don't get what they want". As a thank you for recovering the stolen pictures during the making of the book Madonna thanks the FBI for "rescuing photographs that would have made J. Edgar Hoover roll over" in the book's credits.
Publication and release
The book's imminent release caused a great deal of controversy. One photo showed a nude Madonna wearing a rabbit's tail, shaving the pubic hair of a naked man, and cavorting outdoors with a dog, suggesting bestiality. The Vatican urged its followers to boycott the book, saying that it was "morally intolerable". Indian customs officials said the book offended the country's public morality. The Press Trust of India (PTI), India's domestic news agency, quoted a top customs official as saying the book would be seized under a section of the Customs Act prohibiting entry of indecent literature. Citizens of Alexandria, Louisiana, filed a complaint with the city's police department on behalf of the Rapides Parish Chapter of the American Family Association, claiming Sex violated Louisiana's anti-obscenity laws. U.S. Southern Baptists did not want their Bibles printed on the same printing presses as Sex and threatened to stop doing business with the printer RR Donnelley. The Nashville-based Baptist Sunday School Board, a division of the Southern Baptist Convention, reviewed their $2.1 million ($3,749,324 in 2018 dollars) printing contract with Donnelley. Board President James Draper said he was infuriated Donnelley printed "such an obscene book". Entertainment Tonight reported Madonna had initiated the mayhem with the explicit content in the music video for "Erotica", walking bare breasted at designer Jean Paul Gaultier's fashion show and posing nude in Vanity Fair magazine. A writer for The Sacramento Bee said that since the press wanted "controversy", Madonna was willing to give them "fodder" with her "antiques".
Madonna claimed she was publishing Sex "to liberate America — free us all of our hang-ups". She told Spin: "We live in a very repressed society, and I deal with erotic themes. The point I try to make is: Why should we feel ashamed of our sexuality?". She stated later that the book "does not condone unsafe sexual practices". Nicholas Callaway of Callaway Arts & Entertainment said the book was "inevitably going to be controversial. The book explores every aspect of sexual fantasy. It's hard to calculate the effect, [but], Sex should be considered 'art'". It was rumored that Time Warner was nervous about the book's release, however, in an interview with Vanity Fair, William Sarnoff, president of Warner Books, said he felt Madonna "should pursue all avenues of creativity as she defines it". The Warner company said they would make sure Sex reached its target audience. They reminded the public the book was safely wrapped in a Mylar bag to prevent in-store peeping and contained a warning label.
Michael Kilian of the Chicago Tribune published a tongue-in-cheek article on October 7, 1992, about the coming release: "Prepare thyself, [...], The mega-event of the millennium is to occur in precisely two weeks. It's an event far more mega than the November election, the collapse of communism or even the crowning of Leanza Cornett as the new Miss America." Kilian went on to write: "The word on the street (which is precisely where it belongs) is that this is the hottest Truly Twisted personal sexual fantasy picture book in all Christendom, that it goes far beyond all previous Truly Twisted personal sexual fantasy picture books-perhaps beyond all imagining what such a book could be.
On October 15, Madonna threw a pre-release party at New York City's Industria Superstudio having signed all the invitations with "Dita" her Sex alter ego. She dressed as Little Bo Peep carrying a stuffed toy lamb. Madonna's publicist Liz Rosenberg expressed concern at first about "what the parents of America's impressionable teens will soon be thinking" of Madonna, but said that it "all depends on your idea of lovemaking, which in Madonna's case, should give new meaning to the word erotic".
Waldenbooks and Barnes & Noble prepared corporate statements store managers could share with customers who were offended by Sex. (Both statements defended the right of bookstores to provide "diversity and choice" to customers, saying censorship is not the role of bookstores.) Many book stores stated the book would not be sold to anyone under 18 and it would only be on display behind the cash register. Bookstore owner David Epstein said, "The feeling of most people who have ordered the book is that Madonna is something special, that this is cutting-edge art [...] they're not the kind of people who are buying it because it's smut and dirty pictures. People are interested in it as art."
