1794 and 1795 United States House of Representatives elections

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1794 and 1795

← 1792 / 1793 August 24, 1794 – September 5, 1795[a] 1796 / 1797 →

All 105[b] seats to the United States House of Representatives
53 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Frederick Muhlenberg.jpg JDayton.jpg
Leader Frederick Muhlenberg Jonathan Dayton[1][c]
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Leader's seat Pennsylvania 2nd New Jersey at-large
Last election 54 seats 51 seats
Seats won 59[d] 47
Seat change Increase 5 Decrease 4

4thHouse.svg
     Democratic-Republican majority      Federalist majority
     Even split

Speaker before election

Frederick Muhlenberg
Anti-Administration

Elected Speaker

Jonathan Dayton
Federalist

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 4th Congress were held on various dates in each state between August 25, 1794 (New Hampshire), and September 5, 1795 (Kentucky). The election was held during President George Washington's second term. The voters of Tennessee elected their first congressional representative (Andrew Jackson) on October 7, 1796.

In the second election for the House of Representatives with organized political parties, the Democratic-Republican Party, led by Thomas Jefferson, once again defeated the Federalist Party, led by Alexander Hamilton, and slightly increased their majority. These new wins by the Democratic-Republicans can mostly be attributed to the popularity of Jeffersonian ideas of agrarian democracy in the Western territories of the United States.

Election summaries[edit]

During this period, each state fixed its own date for a congressional general election. Elections took place both in the even-numbered year before and in the odd-numbered year when a Congress convened. In some states, the congressional delegation was not elected until after the legal start of the Congress (on the 4th day of March in the odd-numbered year).

One new seat was added during the 4th Congress upon the admission of Tennessee on June 1, 1796,[2] Tennessee was not represented in the 1st session which is not included in the totals here.

59 47
Democratic-Republican Federalist
State Type
Date
Total
seats
Democratic-
Republican

(formerly Anti-Administration)
Federalist
(formerly Pro-Administration)
Seats Change Seats Change
Connecticut At-large September 15, 1794 7 0 Steady 7 Steady
Delaware At-large October 5, 1794 1 1 Increase1 0 Decrease1
Georgia At-large October 6, 1794 2 2 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland Districts October 6, 1794 8 4 Steady 4 Steady
Massachusetts Districts November 3, 1794[e] 14 4 Increase1 10 Decrease1
New Hampshire At-large August 25, 1794[f] 4 1 Steady 3 Steady
New Jersey At-large December 30, 1794 5 0 Steady 5 Steady
New York Districts December 12, 1794 10 6 Increase3 4 Decrease3
Pennsylvania Districts October 14, 1794 13 9 Increase1 4 Decrease1
Rhode Island At-large August 26, 1794 2 0 Steady 2 Steady
South Carolina Districts October 14, 1794 6 4 Decrease1 2 Increase1
Vermont Districts December 30, 1794[g] 2 1 Decrease1 1 Increase1
North Carolina Districts February 13, 1795 10 9 Steady 1 Steady
Late elections (After the March 4, 1795 beginning of the next Congress)
Virginia Districts March 16, 1795 19 17 Increase2 2 Decrease2
Kentucky Districts September 5, 1795 2 2 Steady 0 Steady
Total[d] 105 58
55.2%
Increase6 47
44.8%
Decrease4
House seats
Democratic-Republican
55.2%
Federalist
44.8%

Special elections[edit]

There were special and late elections to the 3rd and 4th Congresses in 1794 and 1795.

