Swarovski

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Swarovski
TypePrivate
IndustryFashion, crystal, and jewelry
Founded1895; 127 years ago (1895) (as A. Kosmann, D. Swarovski & Co.)
Founders
HeadquartersWattens, Innsbruck-Land District, Austria
Key people
ProductsCrystal, genuine gemstones, created stones, accessories, and lighting
Revenue2.7 billion[2]
Number of employees
~29,000 (2020[2])
Websiteswarovski.com

Swarovski (/swɒˈrɒfski/, German: [svaˈrɔfski] (listen)) is an Austrian producer of glass based in Wattens, Austria, and has existed as a family-owned business since its founding in 1895 by Daniel Swarovski.

The company is split into three major industry areas: the Swarovski Crystal Business, which primarily produces crystal glass, jewellery and accessories; Swarovski Optik, which produces optical instruments such as telescopes, telescopic sights for rifles, and binoculars; and Tyrolit, a manufacturer of grinding, sawing, drilling, and dressing tools, as well as a supplier of tools and machines.

Today, the Swarovski Crystal Business is one of the highest grossing business units within Swarovski, with a global reach of approximately 3,000 stores in roughly 170 countries, more than 29,000 employees, and a revenue of about 2.7 billion euros (in 2018).[3]

Swarovski is now run by the fifth generation of family members.[3] It has been announced, however, that for the first time in the company's history key, senior management positions will come to be fulfilled by non-family members during the course of 2022.[1]

History[edit]

Daniel Swarovski (1862–1956), the founder of the company

Daniel Swarovski was born in northern Bohemia (now the Czech Republic), 20 km (12 miles) from the current border with Poland.[4][5] His father was a glass cutter and owned a small glass factory. It was there that the young Swarovski served an apprenticeship, becoming skilled in the art of glass-cutting. In 1892 he patented an electric cutting machine that facilitated the production of crystal glass.[6][7]

1899 advertisement for Kosmann, D. Swarovski & Co., featuring the edelweiss flower in its logo
Swarovski Kristallwelten Store

In 1895, Swarovski, financier Armand Kosmann, and Franz Weis founded the Swarovski company, originally known as A. Kosmann, D. Swarovski & Co. and shortened to KS & Co.[7] The company established a crystal-cutting factory in Wattens, Tyrol (Austria), to take advantage of local hydroelectricity for the energy-intensive grinding processes Daniel Swarovski had patented. Swarovski's vision was to make "a diamond for everyone" by making crystals affordable.[7][6][8]

In 1899, it first used the edelweiss flower in its logo and expanded to France, where it was known as Pierres Taillées du Tyrol ("Cut stones from Tyrol"). In 1919, Swarovski founded Tyrolit, bringing the grinding and polishing tools from the crystal business into a different market.[7]

In 1935, Swarovski's son Wilhelm created a customised pair of binoculars, which led to the launch of Swarovski Optik 14 years later. Swarovski Optik manufactures optical instruments such as binoculars, spotting scopes, rifle scopes and telescopes.[7]

In 1977, Swarovski entered the United States' jewellery market.

Remaining a family-run business, Swarovski appointed Robert Buchbauer, the great-great-grandson of company founder Daniel Swarovski, as its new CEO in April 2020 with Mathias Margreiter serving as the company's CFO.[1] Buchbauer had previously served as chairman of the company's executive board and as head of its consumer goods division, positions he retained after being appointed as CEO.[9] Reported at the time as a major company shake-up,[2] the change would see the founder's great-great granddaughter, Nadja Swarovski, lose her roles managing the company's communications strategy along with its fine jewellery label Atelier Swarovski;[9][10] she had previously become the first female member of the Swarovski executive board in 2012, a role she retained along with responsibility for the company's sustainability efforts and its charitable foundation.[11][12] Alongside the executive changes, the company also closed 750 retail stores, laid off some 6,000 employees, and promoted its B2B creative director Giovanna Battaglia Engelbert to serve as the Global Creative Director of Swarovski Group, the first so-named person in the company's 125 year history.[10][13][14]