Promotion and Erotica
Sex was released on October 21, 1992, the day after Madonna's fifth studio album Erotica. A comic book title Dita in The Chelsea Girl and a promotional single titled "Erotic", wrapped in packaging representing a condom wrapper, was included with the book. "Erotic", a stripped-down arrangement of the song "Erotica", offered an alternate vocal take not used on the album version. The initial print run for the first edition was one million copies in five continents and in five languages. The retail price of the book was $50 ($89 in 2018 dollars). It broke the record for the number of copies pre-ordered before its release. Callaway pointed out the book was an unprecedented hit, because the print run of an average art book ranges between 5,000 and 10,000 units. He described it as "the largest initial release of any illustrated book in publishing history".
Given the controversy surrounding the book there was no need for Madonna to promote it. One of the few promotions she did, however, was to appear on the cover of the October edition of Vogue, dressed in "Hippie trip" fashion. These photographs were taken by Meisel. On October 22, 1992, MTV aired a special called The Day in Madonna, hosted by Kurt Loder (a pun on the title of their daily show The Day in Rock). It profiled the release of Madonna's Sex and her album Erotica, even taking the book to the streets to allow people, including a sex therapist and a group of real-life New York City dominatrices, to view it. MTV also interviewed people who had looked at the book on the day of its release at the HMV music store in New York City. To celebrate its release, the store held a Madonna look-alike contest and set up a booth where people could view the book for one dollar a minute, with the proceeds going to Lifebeat, the music industry organization founded to help fund AIDS research.
Critical and commercial reception
– Madonna discussing the backlash surrounding the book
Critics, conservative, feminist and anti-porn groups reacted negatively to the book because of its sexually explicit photographs, which many characterized as hardcore pornography. J. Randy Taraborrelli, in his biography of Madonna, wrote that much of the book appears surprising not shocking. He derided the concept as childish and impetuous. Though Madonna insisted she was trying to demystify sexuality altogether, he believed she just wanted to publish pornographic text and pictures and get away with it: "She was being a brat, not a revolutionary." Author Lucy O'Brien declared the book a bold, harrowing exercise in frustration, and despite Madonna's attempt at invincibility, it appeared to be "a curious act of self-destruction". Anthony DeCurtis of Rolling Stone said "The overwhelming effect of the book is numbing". Describing the photographs as "derivative", he wrote that, "Madonna herself seems far too eager to shock; that, not even prurient arousal, seems the ideal response the book tirelessly seeks. The potency of Sex's subject matter is dissipated by Madonna and Meisel's self-congratulatory – and silly – sense of their own 'bravery,' as if their naughty games were somehow revolutionary."
Roger Catlin of the Hartford Courant said some passages from the book were "too dirty to quote ... even the funny ones". The Daily Beast said "the book is neither groundbreaking (save that it features a major star) nor particularly sexy [...] Sex is convincing only when it's playful, as when she appears nude in a Miami pizzeria, chewing a slice while a baffled customer looks on. Elsewhere, she's simply undressed with no place to go." Richard Harrington of The Washington Post, in a mixed review, wrote: "Is Sex shocking? Not really. Mostly because it's Madonna, and somehow we've come to expect this from her. Is Sex boring? Surprisingly, yes." British author Zoë Heller of The Independent wrote that it was "the women who once saw Madonna as a witty feminist role model who have been most alarmist about her latest pornographic incarnation ... Previously, they say, Madonna played with traditional images of feminine sexuality in a subversive, 'empowering' way. But now, with sado-masochism and rape fantasies, she has gone too far."
Calvin Tomkins, author and art critic for The New Yorker, wrote that "unfortunately, the book is going to be mistaken for pornography". Vanity Fair deemed it "the dirtiest coffee table book to ever be published". Caryn James, in The New York Times, wrote: "There is plenty here to offend the meek (whips and chains), the self-righteous (gay men and lesbians), not to mention the tasteful (a tacky and cluttered art design)". The Times' Vicki Goldberg was dismissive, writing, "Unfortunately, not many of the images are very good photographically. Many are just pictures, or just porn." Writing for Spin, Bob Guccione, Jr. gave the book a particularly unfavorable review:
Madonna has overstayed her welcome. She's becoming the human equivalent of the Energizer Bunny, flashing us her breasts in every magazine that'll let her. [...] Her book Sex, is a rip-off. Because it's not about sex, it's more about a hatred of it. [...] The book is not erotic. It's all somehow, astonishingly, dead. As sexy as a body chart at the doctor's office. Because it's just as precise and soulless. [Sex] is a con job because instead of being flagrant pornography, it dresses itself up as Great Art. The text is pretentious and derives most, if not all, of its impact from the fact that it's Madonna talking, quite a lot... Any other model would sound no more or less coarse, just uninteresting.