3rd Congress[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Southwest Territory at-large None (district created) New non-partisan delegate elected on an unknown date by the territorial legislature.
Member seated September 3, 1794 as Congress's first non-voting delegate.
Winner also elected to the next term, see below.
James White 11 votes
William Cocke 7 votes
Maryland 2 John Francis Mercer Anti-Administration 1791 (Special) Incumbent resigned April 13, 1794.
New member elected May 5, 1794.[h]
Anti-Administration hold.
Gabriel Duvall (Anti-Administration)
[Data unknown/missing.][4]
South Carolina 5 Alexander Gillon Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent died October 6, 1794.
New member elected October 13–14, 1794.
Pro-Administration gain.
Winner was also elected to the next term, see below.
Robert Goodloe Harper (Pro-Administration)
William Elliot
James Simmons[5]
Maryland 3 Uriah Forrest Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent resigned November 8, 1794.
New member elected December 8, 1794.
Pro-Administration hold.
Winner did not take his seat until January 1795 and was not elected to the next term.
Benjamin Edwards (Pro-Administration) 364 votes
Thomas Turner 281 votes
Richard Hall 24 votes[6]
New Jersey at-large Abraham Clark Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent died September 15, 1794.
New member elected January 11, 1795.[7]
Pro-Administration hold.
Winner had already been elected to the next term, see below.
Winner seated January 29, 1795.
Aaron Kitchell (Pro-Administration) 97.1%
Robert Ogden (Unknown) 2.92%[7]
South Carolina 2 John Barnwell Pro-Administration 1794 Incumbent representative-elect declined to serve.
New member elected January 19-20, 1795.[8]
Anti-Administration gain.
Winner seated December 7, 1795.
Wade Hampton (Anti-Administration) 29.3%
William Thompson (Unknown) 26.0%
John Rutledge Jr. (Pro-Administration) 23.7%
William Elliot (Unknown) 20.7%
Andrew Hartley (Unknown) 0.3%[8]

4th Congress[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Connecticut at-large Jonathan Trumbull Jr. Federalist 1788 Incumbent Representative-elect declined to serve when elected U.S. Senator.
New member elected April 13, 1795.[3]
Federalist hold.
Winner seated December 7, 1795.
Nathaniel Smith (Federalist) 39.5%
James Davenport (Federalist) 19.2%
Samuel W. Dana (Federalist) 15.8%
William Edmond (Federalist) 7.4%
John Allen (Federalist) 6.9%
David Daggett (Federalist) 6.4%
John Treadwell (Federalist) 4.7%[9]
North Carolina 4 Alexander Mebane Democratic-Republican 1793 Incumbent died July 5, 1795.
New member elected August 14, 1795.[10]
Democratic-Republican hold.
Winner seated December 7, 1795.
Absalom Tatom (Democratic-Republican)
Ambrose Ramsey (Democratic-Republican)
Richard Stanford (Democratic-Republican)
George Roberts
William Sheppard[10]

Connecticut[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Connecticut at-large
7 seats on a General ticket
James Hillhouse Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Jonathan Trumbull Jr. (Federalist) 13.1%
Uriah Tracy (Federalist) 12.5%
James Hillhouse (Federalist) 12.4%
Joshua Coit (Federalist) 10.8%
Roger Griswold (Federalist) 10.2%
Zephaniah Swift (Federalist) 9.7%
Chauncey Goodrich (Federalist) 6.7%
Nathaniel Smith (Federalist) 5.7%
James Davenport (Federalist) 5.1%
Samuel W. Dana (Federalist) 3.7%
William Edmond (Federalist) 3.4%
John Allen (Federalist) 2.5%
John Treadwell (Federalist) 2.3%
David Daggett (Federalist) 2.2%
Amasa Learned Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Joshua Coit Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Jonathan Trumbull Jr. Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent retired to run for U.S. Senator.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Jeremiah Wadsworth Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Zephaniah Swift Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Uriah Tracy Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.

Delaware[edit]

Only two candidates are recorded for Delaware's congressional election in 1794, suggesting that the voting procedure in place for the first three Congresses for two candidates had been changed.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Delaware at-large Henry Latimer Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Patten (Democratic-Republican) 51.3%
Henry Latimer (Federalist) 48.7%

Georgia[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Georgia at-large
2 seats on a General ticket
Abraham Baldwin Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Milledge (Democratic-Republican) 20.6%
Abraham Baldwin (Democratic-Republican) 19.3%
Thomas P. Carnes (Democratic-Republican) 16.0%
Jacob B. Waldburber 15.9%
James Sims 13.1%
Francis Willis (Democratic-Republican) 10.6%
Lachlan MacIntosh 4.0%
James Adcock 0.5%
Thomas P. Carnes Anti-Administration 1792 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.

