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Educational stage

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Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning, typically covering early childhood education, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognizes nine levels of education in its International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) system (from Level 0 (pre-primary education) through Level 8 (doctoral)). UNESCO's International Bureau of Education maintains a database of country-specific education systems and their stages.[1] Some countries divide levels of study into grades or forms for school children in the same year.



Education during childhood and early adulthood is typically provided through either a two- or three-stage system of childhood school, followed by additional stages of higher education or vocational education for those who continue their formal education:

The following table introduces the main concepts, although terms and ages may vary in different places:

Age Educational stage 2-stage system 3-stage system ISCED
3–4 Early childhood education Preschool Preschool 0
5–6 Primary education Primary school Elementary school 1
10–11 Middle school 2
12–13 Secondary education Secondary school
16–17 High school 3

For additional ISCED stages of education, see ISCED.

Sudbury schools do not use formal grade levels or educational stages. Instead, students ages 3 through 18 are intermingled in a democratic educational system, relying on a series of certifications to use equipment that may require specialized knowledge or safety procedures. These certifications are not typically restricted by age, but rather by demonstrated ability.[2]

By country




In Australia, children undergo thirteen years of formal education (plus non-compulsory preschool or kindergarten), usually starting at age 4, 5 or 6, and finishing at age 17, 18 or 19. The years are numbered from "Kindergarten" to 12.

In New South Wales (NSW), Western Australia (WA), South Australia (SA), Victoria (VIC) and Queensland (QLD) and Tasmania (TAS) primary school is Kindergarten (NSW)/Pre-primary (WA)/Reception (SA)/Prep (VIC, QLD & TAS) and Years 1–6, and secondary school, Years 7–12 (see table below).

Year Ages School
Kindergarten 3–5 Preschool
Kindergarten/Pre-primary/Reception/Prep 5–6 (sometimes 4–5) Primary
Grade or Year 1 6–7 (sometimes 5–6)
Grade or Year 2 7–8 (sometimes 6–7)
Grade or Year 3 8–9 (sometimes 7–8)
Grade or Year 4 9–10 (sometimes 8–9)
Grade or Year 5 10–11 (sometimes 9–10)
Grade or Year 6 11–12 (sometimes 10–11)
Grade or Year 7 12–13 (sometimes 11–12) Secondary
Grade or Year 8 13–14 (sometimes 12–13)
Grade or Year 9 14–15 (sometimes 13–14)
Grade or Year 10 15–16 (sometimes 14–15)
Grade or Year 11 16–17 (sometimes 15–16)
Grade or Year 12 17–18 (sometimes 16–17)

In the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), primary school is Kindergarten/years 1–6, high school is years 7–10, and college or Senior Secondary is years 11 & 12 & 13 (see table below).

Year Ages School
Preschool 3–5 Preschool
Kindergarten 5–6 Primary
Grade or Year 1 6–7
Grade or Year 2 7–8
Grade or Year 3 8–9
Grade or Year 4 9–10
Grade or Year 5 10–11
Grade or Year 6 11–12
Grade or Year 7 12–13 Secondary (High School)
Grade or Year 8 13–14
Grade or Year 9 14–15
Grade or Year 10 15–16
Grade or Year 11 16–17 Senior Secondary (College)
Grade or Year 12 17–18

In the Northern Territory (NT),[3] primary school is Transition/years 1–6, middle school is years 7–9, and high school or Senior Secondary is years 10–12 (see table below).

Year Ages School
Kindergarten 3–5 Preschool
Transition 5–6 Primary
Grade or Year 1 6–7
Grade or Year 2 7–8
Grade or Year 3 8–9
Grade or Year 4 9–10
Grade or Year 5 10–11
Grade or Year 6 11–12
Grade or Year 7 12–13 Secondary (Middle School)
Grade or Year 8 13–14
Grade or Year 9 14–15
Grade or Year 10 15–16 Senior Secondary (High School)
Grade or Year 11 16–17
Grade or Year 12 17–18
Grade of Year 13 18–19