Despite the controversy, which included the book being banned in Japan shortly after its release, Sex proved to be a commercial success, selling 150,000 copies on its release day in the United States alone. Hundreds of copies of the book were pre-ordered, prompting book sellers to say that Sex was "shattering their sales records for advance purchases". A week later, sales exceeded 500,000 copies and it eventually topped The New York Times Best Seller list. Giselle Benatar wrote in her article "Sex & Money", Sex is "the publishing event of the century." A day earlier, Tyra Braden of The Morning Call wrote that she and some friends concluded that the book "might become a collector's item a few years down the road". Sex went on to sell 1.5 million copies worldwide.
Social impact and aftermath
Dubbed the "queen of obscene" at the time, Madonna and the Sex era is considered by many as her most controversial and transgressive period. The book, though widely panned by the press, is regarded as one of the factors that shaped the social reaction and criticism of Madonna during the early 1990s. Her fifth studio album Erotica was affected by the negative press surrounding the book. In March 1993, Spin wrote an article praising the book. Months later in Mexico, social communicologist Nino Canún dedicated an episode of his morning talk show ¿Y usted qué opina? (English: So what's your opinion?), to Madonna. Some members of the audience, among them a priest, presented their arguments why The Girlie Show World Tour by "this morally clueless singer" should not be allowed in Mexico. Later, during the Mexican concert, in response to these comments, Madonna wore a charro sombrero and simulated an orgy with her dancers onstage.
Continuing her provocative work, Madonna starred in the erotic thriller Body of Evidence, which features her fully nude engaging in simulated sexual acts. In March 1994, she was a guest on Late Show with David Letterman, used profanity, and handed Letterman a pair of her underwear asking him to smell it. The release of her sexually explicit film, album and book, and the aggressive appearance on Letterman led some critics to see Madonna as a sexual renegade. She also faced a strong negative reaction from critics and fans who commented that "she had gone too far" and that her career was over. Later, in the song "Human Nature", from her sixth studio album Bedtime Stories (1994), Madonna refers to the public backlash the book was still receiving saying "Did I say something wrong? Oops, I didn't know I couldn't talk about sex. I must have been crazy", as well as the line, "What was I thinking?".
The perfect iconic goddess of True Blue had all gone. In the same way that sixties beauties like Nico, Marianne Faithfull and Brigitte Bardot set about destroying their beauty after they were famous, the very thing they felt limited them, Madonna annihilated hers. Within a few short years she moved from teasing flirtation to desperate sexual display. It is ironic that after the triumph of Like a Prayer, she hits this bathos. Being a blond again set her off in the wrong direction. It was as if with the Sex book she showed the underside of the Hollywood dream.— Lucy O'Brien, Madonna: Like an Icon, page. 254
—Priya Elan discussing the book.
Madonna later said: "I wouldn't say I regret it. I've made mistakes and learned from them. Most people want to hear me say that I regret publishing my Sex book. I don't. The problem was releasing my Erotica album at the same time. I love that album and it got overlooked." However, author Andy Koopmans in his book Madonna (2002) wrote that she did regret both publishing Sex and recording Erotica, saying the book "had affected everything she did later". In 2003, Madonna said: "I'm not apologizing in any shape or form [...] I was interested in pushing buttons and being rebellious and being mischievous and trying to bend the rules. There was a lot of irony in the Sex book and I am poking fun at a lot of things and I am being kind of silly and adolescent and I am being very f you, if a man can do it, I can do it." A year earlier, Naomi Campbell said she had "a lot of respect for Madonna being bold enough to come out and do a book on sex. I've never reneged on that."
In 2009, rapper Vanilla Ice, who was Madonna's boyfriend at the time, confessed to being unhappy with the book once he saw it. "My friends were like, 'Dude, that's cool man', but I was like, 'I'm dating her, it's not cool to see your girlfriend with all these other people' [...] It kinda ruined the whole thing. I wonder what her kids think of that book? Here she is writing kids' books now but they're going to see it and go, 'Mommy, what were you thinking?'" Another of the book's models, actress Isabella Rossellini, told Out that she regretted her participation: "I don't think the book worked, even though the photos were extraordinary, and some of them quite memorable. I think there was a little bit of a moralistic sort of 'I'll teach you how to be free!' – and that bothered the hell out of me."