Kentucky[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Kentucky 1
"Southern District"
Christopher Greenup Anti-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Christopher Greenup[i] (Democratic-Republican)
Kentucky 2
"Northern District"
Alexander D. Orr Anti-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Alexander D. Orr[i] (Democratic-Republican)

Maryland[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Maryland 1 George Dent Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
George Dent (Federalist) 67.6%
Philip Key (Federalist) 32.4%
Maryland 2 Vacant John F. Mercer (Anti-Administration) resigned April 13, 1794.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Gabriel Duvall (Democratic-Republican) 69.5%
Richard A. Contee (Federalist) 30.5%
Maryland 3 Uriah Forrest Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Jeremiah Crabb (Federalist) 100%
Maryland 4 Thomas Sprigg Anti-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Thomas Sprigg (Democratic-Republican) 61.4%
Roger Nelson (Federalist) 38.6%
Maryland 5 Samuel Smith Anti-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Samuel Smith (Democratic-Republican)[i]
Maryland 6 Gabriel Christie Anti-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Gabriel Christie (Democratic-Republican) 70.4%
Robert Wright (Federalist) 29.6%
Maryland 7 William Hindman Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
William Hindman (Federalist) 63.8%
George Jackson (Democratic-Republican) 26.8%
William Whitely (Democratic-Republican) 9.3%
Maryland 8 William V. Murray Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
William V. Murray (Federalist) 100%

Massachusetts[edit]

Massachusetts redistricted between the 3rd and 4th Congress, dividing itself into 14 districts. The 12th-14th districts were in the District of Maine (the modern State of Maine). A majority was required for election. Additional ballots were required in five districts due to the majority requirement not being met on the first ballot.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Massachusetts 1
("1st western")
Theodore Sedgwick
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Theodore Sedgwick (Federalist) 53.8%
Thomson J. Skinner (Democratic-Republican) 46.2%
Massachusetts 2
("2nd western")
William Lyman Anti-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
William Lyman (Democratic-Republican) 52.1%
William Shepard (Federalist) 47.9%
Massachusetts 3
("3rd western")
None (district created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Samuel Lyman (Federalist) 65.5%
Daniel Bigelow (Democratic-Republican) 34.5%
Massachusetts 4
("4th western")
Dwight Foster
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Dwight Foster (Federalist) 50.8%
Levi Lincoln Sr. (Democratic-Republican) 46.1%
Samuel Blackburn 3.1%
Massachusetts 5
("1st southern")
Peleg Coffin Jr.
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Nathaniel Freeman Jr. (Democratic-Republican) 70.0%
Peleg Coffin Jr. (Federalist) 30.0%
Massachusetts 6
("2nd southern")
None (district created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
John Reed Sr. (Federalist) 74.5%
George Partridge 25.5%
Massachusetts 7
("3rd southern")
David Cobb
Redistricted from the at-large seat
Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
First ballot (November 3, 1794):
David Cobb (Federalist) 42.3%
George Leonard (Federalist) 35.8%
Phanuel Bishop (Democratic-Republican) 21.9%

Second ballot (January 17, 1795):
David Cobb (Federalist) 39.9%
George Leonard (Federalist) 39.9%
Phanuel Bishop (Democratic-Republican) 20.2%

Third ballot (March 23, 1795):
George Leonard (Federalist) 48.9%
David Cobb (Federalist) 17.4%
John Smith 13.7%
Phanuel Bishop (Democratic-Republican) 12.5%
Scattering 7.6%

Fourth ballot (June 1, 1795):
George Leonard (Federalist) 76.3%
Elisha May 16.5%
Phanuel Bishop (Democratic-Republican) 7.2%
Massachusetts 8
("1st middle")
Fisher Ames
Redistricted from the 1st district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Fisher Ames (Federalist) 56.6%
Charles Jarvis (Democratic-Republican) 43.4%
Massachusetts 9
("2nd middle")
Samuel Dexter
Redistricted from the 1st district
Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.