Azerbaijan Grade Ages Correspondent in the U.S
P1 3–4 Preschool
P2 4–5 Pre-kindergarten
Azerbaijan Grade Ages Correspondent in the U.S
P3 5–6 Kindergarten
P4 6–7 First grade
P5 7–8 Second grade
P6 8–9 Third grade
P7 9–10 Fourth grade
P8 10–11 Fifth grade
Azerbaijan Grade Ages Correspondent in the U.S
M1 11–12 Sixth grade
M2 12–13 Seventh grade
M3 13–14 Eighth grade
Azerbaijan Grade Ages Correspondent in the U.S
M4 14–15 Ninth grade/Freshmen
M5 15–16 Tenth grade/Sophomore
DP1 16–17 Eleventh grade/Junior
DP2 17–18 Twelfth grade/Senior



In Belarus, education is guaranteed for everyone. Primary school lasts for 4 years, but some psycho-physically challenged children study for 5 years according to a special standard. Forms 1 to 9 are considered compulsory. After completing general basic school a person can study in a special establishment to get a job. To enter a higher educational establishment a person must complete general secondary school (all 11 forms) and pass three centralized tests.[4]

Year Ages School


1–2 Early
Детский сад


Form 1 6–7 Primary
Form 2 7–8
Form 3 8–9
Form 4 9–10
Form 5 10–11 General basic


Form 6 11–12
Form 7 12–13
Form 8 13–14
Form 9 14–15
Form 10 15–16 General secondary


Form 11 16–17



In Brazil, there are three levels of basic education: "Educação Infantil" (preschool), "Ensino Fundamental" (primary school) and "Ensino Médio" (high school), which are generally completed by age eighteen. Basic education is designed to provide the necessary minimum knowledge for the exercise of citizenship. It also serves to develop consciousness for choosing future professions. In Brazil, after the name of the grade one may use the names "série" (series) or "ano" (year). The educational stages in Brazil are divided as follows:

Escola Infantil (Brazil Grade) Ages Correspondent in the U.S
Berçário 0–1 Nursery 1
Pré-maternal/Creche 1–2 Nursery 2
Maternal/Creche 2–3 Nursery 3
1o período (Primeiro Período) 3–4 Kindergarten 1
2o período (Segundo Período) 4–5 Kindergarten 2
3o período (Terceiro Período) 5–6 Kindergarten 3
Ensino Fundamental (Brazil Grade) Ages Correspondent in the U.S
1o ano (Primeiro Ano) 6–7 first grade
2o ano (Segundo Ano) 7–8 second grade
3o ano (Terceiro Ano) 8–9 third grade
4o ano (Quarto Ano) 9–10 fourth grade
5o ano (Quinto Ano) 10–11 fifth grade
6o ano (Sexto Ano) 11–12 sixth grade
7o ano (Sétimo Ano) 12–13 seventh grade
8o ano (Oitavo Ano) 13–14 eighth grade
9o ano (Nono Ano) 14–15 ninth grade
Ensino Médio (Brazil Grade) Ages Correspondent in the U.S
1o ano (Primeiro Ano) 15–16 tenth grade
2o ano (Segundo Ano) 16–17 eleventh grade
3o ano (Terceiro Ano) 17–18 twelfth grade



In Canada, schooling officially begins at Kindergarten (or Maternelle in Quebec), followed by grades, with some variations for certain levels in certain provinces/territories. When referred to as a grade, school years are usually referred to by their cardinal number ("Grade Three").

At the post-secondary level in (Anglophone) Canada, a student is usually referred to by the year of study they are in (i.e. First Year, Second Year, etc.). If they are pursuing something higher than an undergraduate degree, the designation usually refers to what year of study they are in since entering Graduate studies (i.e. First Year Graduate Student, etc.). Any student who has completed their first year of undergraduate studies is considered to be an Upper Year Student.

Each province and territory has its own autonomous education system. As such, the name of each level of education and what year each level begins at will vary across the country (as will the curriculum itself).

Grade structure by province/territory


The following table shows how grades are organized in various provinces. Often, there will be exceptions within each province, both with terminology for groups, and which grades apply to each group.

