White chocolate

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White chocolate
Chopped white chocolate chunks.jpg
Pieces of white chocolate
TypeChocolate
CourseDessert
Place of originSwitzerland
Created byNestlé
Main ingredientsCocoa butter, sugar, milk solids
Ingredients generally usedVanilla

White chocolate is a chocolate confection, pale ivory in color, made from cocoa butter, sugar, milk solids and sometimes vanilla[1]. White chocolate does not contain cocoa solids, which are found in other types of chocolate,[1] such as milk chocolate and dark chocolate. It is solid at room temperature 25 °C (77 °F) because the melting point of cocoa butter, the only cocoa bean component of white chocolate, is 35 °C (95 °F).[2]

Composition[edit]

White chocolate does not contain cocoa solids, the primary non-fat constituent of conventional chocolate liquor — chocolate in its raw, unsweetened form. During manufacturing, the dark-colored solids of the cocoa bean are separated from its fatty content, as with milk chocolate and dark chocolate. As a result, this cocoa butter is the only cocoa ingredient in white chocolate. Because it contains no cocoa solids, white chocolate contains only trace amounts of the stimulants theobromine and caffeine.[3] White chocolate may include additional flavorings, such as vanilla.[4]

Regulations[edit]

Regulations govern what may be marketed as white chocolate: In the European Union, since 2000, white chocolate must be (by weight) at least 20% cocoa butter, 14% total milk solids, and 3.5% milk fat. [5] The same standards apply in the United States, since 2004, with the additional proviso that the product can include no more than 55% sugar or other sweeteners.[6] Before 2004, American firms were required to have temporary marketing permits to sell white chocolate.

History[edit]

In 1936, the white chocolate Galak was launched in Europe by the Swiss company Nestlé.[7] Other companies developed their own formulas, such as that developed by Kuno Baedeker for the Merckens Chocolate Company in 1945.[8]

From about 1948 until the 1990s, Nestlé produced a white chocolate bar with almond pieces, Alpine White, for markets in the United States and Canada.[7] Hershey began mass production of white Kisses in the 1990s, a product that diversified during the early 21st century to include a chocolate white-dark swirl Kiss called the Hug.[7][9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "White chocolate". Bon Appétit. 12 November 2007.
  2. ^ "Physical and chemical information on cocoa beans, butter, mass and powder". www.icco.org. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
  3. ^ Zoumas, Barry; Kreisler, Wesley; Martin, Robert (1980). "Theobromine and Caffeine Content of Chocolate Products". Journal of Food Science. 45: 314–316. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1980.tb02603.x.
  4. ^ Blumberg, Naomi. "Chocolate". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  5. ^ "Directive 2000/36/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 June 2000 relating to cocoa and chocolate products intended for human consumption". Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  6. ^ "Title 21 Chapter I Subchapter B Part 163 of the Code of Federal Regulations". United States Government Publishing Office. 24 February 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  7. ^ a b c "The history Of white chocolate". The Nibble. The World’s Best White Chocolate. 1 April 2008. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  8. ^ "Chocolate-Loving Couple Settled Here" (PDF). Lake Placid News (PDF). Lake Placid, New York. 19 March 1987. p. 8. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  9. ^ Rachel Janik (14 February 2015). "How the Hershey's Kiss conquered Valentine's Day". Time. Retrieved 31 December 2019.

External links[edit]