A petition by various citizens of Massachusetts contested the election. The Committee on Elections ruled in the winner's favor and added "that the attempt to deprive him of his seat was rather the act of malevolence than a desire to promote the public good." On January 25, 1797, these words were stricken out and expressions of compliment to the member were substituted, and the report was agreed to.[1]
First ballot (November 3, 1794):
Samuel Dexter (Federalist) 40.5%
Elbridge Gerry (Democratic-Republican) 30.9%
Joseph Bradley Varnum (Democratic-Republican) 28.6%

Second ballot (January 17, 1795):
Joseph Bradley Varnum (Democratic-Republican) 49.4%
Samuel Dexter (Federalist) 48.8%
Scattering 1.8%

Third ballot (March 23, 1795):
Joseph Bradley Varnum (Democratic-Republican) 51.4%
Samuel Dexter (Federalist) 48.6%
Massachusetts 10
("3rd middle")
Benjamin Goodhue
Redistricted from the 1st district
Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Benjamin Goodhue (Federalist) 68.2%
Samuel Holten (Federalist)[j] 31.8%
Samuel Holten
Redistricted from the 1st district
Anti-Administration 1792 Incumbent lost re-election in a redistricting contest.
Federalist loss.
Massachusetts 11
("4th middle")
None (district created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
First ballot (November 3, 1794):
Theophilus Bradbury (Federalist) 43.5%
Bailey Bartlett (Federalist) 19.8%
Josiah Smith (Democratic-Republican) 10.5%
Stephen Cross 9.1%
Theophilus Parsons 7.0%
Scattering 10.1%

Second ballot (January 17, 1795):
Theophilus Bradbury (Federalist) 38.1%
William Pearson 36.6%
Bailey Bartlett (Federalist) 25.3%

Third ballot (March 23, 1795):
Theophilus Bradbury (Federalist) 100%
Massachusetts 12
("1st eastern, District of Maine")
Henry Dearborn
Redistricted from the 4th district
Anti-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Henry Dearborn (Democratic-Republican) 64.1%
John Bowman 35.9%
Massachusetts 13
("2nd eastern, District of Maine")
Peleg Wadsworth
Redistricted from the 4th district
Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
First ballot (November 3, 1794):
Peleg Wadsworth (Federalist) 44.1%
William Widgery (Democratic-Republican) 33.4%
Stephen Longfellow 10.0%
Samuel Thompson 5.3%
Scattering 7.3%

Second ballot (January 17, 1795):
Peleg Wadsworth (Federalist) 60.3%
William Widgery (Democratic-Republican) 39.7%
Massachusetts 14
("3rd eastern, District of Maine")
George Thatcher
Redistricted from the 4th district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
First ballot (November 3, 1794):
George Thatcher (Federalist) 45.7%
Nathaniel Wells 31.6%
Ichabod Godwin 8.8%
Joseph Tucker 6.4%
Scattering 7.4%

Second ballot (January 17, 1795):
George Thatcher (Federalist) 68.4%
Scattering 31.6%

New Hampshire[edit]

Under New Hampshire's electoral laws, a majority of voters (12.5% of votes) was required for election. Only three candidates achieved a majority, and so a run-off election was held for the fourth seat.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
First ballot Second ballot
New Hampshire at-large
(General ticket)
Jeremiah Smith Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
First ballot August 25, 1794:
Jeremiah Smith (Federalist) 20.5%
John Samuel Sherburne (Democratic-Republican) 17.2%
Nicholas Gilman (Federalist) 13.0%
Abiel Foster (Federalist) 11.1%
Paine Wingate (Federalist) 8.1%
Others 30.1%

Second ballot December 8, 1794:
Abiel Foster (Federalist) 82.7%
Paine Wingate (Federalist) 17.3%
John Samuel Sherburne Anti-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Nicholas Gilman Pro-Administration 1788/89 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Paine Wingate Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.