Alberta[5]   Elementary Junior high Senior high
  Kindergarten 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
British Columbia[6]   Elementary Secondary
  Kindergarten 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Manitoba[7]   Early years Middle years Senior years
  Kindergarten 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
New Brunswick[8]   Elementary Middle school High school
  Kindergarten 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Newfoundland and Labrador[9]   Primary Elementary Junior high Senior high
  Kindergarten 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Level I Level II Level III
Northwest Territories[10]   Primary Intermediate Junior secondary Senior secondary
  Kindergarten 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Nova Scotia[11]   Elementary Junior high Senior high
  Primary 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Ontario[12] Elementary Intermediate Secondary
Junior kindergarten Kindergarten 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
PEI[13]   Elementary Intermediate school Senior high
  Kindergarten 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Quebec[citation needed]   Primary school Secondary school College (CÉGEP)
Garderie Maternelle 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sec I Sec II Sec III Sec IV Sec V first second third
Saskatchewan[14]   Elementary level Middle level Secondary level
  Kindergarten 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Yukon[15]   Elementary Secondary
  Kindergarten 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12



In the People's Republic of China (excluding Hong Kong and Macau), the years are organized in three stages and renumbered within each stage: 6 years in elementary school (小学) years 1 to 6, then 3 years in middle school (初级中学, abbreviated 初中) years 7 to 9, then 3 years in high school (高级中学, abbreviated 高中) years 10 to 12. The first nine years (elementary 1–6 and middle 1–3) are compulsory, and the years in high school are voluntary. Completing higher secondary education or attaining an equivalent level is required before one may receive higher education (高等教育) at universities.

Year Ages Stage
1st grade 6–7 Elementary
2nd grade 7–8
3rd grade 8–9
4th grade 9–10
5th grade 10–11
6th grade 11–12
7th grade 12–13 Middle school
8th grade 13–14
9th grade 14–15
10th grade 15–16 High school
11th grade 16–17
12th grade 17–18



Education is compulsory from age 3 to age 16, and then compulsory training until the age of 18. This law was passed during the Macron presidency and approved the law. At the end of the lycée cursus, is the French Baccalaureat exam. It is possible in France to fail a year, and need to repeat (redoubler).

Age School Class Cycle
From age 3 Nursery school TPS: Kindergarten
3–4 PS: Preschool class Cycle I : First learnings
4–5 MS: Second preschool class
5–6 GS: Pupil in Year 1
6–7 Grammar school CP: Pupil in Year 2 Cycle II : Fundamental learnings
7–8 CE1: Pupil in Year 3
8–9 CE2: Pupil in Year 4
9–10 CM1: Pupil in Year 5 Cycle III : Consolidation
10–11 CM2: Pupil in Year 6
11–12 Junior High school Sixième (Pupil in Year 7)
12–13 Cinquième (Pupil in Year 8) Cycle IV : Deepening
13–14 Quatrième (Pupil in Year 9)
14–15 Troisième (Pupil in Year 10)
15–16 Comprehensive school Seconde (Pupil in Year 11) (Cycle V : Senior years)
16–17 Première (Pupil in Year 12)
17–18 Terminale (Pupil in Year 13)



Education is compulsory from age 4 to age 15. Education is provided in public and private schools, except Higher Education which is provided only by public universities.

Greece framework
Grade Age Greek designation Educational stage
Pre-kindergarten 4–5 Pre-kindergarten Preschool
Kindergarten 5–6 Kindergarten
First grade 6–7 1st grade Primary School
Second grade 7–8 2nd grade
Third grade 8–9 3rd grade
Fourth grade 9–10 4th grade
Fifth grade 10–11 5th grade
Sixth grade 11–12 6th grade
Seventh grade 12–13 1st grade Gymnasium
(Lower secondary school)
(US equivalent: Middle school)
Eighth grade 13–14 2nd grade
Ninth grade 14–15 3rd grade
Tenth grade 15–16 1st grade Lyceum
(Upper secondary school)
(US equivalent: High school)
Eleventh grade 16–17 2nd grade
Twelfth grade 17–18 3rd grade

Hong Kong


The Hong Kong system was based on the United Kingdom system, with zero to three optional years at kindergarten, six years of primary school (小學) and six years of secondary school (中學), followed by four years at university. Primary 1–6 (小一 – 小六) corresponds to Years 1–6 in the UK, and Forms 1 – 6 (中一 – 中六) correspond to Years 7–12. Usually students begin Primary 1 at age 5 or 6 and complete Form 6 at age 17 or 18.