Tasked with the full creative direction of Swarovksi and with the responsibility to "re-imagine [its] product portfolio across all divisions",[12] Engelbert released her first retail collection for the company in February 2021 with a second collection released in September of the same year; both drew on archival references to designs that founder Daniel Swarovski had created for the company.[15][16][17] Expanding the company's retail offering, Engelbert also hired Swarovski-family member Marina Raphael to design and develop its first handbag line,[18][19] to be released under the company's Atelier Swarovski marque.[20]

Further shake-ups to the company's management would follow in late 2021; less than 18 months into their roles, Robert Buchbauer and Mathias Margreiter were announced to be stepping down from their CEO and CFO positions. Shareholder disputes over restructuring plans for the company were cited as the cause of the change. In October 2021, Michele Molon was appointed as the company's interim CEO with Frederik Westring announced as its CFO.[1] The change would mark the first time that Swarovski would be led by a non-family member, with Italian-born Molon long having worked at the company but unrelated to founder Daniel Swarovski.[21]

Nazi period[edit]

Members of the Swarovski family were early, active and enthusiastic champions of National Socialism, and at least six of its members maintained membership in the illegal party prior to Austria's annexation to National Socialist Germany on 12 March 1938.[22] Three weeks earlier, 500 marchers in the Tyrolean town of Wattens held a torchlight procession that ended with chants of "Sieg Heil" and "Heil Hitler." The majority of the participants, police determined, were Swarovski plant employees, among them Swarovski family heirs Alfred, Wilhelm and Friedrich.[23]

In its report to the state police on 14 February 1947, the Innsbruck district administrator called company head Alfred Swarovski "an enthusiastic member of the NSDAP."[24] Alfred Swarovski praised Hitler at business gatherings and took actions as a regional business leader to ensure that "Tyrolean industry could be integrated as smoothly as possible into the enormous gears of the economy of Greater Germany and into the National Socialist economic order." He sent "grateful loyalty greetings" to Adolf Hitler on his 49th birthday and arranged a donation of 100,000 shillings for Hitler to establish a holiday home in Tyrol.[25]

The company exploited its political connections and stewardship of the regional business association to emerge stronger from the Nazi era. During the war it diversified its production and expanded its business lines, adding abrasives, optical devices, telescopes, binoculars and other product lines during the war and growing from 500 to almost 1,200 employees between the Anschluss and March 1944.

"From my party affiliation, I only took advantage of the fact that it was possible for me as a party member to initiate the negotiations necessary for maintaining the company and to bring it to a successful conclusion with the responsible economic agencies of the Reich." Alfred Swarovski told the Innsbruck People's Court after the war.

In 1994, historian Horst Schreiber wrote about Swarovski's past but was not granted access to company archives.[26]

The contemporary Swarovski company commissioned historian Dieter Stiefel as "a step towards dealing with our history in a serious and very pro-active manner," board spokesman Markus Langes-Swarovski said in 2018, however the study was not published because, Langes-Swarovski said, "Swarovski is a company that generally tries to keep the owners' personal stories largely out of the public eye because it does nothing for the business."[27]

Swarovski Group's website omits mention of the Nazi period in the "Our History" section, skipping the years between 1931 and 1949 on its timeline.[28]

Products[edit]

Beetle designed as bottle opener, Swarovski, about 1978. Made of Rhodium and crystal glass
Container with "potlid", Swarovski. Made of crystal and opaque glass
Candle holder, crystal glass, Swarovski
Mawi x Atelier Swarovski

Swarovski produces products such as glass sculptures, miniature, jewellery, rhinestones, home decor and chandeliers.

All sculptures are marked with a logo. The original edelweiss flower Swarovski logo was replaced by an S.A.L. logo, which was replaced with the swan logo in 1988.[29]

Swarovski glass is produced by melting a mixture of quartz sand, soda, potash and other ingredients at high temperatures.[30] Lead, usually used in the form of lead tetroxide, is not used anymore and all Swarovski Crystal glass produced since 2012 has been lead-free.[31][32] To create crystal glass that lets light refract in a rainbow spectrum, Swarovski coats some of its products with special metallic chemical coatings. For example, Aurora Borealis, or "AB", gives the surface a rainbow appearance.[33] Other coatings are named by the company, including Crystal Transmission, Volcano, Aurum, Shimmer, and Dorado. Coatings may be applied to only part of an object; others are coated twice, and thus are designated AB 2X, Dorado 2X, etc.