New Jersey[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New Jersey at-large
(General ticket)
Elias Boudinot Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Jonathan Dayton (Federalist) 13.6%
Aaron Kitchell (Federalist) 11.0%
Thomas Henderson (Federalist) 9.3%
Isaac Smith (Federalist) 7.9%
Mark Thomson (Federalist) 7.9%
Thomas Sinnickson (Federalist) 7.5%
Joseph Bloomfield 6.6%
John Beatty (Federalist) 6.4%
James Linn 6.3%
Ebenezer Elmer 5.8%
James Schureman (Federalist) 4.1%
Lambert Cadwalader (Federalist) 4.0%
Richard Smith 3.0%
Charles Stewart 2.3%
Jonathan Elmer (Federalist) 2.1%
John Harring 1.4%
Robert Ogden 0.7%
James F. Armstrong 0.2%
New Jersey at-large
(General ticket)
Vacant Abraham Clark (Pro-Administration) died September 15, 1794.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
New Jersey at-large
(General ticket)
Jonathan Dayton Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
New Jersey at-large
(General ticket)
Lambert Cadwalader Pro-Administration 1789
1792
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
New Jersey at-large
(General ticket)
John Beatty Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.

New York[edit]

New York's districts were not numbered at the time, but were later numbered retroactively.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New York 1 Vacant Incumbent moved to the 7th district.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Jonathan Nicoll Havens (Democratic-Republican) 38.6%
Whitehead Cornwell (Democratic-Republican) 26.2%
Samuel Jones (Federalist) 23.4%
John Smith (Democratic-Republican) 11.9%
New York 2 John Watts Pro-Administration 1793 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Edward Livingston (Democratic-Republican) 52.9%
John Watts (Federalist) 47.1%
New York 3 Philip Van Courtlandt Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Philip Van Courtlandt (Democratic-Republican) 50.5%
Richard Morris 49.5%
New York 4 Peter Van Gaasbeck Pro-Administration 1793 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Hathorn (Democratic-Republican) 70.8%
Conrad E. Elmendorf (Federalist) 27.2%
William Thompson (Federalist) 1.9%
Peter Gansevoort (Democratic-Republican) 0.1%
New York 5 Theodorus Bailey Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Theodorus Bailey (Federalist) 57.1%
David Brooks (Federalist) 42.9%
New York 6 Ezekiel Gilbert Pro-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Ezekiel Gilbert (Federalist) 57.6%
John Bay (Democratic-Republican) 21.7%
Matthew Adgate (Democratic-Republican) 20.7%
New York 7 John E. Van Alen Pro-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
John E. Van Alen (Federalist) 78.8%
Thomas Tredwell (Democratic-Republican) 21.2%
Thomas Tredwell
Moved from the 1st district
Anti-Administration 1791 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
Democratic-Republican loss.
New York 8 Henry Glen Pro-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Henry Glen (Federalist) 94.0%
Abraham Yates (Democratic-Republican) 2.8%
John Tayler (Democratic-Republican) 2.6%
James Fairlie (Democratic-Republican) 0.6%
New York 9 James Gordon Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Williams (Democratic-Republican) 48.4%
Ebenezer Russel (Federalist) 40.2%
Alexander Webster (Democratic-Republican) 11.4%
New York 10 Vacant Incumbent Silas Talbot (Pro-Administration) resigned earlier to accept an appointment to the Navy
Federalist gain.
William Cooper (Federalist) 55.9%
John Winn (Democratic-Republican) 31.4%
James Cochran (Federalist) 11.8%
Jonathan Fitch (Democratic-Republican) 0.9%