Later reviews of Sex have been more positive. The authors of The Porning of America: The Rise of Porn Culture, What It Means, and Where We Go from Here (2008) commented that "the book is particularly interesting in the way that, like many of Madonna's works, it portrays sex in terms of domination and power". Jane Raphaely, editor-in-chief of Cosmopolitan praised Madonna's "liberated behavior in Sex [...] the fact that she takes all forms of pornography and systematically demystifies it by putting it under her control", in an article in 1996. Brian McNair, author of Striptease Culture: Sex, Media and the Democratisation of Desire (2002) praised this period of Madonna's career, saying she had "porno elegance" and that "Sex is a cultural phenomenon of global proportions" which "established her iconic status and cultural influence". Priya Elan of The Guardian, wrote: "That the Sex book came after a record-breaking album and tour felt like a shrink-wrapped curve ball. But Madge was expressing something unique." Elan felt the book was part of a "slower reveal that began with confessional tracks such as 'Oh Father' (from 1989's Like a Prayer) and continued with the many scenes of narcissism captured in [the documentary] In Bed With Madonna".
Several writers consider Sex a bold, post-feminist, work of art, besides being labeled a "cultural book". Martin Amis of The Observer wrote an essay discussing the book's cultural meaning. Critical theorist Douglas Kellner affirmed that with Sex "Madonna became herself, an artifact of pop culture". French academic writer Georges Claude Guilbert (author of three books about Madonna) described Sex as one of the most successful publicity stunts in history, whereas Russell W. Belk, author of Handbook of Qualitative Research Methods in Marketing, feels its success was a product of marketing. Despite the negative feedback. sales of both albums and Sex generated more than US$500 million ($892.7 million in 2018 dollars) for Time Warner and Madonna in 1992. Taraborrelli commented in his book, Madonna: An Intimate Biography, that the singer's friends knew the book and her behavior were a barrier to shield her from the world. She was tired of the extreme scrutiny from the public and media which she had provoked. Annoyed, Madonna fought back by creating the persona of a renegade, someone so outrageous as to defy explanation, someone found objectionable by most people. Taraborrelli said that in Madonna's view, "she had no other way of fighting back".
According to some writers, Sex also helped Madonna make a name in the porn industry, and earned her the title of S&M's first cultural ambassador earning her praise for recreating "porn-chic". Humberto Quiroga Lavié pointed out because Sex was considered pornographic that helped it to become a bestseller. Steve Bachmann, in his book Simulating Sex: Aesthetic Representations of Erotic Activity pointed out that "perhaps one of the most interesting aspects of Madonna's sexual phenomenon is the extent to which her book marked a new threshold in the pornographic franchise". McNair wrote in his book that, "Sex brought out the personal underground to the surface of pop culture". London art critic Sarah Kent wrote in Time Out that the timing of Sex was "impeccable. Obsession about the human body was in vogue. Along with Madonna's book were artist Andres Serrano's "cumming shots" and Jeff Koons' The Jeff Koons Handbook portraying fairy tale pictures of the artist having sex with his pornographic actor wife, Cicciolina.
—Madonna talking about the book.