Swarovski has developed a unique technology that preserves the brilliance and brightness of crystals without the use of lead dioxide. The hologram on the back of the package contains the inscription: advanced crystal superior brilliant lead-free. Thanks to this, Swarovski crystals are safe to use.[34]

In 2004 Swarovski released Xilion, a copyrighted cut designed to optimise the brilliance of Roses (components with flat backs) and Chatons (diamond cut).

The Swarovski Group includes Tyrolit (makers of abrasive and cutting tools); Swareflex (reflective and luminous road markings); Swarovski Gemstones (synthetic and natural gemstones); and Swarovski Optik (optical instruments such as binoculars and rifle scopes).

Since 2006, the Royal Canadian Mint has issued collectors' coins with Swarovski crystal components. The 2006 crystal snowflake coin was gold (face value $300), with the reverse having six lens-shaped iridescent crystals on a snowflake. Subsequent years' crystal snowflake coins have been $20 silver coins featuring different coloured crystals. In 2018, the Canadian mint issued 12 different birthstone coins, each with a different Swarovski crystal.[35] The Canadian mint's 12-coin 2019 zodiac series will feature 20 Swarovski crystals on each coin.[36]

In 2014, Tristan da Cunha issued a five crown Christmas coin in which a small Swarovski crystal is set in the guiding star behind a coloured picture of one of the magi.[37]

Swarovski has created a line of liquid and solid perfumes.[38]

Exhibitions and museum[edit]

The company runs a crystal-themed museum, the "Swarovski Kristallwelten (Crystal Worlds)" at its original Wattens site (near Innsbruck, Austria). The Crystal Worlds Center is fronted by a grass-covered head, the mouth of which is a fountain.

Swarovski work was exhibited at Asia's "Fashion Jewel5ry & Accessories Fair" based on the concept of a single continuous beam of fragmented light travelling through a crystal.[39]

In 2012, Swarovski collaborated with the London Design Museum to present an exhibition mixing digital technology with crystals.[40]

Swarovski businesses[edit]

Active-Crystals
In 2007 Swarovski formed a partnership with electronics giant Philips to produce the "Active-Crystals" consumer electronics range.[41] This includes six USB Memory keys and four in-ear headphones, and in 2008 they included Bluetooth wireless earpieces for the brand, all with some form of Swarovski crystal on them as decoration.
Atelier Swarovski
Atelier Swarovski collaborates with major luxury designers to create jewellery collections as well as architecture and home pieces (as part of the Atelier Swarovski Home department).
Viktor and Rolf, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Fredrikson Stallard, Zaha Hadid, John Pawson, Daniel Libeskind, Prince Dimitri, Karl Lagerfeld, Christopher Kane, Mary Katranzou, Iris Apfel, Stephen Webster, Anna della Russo and Jason Wu have each designed collections for Atelier Swarovski.[11]
Penelope Cruz wearing a custom Atelier Versace black gown with Swarovski crystals to the Goya 2017 Awards
Penelope Cruz was the latest global brand ambassador for Atelier Swarovski.[42]
Chamilia
Chamilia creates exclusive beads, charms, and jewellery, many with sparkling crystal details.
Swareflex
A road safety products specialist.
Swarovski
Crystal-based animal and other figurines, ornaments and fashion accessories.
Swarovski Crystal Palace
Avant-garde lighting and design (chandeliers etc.)
IRIS by Fredrikson Stallard for Swarovski Crystal Palace (2011)
Swarovski Gemstone Business
Gemstone designs.
Swarovski Kristallwelten
Museum, Art and Entertainment.
Swarovski Lighting
Finished lighting products and solutions[buzzword] with crystal for architecture.
Swarovski Optik
Optics.
Swarovski Professional
Crystal elements produced by Swarovski
Touchstone Crystal
Swarovski's direct sales company for ready-made jewellery.
Tyrolit
A manufacturer of bonded grinding and cutoff wheels.