North Carolina[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
North Carolina 1 Joseph McDowell Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
James Holland (Democratic-Republican)[i]
Joseph McDowell (Democratic-Republican)
North Carolina 2 Matthew Locke Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Matthew Locke (Democratic-Republican)[i]
North Carolina 3 Joseph Winston Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Jesse Franklin (Democratic-Republican)[i]
Joseph Winston (Democratic-Republican)
North Carolina 4 Alexander Mebane Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Alexander Mebane (Democratic-Republican) 75.8%
Samuel Benton (Federalist) 19.5%
Stephen Moore (Federalist) 4.7%
North Carolina 5 Nathaniel Macon Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Nathaniel Macon (Democratic-Republican)[i]
North Carolina 6 James Gillespie Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
James Gillespie (Democratic-Republican)[i]
William H. Hill (Federalist)
North Carolina 7 William B. Grove Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
William B. Grove (Federalist)[i]
North Carolina 8 William J. Dawson Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Dempsey Burges (Democratic-Republican)[i]
John Baker (Democratic-Republican)
Clement Hale (Democratic-Republican)
David Stone (Federalist)
William J. Dawson (Democratic-Republican)
Charles Johnson (Federalist)
North Carolina 9 Thomas Blount Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Thomas Blount (Democratic-Republican)[i]
John Benford (Federalist)
Willis Alston (Federalist)
North Carolina 10 Benjamin Williams Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Nathan Bryan (Democratic-Republican) 61.0%
Benjamin Williams (Federalist)[j] 29.6%
David Witherspoon (Federalist) 9.4%

Pennsylvania[edit]

Pennsylvania once again divided itself into districts instead of electing representatives at-large, as it had for the 3rd Congress. The state divided intself into 12 districts, one of which (the 4th) had two seats. Pennsylvania would continue to use one or more plural districts until 1842.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[11]
Pennsylvania 1 Thomas Fitzsimons
Redistricted from the at-large district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Swanwick (Democratic-Republican) 51.2%
Thomas Fitzsimons (Federalist) 48.8%
Pennsylvania 2 Frederick Muhlenberg
Redistricted from at-large district
Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Frederick Muhlenberg (Democratic-Republican) 56.3%
Samuel Miles (Federalist) 43.7%
Pennsylvania 3 None (district created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Richard Thomas (Federalist) 68.2%
Thomas Ross (Democratic-Republican) 31.8%
Pennsylvania 4
Plural district with 2 seats
None (district created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Samuel Sitgreaves (Federalist) 36.2%
John Richards (Democratic-Republican) 20.0%
James Morris (Democratic-Republican) 20.2%
Robert Lollar (Democratic-Republican) 13.1%
Peter Muhlenberg (Democratic-Republican) 8.1%
James Barclay 2.4%
Peter Muhlenberg
Redistricted from the at-large district
Anti-Administration 1788
1792
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
James Morris disputed the election. The original returns showed Morris in 2nd place and Richards in a close 3rd place, but Richards disputed it. Morris died July 10, 1795, before the House could act. The Elections Committee ruled in favor of Richards on January 18, 1796.
Pennsylvania 5 Daniel Hiester
Redistricted from at-large district
Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Daniel Hiester (Democratic-Republican) Unopposed
Pennsylvania 6 None (district created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Samuel Maclay (Democratic-Republican) 46.0%
John A. Hanna (Democratic-Republican) 43.3%
John Carson (Federalist) 10.7%
Pennsylvania 7 John W. Kittera
Redistricted from at-large district
Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
John W. Kittera (Federalist) Unopposed
Pennsylvania 8 Thomas Hartley
Redistricted from at-large district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Thomas Hartley (Federalist) Unopposed
Pennsylvania 9 Andrew Gregg
Redistricted from at-large district
Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Andrew Gregg (Democratic-Republican)[i]
James Wallace (Federalist)
William Irvine (Democratic-Republican)
William Irvine
Redistricted from the at-large district
Anti-Administration 1792 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Pennsylvania 10 None (district created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
David Bard (Democratic-Republican) 52.9%
James McLane (Democratic-Republican) 31.9%
James Chambers (Federalist) 15.2%
Pennsylvania 11 William Findley
Redistricted from at-large district
Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
William Findley (Democratic-Republican) Unopposed
Pennsylvania 12 Thomas Scott
Redistricted from at-large district
Pro-Administration 1788
1792
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Albert Gallatin (Democratic-Republican) 33.1%
Thomas Scott (Federalist) 27.7%
Daniel Hamilton (Democratic-Republican) 16.2%
Isaac Tichenor (Federalist) 11.0%
Hugh H. Brackenridge (DR?) 6.0%
John Woods (Federalist) 5.9%