Sex has also become an important book in the LGBT community. Ben Shapiro, author of Porn Generation: How Social Liberalism Is Corrupting Our Future, wrote that due to its iconic status "Sex adorns the coffee tables of hundreds of gay men and sperm banks". Mark Blankenship, of the LGBT-oriented website New Now Next said that "literature changed forever" with the publishing of Sex. Madonna's portrayal of lesbian love scenes in the book sparked debates about her own sexual orientation. This was an adjunct to the singer's public relationship with comedian Sandra Bernhard with whom she visited lesbian nightclubs and partied. The LGBT community felt it was an important portrayal for them. They debated whether Madonna was "ripping" them off for publicity. Carolin Grace of Diva said: "Madonna became meaningful in the early nineties, when Sex came out, and at that point lesbian culture was really changing." She felt women were coming out about their sexuality and the book's handling of the taboo issue was "a legacy, our contribution to the show", stressing "[t]he lesbian sub-cultural references borrowed by Madonna aren't our only possessions." O'Brien argues in her book Madonna: Like an Icon, the book had a confusing philosophy. According to female critics, who pointed out the vacuousness of Madonna's remarks about porn and abuse, the singer did not understand that behind the fantasies the "reality is too hard" for a woman to endure, referring to the daily hustles that women have to face in red light districts and brothels. The author felt that despite the courageous premise of genuine exploration of queer sex, the book crossed over into pornography and was a wrong portrayal for the community, while being flippant and commercial. She used the example of the death of pornographic actor Joey Stefano, one of the models in the book, from a drug overdose. Stefano had been thrilled to be a part of the book but was underpaid. Once Madonna and her team were done with the shoot, "they packed up and left the Gaiety... They left behind the mundane reality and the boys who have to deal with it seven days a week". In 2017, Matthew Jacobs from the HuffPost wrote that it was "an audacious thesis statement, calculated enough to piss people off but seemly enough to maintain artistic integrity. No one today would dare emulate it", calling it "the most radical career move a pop star has ever made".
In popular culture
Sex has also become an object of modern culture references. American performance artist Ann Magnuson, who worked with Madonna on the 1985 film Desperately Seeking Susan, released a parody of the book's photo sessions, where she simulated sex with a giant stuffed bear. In 2010, writer-performer Greg Scarnici released a book titled Sex in Drag, which featured over 70 images parodying photos in Sex. In a deleted scene from a 1993 episode (Krusty Gets Kancelled) of the animated sitcom The Simpsons, aired as part of The Simpsons 138th Episode Spectacular, Krusty the Clown attempts to market a book like Sex to resolve his financial woes. He is seen in a suggestive pose on the front cover. Unlike Madonna, however, Krusty apparently never appeared fully nude, as he quickly claimed that he used a body double.
In 2008, People magazine ranked Madonna's look and attire at the Sex pre-release party as one of her 50 Looks We Can't Forget. In April 2012, a nude picture of Madonna taken by Meisel was put up for sale. An outtake from the book, it features a naked Madonna lying on a bed, sporting bleach-blonde hair and dark eye make-up, smoking a cigarette partially covered by a sheet. An unnamed collector purchased it for almost US$24,000 ($26,192 in 2018 dollars). In 2011, according to BookFinder.com, Sex was the most requested out-of-print book and remained the best-selling coffee table book of all time. In 2015 Rolling Stone included the book on its list of 20 Great Moments in Rock Star Nudity. Author Keith Harris wrote that "no celebrity had ever commanded control over her own naked image so audaciously".
- Giselle, Benatar (November 6, 1992). "Sex & Money: Inside the making of Madonna's wildly successful erotic fantasy book". Entertainment Weekly. pp. 1–3. Archived from the original on November 6, 2013. Retrieved November 30, 2012.
- Taraborrelli 2008, p. 230
- Taraborrelli 2008, p. 231
- Kilian, Michael (October 7, 1992). "In Time For The Gift-giving Season: Madonna Gets Bookish About". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on October 7, 2012. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
- Wilker, Deborah (November 5, 1992). "Madonna She's Got Sex For Our Eyes And Erotica For Our Ears". Sun-Sentinel. pp. 1–2. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
- McMahon 2000, pp. 702–705
- Stephen, Holden (April 20, 1992). "Madonna Makes a $60 Million Deal". The New York Times. pp. 1–2. Archived from the original on May 24, 2013. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- O'Brien 2008, pp. 238–239
- Cross 2007, p. 57
- Kellner 1995, p. 280
- Roger, Catlin (October 21, 1992). "You Can Tell This Book By Its Cover". Hartford Courant. pp. 1–2. Archived from the original on November 5, 2012. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- Anderson, Reckhenrich & Kupp 2011, p. 109
- Malcolm, Jones (November 29, 1992). "Fabien Baron's Grand Designs". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on April 11, 2013. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- Caryn, James (October 25, 1992). "The Empress Has No Clothes". The New York Times. pp. 1–3. Archived from the original on January 2, 2013. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- "You Can Tell This Book By Its Cover". Hotel Chelsea. Archived from the original on December 11, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- "Madonna's Magician". New York. New York. 25: 28–36. October 12, 1992. ISSN 0028-7369.