Figurines and collectibles[edit]

Swarovski's figurines are collectible;[43] its first produced figurine was a stylised mouse. A smaller version of this mouse, now labelled the "replica mouse," is still sold to this day. Swarovski Elements crystals were included in some collectible silver coins issued by the Royal Canadian Mint in 2009.[44]

In November 2014, Victoria's Secret revealed a redesign of its Heavenly Luxe perfume bottle with Swarovski crystals.[45]

Sponsorship and crystal product placement[edit]

Swarovski's Communications and Branding Business has successfully placed Swarovski crystal in a number of films, theatre productions and fashion shows over the last hundred years.

Films[edit]

Swarovski crystal has been featured in the following films:

Audrey Hepburn wearing the Swarovski crystal tiara in Breakfast at Tiffany's

All the jewellery from Gentlemen Prefer Blondes starring Marilyn Monroe were Swarovski crystal.[49] Additionally, the tiara worn by Audrey Hepburn in Breakfast at Tiffany's was adorned in Swarovski crystal.[50]

Marilyn Monroe wearing Swarovski crystals in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes

Theatre productions[edit]

The West End theatre production of Follies featured over 600,000 Swarovski crystals,[51] while the West End musical production of Aladdin used over 2 million Swarovski crystals.[52]

The 2018 production of Dreamgirls incorporated one million Swarovski crystals into the production, adorning 275 costumes and three crystal curtains.[53]

Music tours[edit]

The American singer Madonna wore a Swarovski crystal dress in her Rebel Heart Tour while performing her song Music.[54]

Adriana Lima at Victoria's Secret with Million Dollar Fantasy Bra by jeweller Damiani

Rihanna also wore an entire Swarovski crystal dress in her appearance at the American Grammys.[55]

Michael Jackson's crystal glove, which sold for $192,000 at auction in 2010, was also made of Swarovski crystal.[56]

Fashion shows[edit]

Swarovski has worked with Victoria's Secret and their Fashion Show for 15 years.[57] For the 2018 Fashion Show, Victoria's Secret model Elsa Hosk wore a Fantasy Bra featuring over one million dollars' worth of Swarovski crystal.[58]

In 2017, Swarovski commissioned a $60,000 Art Deco-styled dress in the style of Marlene Dietrich's famous "nude dress", from Berlin-based fashion tech company ElektroCouture to honour her legacy 25 years after her death. It contains 2,000 crystals in addition to 150 LED lights.[59] ElektroCouture owner Lisa Lang said that the dress was inspired by electrical diagrams and correspondence that took place between the actress and fashion designer Jean Louis in 1958. "She wanted a dress that glows, she wanted to be able to control it herself from the stage and she knew she could have died of an electric stroke had it ever been realised." The dress created by Lang's company was featured in French-German broadcaster Arte's documentary Das letzte Kleid der Marlene Dietrich ("The Last Dress of Marlene Dietrich").[60]

Swarovski actively collaborates with high-profile fashion designers for numerous Fashion Weeks taking place around the world. For London Fashion Week in 2018, Swarovski collaborated with the House of Holland, Mary Katrantzou and Richard Quinn.[61] For New York Fashion Week in 2018, Swarovski collaborated with Jason Wu, Alexander Wang, Brandon Maxwell, Gabriela Hearst and Rosie Assoulin.[62]

A notable client of Swarovski was Liberace, who acquired a large number of their rhinestones and used them to cover many items he owned, including his piano and his car. Liberace's success and fame were a major driver for Swarovski's brand, growth and success, and the company recognised this by creating an exceptionally large rhinestone dubbed "the Heart of Liberace".[63] This piece, weighing 115,000 carats (20 kg; 50 lb) was presented to Liberace in 1985. It is now on display as part of the Liberace exhibition at the Hollywood Car Museum in Las Vegas.[64] The crystal has 134 facets, and measures 31 by 23 cm (12.2 by 9 inches). At the time, the crystal was valued at $50,000 (equivalent to $125,000 in 2021).[65]

Partnerships[edit]

Since 2004, Swarovski has provided the 2.7-meter-diameter (9 ft), 250-kilogram (550 lb) star or snowflake that tops the Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree in New York City.[66] Smaller versions of this are sold as Annual Edition ornaments.

