|Hatkhora sellers in Sylhet, Bangladesh|
Citrus macroptera, also known as Bengali hatkhora, satkara, shatkora, hatxora, cabuyao, Melanesian papeda, or wild orange, is a semi-wild species of citrus native to Sylhet, Malesia and Melanesia.
Some authorities consider C. macroptera to be a taxonomic synonym of C. hystrix (kaffir lime), while others consider C. macroptera var. annamensis to be a synonym of C. hystrix, but not C. macroptera var. macroptera.
Citrus macroptera is so-named because of the large "wings" (-ptera) on the petiole, which is as large as the blade of the leaf. The tree, which has thorns, can reach 5 m in height. Its fruit is about 6–7 cm in diameter, has a fairly smooth, moderately thick rind, and is yellow when ripe. The pulp of the fruit is greenish yellow and dry (does not produce much juice). The juice is very bitter, and somewhat sour.
The species is sometimes divided into four varieties, or alternatively into three separate species, as follows:
- C. macroptera var. macroptera
- C. macroptera var. annamensis Tanaka -> C. combara Raf.
- C. macroptera var. combara (Raf.) Tanaka -> C. combara Raf.
- C. macroptera var. kerrii Swingle -> C. kerrii (Swingle) Tanaka
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In Bangladesh, the thick fleshy rind of the Citrus macroptera is eaten as a vegetable, while the pulp is usually discarded because of its bitter-sour taste. The thick rind is cut into small pieces and cooked (either green or ripe) in beef, mutton, and fish curries. The rind is often sun-dried for later cooking and consumption. The fruit is also a primary ingredient in satkora/shatkora pickles. Curries cooked with shatkora and beef or mutton is now served in many Bangladeshi owned restaurants in the UK. It is also used in fast-food restaurants cooked with doner kebab. A beef shatkora dish cooked by local chefs in Sylhet, Bangladesh (where the shatkora originates from) is featured in the British celebrity chef Rick Stein's cookery programme Rick Stein's Far Eastern Odyssey (Episode 6), which was broadcast by the BBC on 20 August 2009.
- "Citrus macroptera". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved December 15, 2017.
- Peter Hanelt (ed.) 2001 Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops (except ornamentals), first English edition. Springer. in Google Books
- Harley I. Manner, Richard S. Buker, Virginia Easton Smith, Deborah Ward, and Craig R. Elevitch 2006. Species profiles for Pacific Island agroforestry: Citrus (citrus) and Fortunella (kumquat), Rutaceae (Rue family). pdf
- "TPL, treatment of Citrus hystrix DC". The Plant List; Version 1. (published on the internet). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden. 2010. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
- Porcher Michel H. et al. 1995–2020 (2007). Sorting Citrus Names: Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (M.M.P.N.D) - A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia. 
- M. N. Miah, Sahina Islam, and Syed Hadiuzzaman 2002. Regeneration of plantlets through somatic embryogenesis from nucellus tissue of Citrus macroptera Mont. var. anammensis (‘Sat Kara’). Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology 12(2):167-172 pdf