In Hong Kong, international schools follow the system of the country they are based upon, for example the English Schools Foundation uses the UK year system, and the French International School of Hong Kong uses the French école, collège, lycée system. Also, the English term form followed by the English number is common usage even in otherwise Cantonese conversations.

Year Ages Stage
Primary 1 6–7 Primary
Primary 2 7–8
Primary 3 8–9
Primary 4 9–10
Primary 5 10–11
Primary 6 11–12
Secondary 1 12–13 Secondary
Secondary 2 13–14
Secondary 3 14–15
Secondary 4 15–16
Secondary 5 16–17
Secondary 6 17–18





The central and most state boards uniformly follow the "10+2+3" pattern of education. In this pattern, study of 10 years is done in schools and 2 years in Junior colleges, and then 3 years of graduation for a bachelor's degree. The first 10 years is further subdivided into 4 years of primary education, 6 years of High School followed by 2 years of Junior colleges. This pattern originated from the recommendation of the Education Commission of 1964–66.

Pre-Primary education

  • Play group (pre-nursery): At play schools, children are exposed to a lot of basic learning activities that help them to get independent faster and develop their self-help qualities like eating food themselves, dressing up, and maintaining cleanliness. The age limit for admission into pre-nursery is 2 to 3 years
  • Nursery: Nursery level activities help children unfold their talents, thus enabling them to sharpen their mental and physical abilities. The age limit for admission in nursery is 3 to 4 years.
  • LKG: It is also called the Junior Kindergarten (Jr. kg) stage. The age limit for admission in LKG is 4 to 5 years.
  • UKG: It is also called the Senior Kindergarten (Sr. kg) stage. The age limit for admission in UKG is 5 to 6 years.

Primary education


The Indian government lays emphasis on primary education, also referred to as elementary education, to children aged 6 to 14 years old. Because education laws are given by the states, duration of primary school visit alters between the Indian states. The Indian government has also banned child labour in order to ensure that the children do not enter unsafe working conditions. However, both free education and the ban on child labour are difficult to enforce due to economic disparity and social conditions. 80% of all recognised schools at the elementary stage are government run or supported, making it the largest provider of education in the country.

Secondary education


Secondary education covers children aged 12 to 18, a group comprising 8.85 crore children according to the 2001 Census of India. The final two years of secondary is often called Higher Secondary (HS), Senior Secondary, or simply the "+2" stage. The two halves of secondary education are each an important stage for which a pass certificate is needed, and thus are affiliated by central boards of education under HRD ministry, before one can pursue higher education, including college or professional courses.

UGC, NCERT, CBSE and CISCE directives state qualifying ages for candidates who wish to take board exams. Those at least 15 years old by 30 May for a given academic year are eligible to appear for Secondary board exams, and those 17 by the same date are eligible to appear for Higher Secondary certificate board exams. It further states that upon successful completion of Higher Secondary, one can apply to higher education under UGC control such as Engineering, Medical, and Business Administration.

New education policy 2020


India in 29 July approved a new education policy in order to replace the previous education system to an advanced education system. The new policy aims for universalisation of education from pre-school to secondary level with 100 per cent Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in school education by 2030 and aims to raise GER in higher education to 50 per cent by 2025.

Key points:
The policy also proposes phasing out of all institutions offering single streams and that all universities and colleges must aim to become multidisciplinary by 2040.

  • Grade division and structure

Introducing 3 years of pre-schooling, the National Education Policy 2020 has taken a similar approach like Cambridge and IB, which also offer dedicated Primary Year Programs.

Dismantling the age-old 10+2 concept, the policy pitches for a "5+3+3+4" design corresponding to the age groups 3–8 years (foundational stage), 8–11 (preparatory), 11–14 (middle), and 14–18 (secondary). This brings early childhood education (also known as pre-school education for children of ages 3 to 5) under the umbrella of formal schooling.

  • School curriculum and pedagogy

According to the National Education Policy 2020, the school curriculum and pedagogy will aim for the holistic development of learners by equipping them with the key 21st-century skills. Additionally, it also aims for reduction in the syllabus to enhance essential learning and critical thinking.

  • Languages

The policy advocates for mother-tongue/local language/regional language as the medium of instruction at least till grade 5, but preferably till Grade 8 and beyond.