- Isaak, Sharon; Jordan, Tina (September 25, 1992). "The Girl Can't Help It". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on November 6, 2013. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- Taraborrelli 2008, p. 233
- Levine, Nick (August 15, 2008). "Madonna Milestones: 'Sex' book goes on sale". Digital Spy. Archived from the original on December 3, 2011. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
- "The Selling of Sex". The Daily Beast. November 1, 1992. pp. 1–3. Archived from the original on April 11, 2013. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- Cross 2007, p. 58
- "Publishers on File: Madonna". Facts on File, Inc. Publishers on File. 23 (2): 3, 27. September 20, 1992.
- Tyra, Braden (October 5, 1992). "'Sex' Book: It Is Merely An Investment". The Morning Call. Archived from the original on June 6, 2012. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- Jocelyn, McClurg (October 18, 1992). "Area Booksellers Wonder If Customers Will Pay $50 For 'Sex' With". Hartford Courant. Archived from the original on June 15, 2013. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
- Fabien, Baron. "Fabien Baron Biography" (PDF). BernhardtDesignPress.com. pp. 1–2. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 24, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- O'Brien 2008, p. 240
- O'Brien 2008, p. 241
- Gregory, Kirschling (October 25, 2002). "The Naked Launch". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved November 30, 2012.
- McNair 2002, p. 267
- Tassoni 1993, p. 22
- Scott & Sarracino 2008, p. 96
- Milmo, Dan (February 12, 2002). "Campbell defends nude Madonna book pictures". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on August 26, 2013. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
- Zoë, Heller (October 25, 1992). "Book Review / Kids, I tasted the honey: 'Sex' – Madonna". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on July 15, 2015. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
- Priya, Elan (April 25, 2012). "Looking back at Madonna and Sex". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on April 27, 2014. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- Guest, Katy (August 17, 2008). "Madonna at 50". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on December 11, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- "How Far Can She Go?". Daily News of Los Angeles. October 11, 1992. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
- Morani, Jignesh (November 2, 1992). "India Will Slam Madonna's Book Shut". Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
- "Citizen says Madonna's "Sex" violates anti-obscenity laws". The Advocate. October 2, 1992. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
- Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
- "'Sex' Printer May Lose Church Trade". The Roanoke Times. October 30, 1992. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
- Hart, Mary (October 14, 1992). "Will She Do It?". Entertainment Tonight.
- "The Madonna Media Machine". The Sacramento Bee. October 20, 1992. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
- Guccione, Jr, Bob (January 1993). "Top Spin". Spin. 8 (10): 10. ISSN 0886-3032. Retrieved February 7, 2016.
- Michael, Kilian (October 7, 1992). "In Time For The Gift-giving Season: Madonna Gets Bookish About". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on October 7, 2012. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- Grazia, D'Annunzio (March 29, 2011). "Industria Anniversary". Vogue. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
- Julien, Darren. "Madonna Signed Invitation". Julien's Auctions. Archived from the original on July 1, 2013. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
- Eben, Shapiro (October 20, 1992). "The Media Business; Edging Into Madonna's Limelight". The New York Times. p. 1. Archived from the original on May 24, 2013. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- Vicki, Goldberg (October 25, 1992). "Photography View; Madonna's Book: Sex, and Not Like a Virgin". The New York Times. pp. 1–2. Archived from the original on May 24, 2013. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- "Madonna Reinvented for the very last time". Vogue. February 14, 2011. Archived from the original on January 29, 2013. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
- Catlin, Roger (October 21, 1992). "You can tell this book by its cover Sex' is out a day after Madonna's new album". Hartford Courant. Archived from the original on November 5, 2012. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
- "Sex Book: It Is Merely An Investment". The Morning Call. November 5, 1992. Archived from the original on June 6, 2012. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
- Kakutani, Michiko (October 21, 1992). "Books of The Times; Madonna Writes; Academics Explore Her Erotic Semiotics". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 3, 2012. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
- McDonald 2001, p. 35
- Chapman 2010, p. 333
- Taraborrelli 2008, p. 232
- O'Brien 2008, pp. 211–212
- DeCurtis, Anthony (December 10, 1992). "1992: The Year in Music". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on October 13, 2016. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
- Slade 2001, p. 586
- "Japanese Won't Allow Madonna Book In Country". Orlando Sentinel. October 29, 1992. Archived from the original on October 5, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- "Madonna biography". The Biography Channel. p. 3. Archived from the original on January 4, 2013. Retrieved November 19, 2012.