Swarovski owned the Austrian football club FC Swarovski Tirol from 1986 to 1992.

In 2018, celebrity chef Nadiya Hussain, TV personality Katie Piper, and CoppaFeel founder Kris Hallenga, were announced as Swarovski's latest ambassadors, and starred in the brand's ongoing #BrillianceforAll campaign.[67]

In 2019, Swarovski partnered with Dior for its exhibition at the Victoria and Albert Museum, featuring archival designer pieces emblazoned with Swarovski crystal.[68]

Swarovski annually hosts the Designers of the Future Award in recognition of young and up-and-coming designers.[69] The previous winners of the Swarovski Designers of the Future Award include influential designers and architects: Ross Lovegrove, Greg Lynn, Troika, Fredrikson Stallard, Erwin Redl, Eyal Burstein, Asif Khan, Guilherme Torres, Jeanne Gang and Mexico City-based global architecture and design practice Fernando Romero Enterprise (FR-EE).[70] The 2018 winners were Frank Kolkman, an experimental Dutch designer focused on robotic technologies; Study O Portable, a research-based Dutch-Japanese practice making objects about the designed environment, and Yosuke Ushigome of TAKRAM, a creative Japanese technologist specialising in emerging technologies.[69]

Gallery[edit]

Swarovski signage and logo at its store at Delhi airport

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Swarovski zieht die Reißleine, Headhunter sucht nach neuer Führung" (in German). Tiroler Tageszeitung. 1 October 2021. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  2. ^ a b c Moin, David; Conti, Samantha (24 April 2020). "Nadja Swarovski Loses Glitter in Management Shakeup". WWD. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  3. ^ a b "Swarovski Fact Sheet 2019". factsheet.swarovskigroup.com. Archived from the original on 10 August 2019. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  4. ^ Pederson, Jay. (1988). International directory of company histories, St. James Press, p. 422.
  5. ^ "Kryształy Swarovskiego". Arande (in Polish). Archived from the original on 12 July 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  6. ^ a b Callan, Georgina O'Hara; Glover, Cat (2008). The Thames & Hudson Dictionary of Fashion and Fashion Designers, Thames & Hudson, p. 248.
  7. ^ a b c d e "Our Company: Our History". Swarovski. Archived from the original on 26 July 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
  8. ^ Campbell, Gordon (2006). The Grove encyclopedia of decorative arts, Volume 2, Oxford University Press US, p. 407.
  9. ^ a b Bates, Rob (27 April 2020). "Swarovski Names Robert Buchbauer CEO". JCK. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  10. ^ a b La Torre, Vincenzo (15 February 2021). "New Swarovski jewellery takes 125-year-old crystal brand in bold direction". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  11. ^ a b Szmydke, Paulina (28 February 2014). "Viktor & Rolf to Design for Atelier Swarovski". WWD. Archived from the original on 9 April 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
  12. ^ a b Vesilind, Emili (20 May 2020). "Swarovski Names Giovanna Battaglia Engelbert Its First-Ever Company-Wide Creative Director". JCK. Retrieved 30 September 2021.
  13. ^ Yotka, Steff (18 May 2020). "Giovanna Battaglia Engelbert Joins Swarovski as Creative Director". Vogue. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  14. ^ Wightman-Stone, Danielle (19 May 2020). "Swarovski appoints its first-ever company-wide creative director". fashionunited.uk. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  15. ^ Liao, Marina (15 February 2021). "Swarovski Debuts Creative Director Giovanna Engelbert's First Collection For The Brand". The Zoe Report. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  16. ^ Royce, Aaron (17 May 2021). "Swarovski's Giovanna Engelbert Talks Jewelry, Inspiration, And More!". The Daily Front Row. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  17. ^ Diaz, Michelle (8 September 2021). "Swarovski Reveals A Fresh New Look With Collection II". The Daily Front Row. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  18. ^ Davis, Dominic-Madori (17 May 2021). "Swarovski crystal heiress Marina Raphael explains how she achieved record-breaking sales by selling smaller handbags, donating to charity, and using snail mail to reach customers". Business Insider. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  19. ^ Beghelli, Chiara (5 March 2021). "Swarovski vira verso il lusso e non esclude più la Borsa". Il Sole 24 (in Italian). Milan. p. 30.