Rhode Island[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Rhode Island at-large Seat A Benjamin Bourne Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Benjamin Bourne (Federalist) 62.3%
Peleg Arnold (Democratic-Republican) 37.7%
Rhode Island at-large Seat B Francis Malbone Pro-Administration 1792 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Francis Malbone (Federalist) 61.9%
Joseph Stanton Jr. (Democratic-Republican) 38.1%

South Carolina[edit]

Electoral data are only available for the 1st and 5th district of South Carolina's 6 districts at the time of the elections of 1794.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 William L. Smith Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
William L. Smith (Federalist) 51.7%
John Rutledge, Jr. (Federalist) 37.3%
Thomas Tucker 11.0%
South Carolina 2 New seat New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Winner declined to serve and a special election was held to fill the resulting vacancy, electing Wade Hampton (Democratic-Republican).
Robert Barnwell[i]
South Carolina 3 Lemuel Benton Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Lemuel Benton (Democratic-Republican)[i]
South Carolina 4 Richard Winn Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Richard Winn (Democratic-Republican)[i]
South Carolina 5 Alexander Gillon Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent died October 6, 1794.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Winner of general election was also elected to finish Gillon's term, see above.
Robert Goodloe Harper (Federalist) 58.3%
John Hunter (Democratic-Republican) 41.7%
John Hunter (Moved from the 2nd district) Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent lost re-election.
Anti-Administration loss.
South Carolina 6 Andrew Pickens Anti-Administration 1793 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Samuel Earle (Democratic-Republican)[i]

Representative-elect Barnwell of the 2nd district declined to serve. A special election was held to fill the resulting vacancy, electing Wade Hampton (Democratic-Republican).

Tennessee[edit]

Tennessee elected its first representative in 1796 for this Congress.

Vermont[edit]

Vermont law required a majority for election to Congress, with a second election to be held if the first did not return a majority. Run-off elections were required in both districts.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[k]
Vermont 1
"Western District"
Israel Smith Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
The election was contested but eventually upheld.[1]
First ballot (December 30, 1794):
Matthew Lyon (Democratic-Republican) 41.7%
Israel Smith (Democratic-Republican) 32.9%
Isaac Tichenor (Federalist) 9.9%
Gideon Olin (Democratic-Republican) 8.7%
Others 6.8%

Second ballot (February 10, 1795):
Israel Smith (Democratic-Republican) 48.5%
Matthew Lyon (Democratic-Republican) 48.0%
Others 3.5%
Vermont 2
"Eastern District"
Nathaniel Niles Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
First ballot (December 30, 1794):
Nathaniel Niles (Democratic-Republican) 31.6%
Daniel Buck (Federalist) 21.2%
Jonathan Hunt 11.0%
Stephen Jacob 10.9%
Lewis R. Morris (Federalist) 8.3%
Cornelius Lynde 4.7%
Paul Brigham 3.3%
Lot Hall 2.7%
Elijah Robinson 1.3%
Others 4.8%

Second ballot (February 10, 1795):
Daniel Buck (Federalist) 55.6%
Nathaniel Niles (Democratic-Republican) 39.1%
Jonathan Hunt 2.3%
Stephen Jacob 1.8% 1.2%