- "The naked truth: Madonna sells Singer's controversial book 'Sex' making a big hit in Austin". Austin American-Statesman. August 22, 1992. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
- "Madonna: The First 50 Years". Access Hollywood. August 16, 2008. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- Davidson 2003, p. 100
- "Madonna, vigente a los 50" [Madonna, still got it at 50] (in Spanish). Cambio.com. AOL. November 2, 2008. Archived from the original on May 15, 2013. Retrieved February 21, 2013.
- "Madonna sin límites" [Madonna without Limits] (in Spanish). El sitio de noticias online de Chile. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- Alan, Wright (August 15, 2008). "Pop superstars turn 50". BBC News. Archived from the original on August 2, 2012. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- "Point Black Letter". Spin. 8 (12): 17. March 21, 1993. ISSN 0886-3032.
- Vázquez Galindo, Humberto (November 26, 2012). "Madonna en México: Confiesa que ha pecado". Vanguardia (in Spanish). Santa Clara. Archived from the original on December 7, 2013. Retrieved February 21, 2013.
- Metz & Benson 1999, pp. 17–20
- Tetzlaff 1993, p. 143
- Taraborrelli 2008, pp. 245
- O'Brien 2008, p. 254
- Elan, Priya (April 25, 2012). "Looking back at Madonna and Sex". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
- Metz & Benson 1999, p. 78
- Bego 2000, p. 288
- Koopmans 2002, p. 86
- Stonewall, Jessica (September 15, 2003). "Madonna stays mum on sex". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on January 1, 2013. Retrieved December 8, 2012.
- Dan, Milmo (February 12, 2002). "Campbell defends nude Madonna book pictures". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on August 26, 2013. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- Cameron, Adams (April 2, 2009). "Ice cold on Madonna's sex book". Herald Sun. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- Ivans, Laurie (December 2, 2009). "Isabella Rossellini regrets Madonna's sex book". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on May 23, 2013. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- Bell & Klein 1996, pp. 431–432
- Chancer 1998, p. 98
- Rich, Juzwiak (October 20, 2012). "Madonna's Pussy Is the Temple of Learning: Erotica at 20". Archived from the original on December 6, 2012. Retrieved December 8, 2012.
- Doty 2004, p. 45
- Belk 2006, p. 315
- Shuker 2002, p. 129
- "S&M offers a safe haven for ex "classy" topless bars". New York. 27 (47): 40. November 18, 1994. ISSN 0028-7369.
- Cavendish 2009, p. 524
- Quiroga Lavié, Humberto. Secretos y Misterios de Hombres y Mujeres [Secrets and Mysteries of men and women] (essay) (in Spanish). Retrieved December 11, 2012.
- Bachmann 2002, p. 77
- Lynch, Joe (October 17, 2017). "Madonna's 'Erotica' Turns 25: An Oral History of the Most Controversial '90s Pop Album". Billboard. Retrieved December 14, 2017.
- Shapiro 2005, p. 52
- Blankenship, Mark (October 22, 2012). "My Weird Journey With Madonna's 'Sex' Book". Newnownext.com. Logo TV. Archived from the original on August 31, 2013. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- O'Brien 2008, pp. 243–245
- O'Brien 2008, p. 251
- O'Brien 2008, p. 252
- Jacos, Matthew (October 23, 2017). "25 Years Later, Madonna's 'Sex' Book Is Still Pop's Most Radical Moment". HuffPost. Retrieved May 17, 2019.
- Schneider 1997, pp. 108–114
- Greg, Scarnici. "Sex in Drag". SexinDrag.com. Archived from the original on December 31, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- Ott 2008, p. 8
- Parsley, Aaron; Shultz, Cara Lynn (August 14, 2008). "Madonna: 50 Looks We Can't Forget". People. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
- "Nude Madonna photo from Steven Meisel's Sex sessions up for sale". Fox News Channel. April 23, 2012. Archived from the original on February 13, 2013. Retrieved February 23, 2013.