  20. ^ Theodosi, Natalie (5 March 2020). "New Accessories Players to Watch in Paris". WWD. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  21. ^ Brors, Peter (30 September 2021). "Revolution bei Swarovski – Familie gibt Führung aus der Hand" (in German). Handelsblatt. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  22. ^ Schreiber, Horst (1994). Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte der Nazizeit in Tirol (in German). Innsbruck: Geschichte und Ökonomie. ISBN 3-901160-35-3. Archived from the original on 26 December 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  23. ^ Szigetvari, András (23 December 201). "Swarovskis Kampf mit seiner NS-Vergangenheit". DerStandard.at (in German). STANDARD Verlagsgesellschaft m.b.H. Archived from the original on 26 December 2019. Retrieved 25 December 2019.
  24. ^ "Swarovski in der NS-Zeit". erinnern.at (in German). Institute for Holocaust Education of the Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Research, Vienna, Austria. Archived from the original on 26 December 2019. Retrieved 25 December 2019.
  25. ^ Schreiber, Horst. "IM EINKLANG MIT DER NSDAP – Das Unternehmen Swarovski in der NS-Zeit" (PDF). erinnern.at (in German). Institute for Holocaust Education of the Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Research, Vienna, Austria. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 December 2019. Retrieved 25 December 2019.
  26. ^ Zirm, Jakob (10 January 2011). "NS-Regime: Das reiche Erbe einer dunklen Zeit". DiePresse.com (in German). Die Presse. Retrieved 25 December 2019.
  27. ^ Szigetvari, András (23 December 2018). "Langes-Swarovski: "Gab Anpassung an die Nationalsozialisten"". DerStandard.at (in German). STANDARD Verlagsgesellschaft m.b.H. Archived from the original on 26 December 2019. Retrieved 25 December 2019.
  28. ^ "History - Swarovski Group". swarovskigroup.com. Swarovski Group. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
  29. ^ Swarovski Crystal Worlds Archived 1 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Ninemsn. 25 October 2007.
  30. ^ "How Are Preciosa and Swarovski Crystals Made? | Crystal Parade Blog". www.crystalparade.co.uk. Archived from the original on 6 December 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  31. ^ "Advanced Crystal Lead Free Crystals | HARMAN". www.harmanbeads.com. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  32. ^ "Advanced Crystal - Swarovski Group". www.swarovskigroup.com. Archived from the original on 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  33. ^ Dodds, Jo-Ann (20 November 2004). "A real gem off the beaten path." Toronto Star.
  34. ^ "Как отличить Сваровски от подделки. Степени защиты упаковки Swarovski". AB-Style - Интерьер, декор, подарки (in Russian). 13 March 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  35. ^ "Canadian Coins | Circulation, Collecting Coins & Coin Sets | the Royal Canadian Mint".
  36. ^ "2019 12 Coin Zodiac Pure Silver Coins made with Swarovski Crystals". mint.ca. 2019.
  37. ^ Coincraft catalog P473 of 2016.
  38. ^ "Free Swarovski Gift - Special Offers ↓". Archived from the original on 13 December 2013.
  39. ^ "Swarovski Crystallized Paris". Marmalade London. Archived from the original on 29 July 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
  40. ^ "London Design Museum's Swarovski Exhibition Features Light Painting, Holograms and Other Mind Blowing Digital Technologies". Archived from the original on 7 August 2019. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  41. ^ "Swarovski, Philips, unveil 'Active Crystals'." Press Trust of India. 24 September 2007.
  42. ^ "Penelope Cruz's Atelier Swarovski Kewelry Campaign Is Fire". Us Weekly. 30 January 2019. Archived from the original on 7 August 2019. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  43. ^ Expert Advice: How to Determine the Value of Swarovski Crystals - Catawiki
  44. ^ Royal Canadian Mint 2009 Holiday Gift Guide Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  45. ^ "Victoria's Secret Heavenly Fragrance". Archived from the original on 26 July 2015. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  46. ^ Moore, Booth (1 November 2009). "'This Is It' movie showcases Michael Jackson's fashion comeback". LA Times. Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