Virginia[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Virginia 1 Robert Rutherford Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Robert Rutherford (Democratic-Republican)[i]
Daniel Morgan (Federalist)
Virginia 2 Andrew Moore Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Andrew Moore (Democratic-Republican)[i]
Virginia 3 Joseph Neville Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
George Jackson (Democratic-Republican)[i]
Joseph Neville (Democratic-Republican)
Thomas Wilson
John Skidmore
Virginia 4 Francis Preston Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Francis Preston (Democratic-Republican)[i]
Arthur Campbell
Virginia 5 George Hancock Pro-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
George Hancock (Federalist)[i]
Virginia 6 Isaac Coles Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Isaac Coles (Democratic-Republican)[i]
Simon Crae MacMahon
Matthew Clay (Democratic-Republican)
Virginia 7 Abraham B. Venable Anti-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Abraham B. Venable (Democratic-Republican) 61.0%
Thomas Woodson 19.8%
Joseph Wyatt 18.9%
Peter Johnson 0.2%
William Wilson 0.1%
Virginia 8 Thomas Claiborne Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Thomas Claiborne (Democratic-Republican)[i]
Jesse Brown
Samuel Hopkins
Samuel Goode (Democratic-Republican)
Sterling Edmunds
Virginia 9 William B. Giles Anti-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
William B. Giles (Democratic-Republican)[i]
Virginia 10 Carter B. Harrison Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Carter B. Harrison (Democratic-Republican)[i]
Virginia 11 Josiah Parker Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Federalist gain.
Josiah Parker (Federalist)[i]
Robert Cowper
Virginia 12 John Page Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Page (Democratic-Republican)[i]
Virginia 13 Samuel Griffin Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
The loser unsuccessfully contested the election[1]
John Clopton (Democratic-Republican)[i]
Burwell Bassett (Democratic-Republican)
Miles Selden
Meriwether Jones
Virginia 14 Francis Walker Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Samuel J. Cabell (Democratic-Republican)[i]
Virginia 15 James Madison Jr. Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
James Madison Jr. (Democratic-Republican)[i]
Virginia 16 Anthony New Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Anthony New (Democratic-Republican)[i]
Virginia 17 Richard Bland Lee Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Richard Brent (Democratic-Republican)[i]
Richard Bland Lee (P)
Virginia 18 John Nicholas Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Nicholas (Democratic-Republican)[i]
Virginia 19 John Heath Anti-Administration 1793 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Heath (Democratic-Republican)[i]

Non-voting delegates[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Southwest Territory at-large James White Non-partisan 1794 (New seat) Non-partisan delegate re-elected on an unknown date by the territorial legislature. James White
Unopposed

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Excluding states admitted during the 4th Congress
  2. ^ 1 more seat was added by the admission of Tennessee after the start of this Congress
  3. ^ Elected Speaker of the House, despite being from the smaller party.
  4. ^ a b Including late elections
  5. ^ Majority required for election, 3 additional ballots were required in 5 districts held January 17, March 23, and June 1, 1795
  6. ^ Majority required for election, a run-off was required for the 4th seat held on December 8, 1794
  7. ^ Majority required for election, an additional ballot was required in both districts held on February 10, 1795
  8. ^ Date of election.[3]
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Source does not give numbers of votes or has incomplete data
  10. ^ a b Changed parties
  11. ^ Only candidates with at least 1% of the vote listed

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Fourth Congress (membership roster)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 13, 2012. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
  2. ^ Stat. 492
  3. ^ a b Dubin, Michael J. (1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results. McFarland and Company.
  4. ^ https://elections.lib.tufts.edu/catalog/tufts:md.uscongress2.special.1794
  5. ^ https://elections.lib.tufts.edu/catalog/tufts:sc.uscongress.district2.1794
  6. ^ https://elections.lib.tufts.edu/catalog/tufts:md.uscongress3.special.1794
  7. ^ a b http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=724594
  8. ^ a b http://elections.lib.tufts.edu/aas_portal/view-election.xq?id=sc.uscongress.specialelection.1795
  9. ^ A new Nation Votes Archived December 11, 2012, at Archive.is
  10. ^ a b https://elections.lib.tufts.edu/catalog/tufts:nc.uscongress4.special.1795
  11. ^ Wilkes University Elections Statistics Project

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]