Sanskrit will now be offered at all levels of school and higher education as an option for students including the 3-language formula. Other classical languages and literature of India also to be available as options. In non-Hindi states of India, students will be served as a Hindi alternative, students will have to choose between Hindi and Sanskrit. Tamil, Telugu, Bengali, Punjabi, etc. languages will also be emphasized under NEP2020.

Foreign languages will also be offered to students. Languages like Japanese, Korean, Russian, etc. will be introduced to them in their secondary school. They can opt for any language they want to learn. The step has been taken to embrace global culture and emphasize a multilingualism approach.

  • Others

The NEP proposes sweeping changes including opening up of Indian higher education to foreign universities, dismantling of the UGC and the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), introduction of a four-year multidisciplinary undergraduate programme with multiple exit options, and discontinuation of the M Phil programme.

In school education, the policy focuses on overhauling the curriculum, "easier" Board exams, a reduction in the syllabus to retain "core essentials" and thrust on "experiential learning and critical thinking".

The policy also proposes phasing out of all institutions offering single streams and that all universities and colleges must aim to become multidisciplinary by 2040.



In Indonesia, children spend 12 years of formal education, but some children attend nursery playgroup (called Kelompok Belajar in 2 years) and attend kindergarten (Called Taman Kanak-Kanak in 2 years).

Age Stage School Year
2–3 Pre-school Kelompok Belajar (KB)

(Nursery Playgroup)

3–4 KB-B/KBS
4–5 Taman Kanak-kanak (TK)


5–6 TK-B
6–7 Primary School Sekolah Dasar (SD)

(Elementary School)

Kelas 1
7–8 Kelas 2
8–9 Kelas 3
9–10 Kelas 4
10–11 Kelas 5
11–12 Kelas 6
12–13 Secondary School Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP)

(Junior High School)

Kelas 7
13–14 Kelas 8
14–15 Kelas 9
15–16 Sekolah Menengah Atas (SMA)

(Senior High School)

Kelas 10
16–17 Kelas 11
17–18 Kelas 12



The Iranian system has experienced several changes in the last seven to eight decades. Prior to 1940–1950, the education system had consisted of three levels, called in order: an optional year in kindergarten, six years of primary school, finally followed by six years of secondary school ending up with a diploma. After some improvements during Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, the system was changed to four consecutive periods: two optional years in kindergarten and pre-primary school, primary school consisting of 5 years, 3 years in middle school, and finally four years in high school. The system ended up by honoring a diploma in certain majors, e.g. math and physics.

Around 1996–1997, one year was reduced from the entire education system and one was honored with a diploma after three years in high school. However, if one would have liked to continue her/his education towards university degrees, one would have been required to take the last year, so called pre-university year. This year had been a requirement to participate in the Iranian University Entrance Exam for high school students. Again, around 2012, the system turned back to its previous system, consisting of two 6-year periods.

There are two formal stages of education in Iran: primary school (دبستان, Dabestãn) and high school (دبیرستان, Dabirestãn). The high school itself is broken into 2 parts: A and B.[further explanation needed] Preschool educations are informal, therefore Grade 1 is the first year. In Grade 1 (پایه‌ی 1, Paye 1) also known as the 1st class (کلاس اوّل, Klãs Avval), children learn the basics of reading and writing.

Stage School Age
Preschool Kindergarten 3–6
Primary school Grade 1 7
Grade 2 7–8
Grade 3 8–9
Grade 4 9–10
Grade 5 10–11
Grade 6 11–12
High school first term Grade 7 12–13
Grade 8 13–14
Grade 9 14–15
High school second term Grade 10 15–16
Grade 11 16–17
Grade 12 17–18



In the Republic of Ireland, there are two levels of compulsory education; primary school (ca.4–12 years of age) and secondary school (ca.12–18 years). The names of each class are as follows:

  • Junior Infants (4–5 years)
  • Senior Infants (5–6 years)
  • First Class (6–7 years)
  • Second Class (7–8 years)
  • Third Class (8–9 years)
  • Fourth Class (9–10 years)
  • Fifth Class (10–11 years)
  • Sixth Class (11–12 years)

After Sixth Class, students move to secondary school, entering;

  • First Year (12–13 years)
  • Second Year (13–14 years)
  • Third Year (14–15 years) – Junior Certificate
  • Fourth Year [or Transition Year] (15–16 years)
  • Fifth Year (15–17 years)
  • Sixth Year [or Final Year] (16–18 years) – Leaving Certificate

In some schools, Transition Year is compulsory, in others it is optional.