  47. ^ Newbold, Alice (29 October 2018). "How Freddie Mercury's Iconic Style Was Reimagined For Bohemian Rhapsody". British Vogue. Archived from the original on 6 August 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  48. ^ "1M Swarovski crystals light up the musical film ROCKETMAN". www.swarovski-professional.com. Archived from the original on 6 August 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  49. ^ "The Film and Stage History of Beaded Jewelry - Superstar Swarovski Crystals". SWCreations. Archived from the original on 7 August 2019. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  50. ^ Krämer, Peter (2004). "The Many Faces of Holly Golightly: Truman Capote, Breakfast at Tiffany's and Hollywood". Film Studies. 5 (1): 58–65. doi:10.7227/fs.5.5. ISSN 2054-2496.
  51. ^ Keys, Vanessa (13 November 2017). "Ever wanted to know what 600,000 Swarovski crystals looks like?".
  52. ^ "Swarovski Group website". Swarovski. Archived from the original on 7 August 2019. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  53. ^ Tube, Stage. "VIDEO: Get a Look Behind the Scenes at the Costumes of DREAMGIRLS". BroadwayWorld.com. Archived from the original on 7 August 2019. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  54. ^ Rogers, Sam. "Madonna's Most Sensational Stage Costumes". British Vogue. Archived from the original on 15 August 2018. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  55. ^ Feller, Madison (29 January 2018). "Rihanna's Grammy Dress Had 50,000 More Crystals Than Her CFDA Naked Dress". ELLE. Archived from the original on 7 August 2019. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  56. ^ "Michael Jackson's sequined glove sells for £127,000". Telegraph.co.uk. 28 June 2010.
  57. ^ "See the VS Fashion Show Outfit That Boasts 450,000 Crystals". Us Weekly. Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
  58. ^ "Here's Every Victoria's Secret Angel Who Has Worn the Fantasy Bra". Glamour. 2 November 2015. Archived from the original on 7 August 2019. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  59. ^ Knowles, Kitty (1 May 2018). "ElektroCouture: Inside The Fashion House Behind Swarovski's $60,000 Light-Up Dress". Forbes. Archived from the original on 31 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  60. ^ Tran, Quynh (10 April 2017). "Marlene Dietrich's Fashion Tech Vision". Women's Wear Daily. Archived from the original on 31 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  61. ^ "London Fashion Week - Swarovski". Archived from the original on 7 August 2019. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  62. ^ "NY Fashion Week AW18". Swarovski Group. Retrieved 7 August 2019.[dead link]
  63. ^ "Liberace – From Bluthner to Baldwin Crystals – "Mr. Showmanship"". Europianos. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  64. ^ "Film TV Cars Gallery". Hollywood Car Museum. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  65. ^ "The Heart of Liberace" by @Swarovski, 1985. on Instagram. 5 December 2017. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  66. ^ "Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree: 6 Things You Didn't Know About New York's Most Famous Evergreen". Forbes. 30 November 2016. Archived from the original on 27 March 2018. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
  67. ^ Calder, Emma (15 May 2018). "Swarovski partners with UK personalities to encourage female empowerment". Professional Jeweler. Archived from the original on 23 May 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  68. ^ Klerk, Amy de (31 January 2019). "All the beautiful gowns you can expect to see at the V&A's Dior exhibition". Harper's BAZAAR. Archived from the original on 6 August 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  69. ^ a b Magazine, Wallpaper* (19 April 2018). "Designers of the Future award winners announced in Milan". Wallpaper*. Archived from the original on 7 August 2019. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  70. ^ "Winners of the 2018 Designers of the Future Award". Selections Arts. 26 April 2018. Archived from the original on 7 August 2019. Retrieved 7 August 2019.

External links[edit]