- Showbiz, Bang (May 14, 2012). "Naked Madonna photo from 1990 sells for $24,000". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on August 19, 2014. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
- "Madonna's Sex book is most wanted out-of-print publication". Daily Express. August 28, 2011. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
- "Madonna's Sex book is most wanted". BBC News. August 31, 2011. Archived from the original on October 3, 2011. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
- Morton 2002, p. 54
- Harris, Keith. "20 Great Moments in Rock Star Nudity – Madonna's 'Sex' Book (1992)" (October 29, 2015). Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on January 18, 2016. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
- Anderson, Jamie; Reckhenrich, Jörg; Kupp, Martin (2011). The Fine Art of Success: How Learning Great Art Can Create Great Business. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 1-119-99253-2.
- Bachmann, Steve (2002). Simulating Sex: Aesthetic Representations Of Erotic Activity. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-58832-063-6.
- Bego, Mark (2000). Madonna: Blonde Ambition. Cooper Square Press]. ISBN 0-8154-1051-4.
- Belk, Rusell W. (2006). Handbook of Qualitative Research Methods in Marketing. Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 1-84542-100-0.
- Bell, Diane; Klein, Renate (1996). Radically Speaking: Feminism Reclaimed. Spinifex Press. ISBN 1-875559-38-8.
- Cavendish, Marshall (2009). Sex and Society, Volumen 2. Marshall Cavendish Corporation. ISBN 0-7614-7907-4.
- Chancer, Lynn S. (1998). Reconcilable Differences: Confronting Beauty, Pornography, and the Future of Feminism. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20923-0.
- Chapman, Roger (2010). Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices, Volumen 1. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-1761-7.
- Cross, Mary (2007). Madonna: A Biography. ISBN 978-0-313-33811-3.
- Davidson, D. Kirk (2003). Selling Sin: The Marketing of Socially Unacceptable Products. ISBN 1-56720-645-X.
- Doty, William G. (2004). Myth: A Handbook. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-32696-7.
- Kellner, Douglas (1995). Media Culture: Cultural Studies, Identity and Politics Between the Modern and the Post-Modern. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-10569-2.
- Koopmans, Andy (2002). Madonna. Lucent Books. ISBN 1-59018-138-7.
- Metz, Allen; Benson, Carol (1999). The Madonna Companion: Two Decades of Commentary. Music Sales Group. ISBN 0-8256-7194-9.
- McDonald, Helen (2001). Erotic Ambiguities: The Female Nude in Art. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-17099-0.
- McMahon, Thomas (2000). Creative and Performing Artists for Teens, Volumen 3. Gale Group]. ISBN 0-7876-3976-1.
- McNair, Brian (2002). Striptease Culture: Sex, Media and the Democratisation of Desire. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-55947-3.
- Morton, Andrew (2002). Madonna. Macmillan Publishers. ISBN 0-312-98310-7.
- O'Brien, Lucy (2008). Madonna: Like an Icon. Bantam Press. ISBN 978-0-552-15361-4.
- Ott, Brian L. (2008). The Small Screen:How Television Equips Us to Live in the Information Age. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-470-76637-9.
- Scott, Kevin M.; Sarracino, Carmine (2008). The Porning of America: The Rise of Porn Culture, What It Means, and Where We Go from Here. Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-6153-0.
- Schneider, Rebecca (1997). The Explicit Body in Performance. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-09025-3.
- Shapiro, Ben (2005). Porn Generation: How Social Liberalism Is Corrupting Our Future. Regnery Publishing. ISBN 0-89526-016-6.
- Shuker, Roy (2002). Popular Music: The Key Concepts. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-28425-7.
- Slade, Joseph W. (2001). Pornography and Sexual Representation: A Reference Guide, Volumen 2. ISBN 0-313-31520-5.
- Taraborrelli, J. Randy (2008). Madonna: An Intimate Biography. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-330-45446-9.
- Tassoni, Leo (1993). Madonna: Mitografias Series (in Spanish). Icaria Editorial. ISBN 978-84-7426-207-0.
- Tetzlaff, David (1993). "Metatextual Girl: Patriarchy, Postmodernism, Power, Money, Madonna". In Schwichtenberg, Cathy (ed.). The Madonna connection: representational politics, subcultural identities, and cultural theory. Cultural studies. Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-1396-2.
- Steven Meisel, Madonna, Sex book at Achtung Photography
- Miami Photographer Hit Paydirt With Topless Madonna Shots at Adweek