In Italy, education is compulsory from the age of 6 to the age of 16. On parents' demand, children can start the Scuola primaria (see below) one year earlier.

Educazione Infantile:

  • Asilo nido: 3 months – 3 years
  • Scuola d'infanzia: 3 years – 5 years

Scuola primaria (informally: Scuola Elementare):

  • I elementare: 6–7
  • II elementare: 7–8
  • III elementare: 8–9
  • IV elementare: 9–10
  • V elementare: 10–11

Scuola secondaria di primo grado (informally: Scuola Media):

  • I media – 11–12
  • II media – 12–13
  • III media – 13–14

Scuola secondaria di secondo grado (informally: Scuola Superiore):

  • biennio
    • I superiore – 14–15
    • II superiore – 15–16
  • triennio
    • III superiore – 16–17
    • IV superiore – 17–18
    • V superiore – 18–19



In Japan, the years are organized in three stages and renumbered within each stage: 6 years in elementary school (小学校, shōgakkō) years 1 to 6, then 3 years in lower secondary (中学校, chūgakkō) years 1 to 3, then 3 years in higher secondary (高等学校, kōtōgakkō, abbreviated 高校, kōkō) years 1 to 3. The first nine years (elementary 1–6 and lower secondary 1–3) are compulsory, and the years in higher secondary school are voluntary. Completing higher secondary education or attaining an equivalent level is required before one may receive higher education at universities (大学, daigaku).

Year Ages Stage
Year 1 6–7 Elementary
Year 2 7–8
Year 3 8–9
Year 4 9–10
Year 5 10–11
Year 6 11–12
Year 1 12–13 Lower secondary
Year 2 13–14
Year 3 14–15
Year 1 15–16 Higher secondary
Year 2 16–17
Year 3 17–18


Typical age Grade/Level Curriculum Stages Schools
3-4 N/A Infant Education
Jardim de infância
6—7 Primary 1 Primary Education
Ensino primário
Primary School
Escola primária
7—8 Primary 2
8—9 Primary 3
9—10 Primary 4
10—11 Primary 5
11—12 Primary 6
12—13 Form 1 Junior Secondary Education
Ensino secundário-geral
Junior Secondary School
Escola secundária geral
13—14 Form 2
14—15 Form 3
15—16 Form 4 Senior Secondary Education
Ensino secundário-complementar
Vocational and Technical Education
Ensino técnico-profissional
Senior Secondary School
Escola secundária complementar
Vocational School
Escola técnico-profissional
16—17 Form 5
17—18 Form 6



Compulsory education in Malaysia spans a period of 11 years and comprises both primary and secondary education. Kindergarten is optional.

Malaysian primary school consists of six years of education, referred to as Year 1 to Year 6 (formerly Standard 1 to Standard 6). Year 1–3 are classified as Level One (Tahap Satu in Malay) while Year 4–6 make up Level Two (Tahap Dua). Primary schooling usually begins at the age of 7 and ends at 12. Students take their first national examination, the UPSR, towards the end of the Year 6 school year. Performance in the UPSR has no effect on their resuming schooling; all students continue with their secondary education after leaving primary school.

Secondary schooling usually begins at age 13. Secondary schools offer education for a total of five years, starting with Form 1 and finishing at Form 5. Forms 1–3 are grouped together into the "Lower Form" and Forms 4 and 5 are considered the "Upper Form". Students in Form 3 will have to sit for their second national exam, the PT3. They are then streamed into sciences or humanities classes for the Upper Form according to their performance in this exam. At age 17 students in Form 5 sit for the final level of national examinations, the SPM (Malaysian Certificate of Education). Achieving a passing grade in the Bahasa Melayu (Malay Language) portion of the exams is compulsory; failure results in an automatic failing grade for all subjects taken in the examination and the student is held back to repeat Form 5. Completion of the examination signifies that the student has completed formal education in Malaysia; an SPM certificate remains the base requirement to secure most jobs in Malaysia.

After the SPM, students have a choice of either continuing with Form 6 (which comprises 2 years, Lower and Upper Six) or entering matriculation (pre-university programs). If they opt for Form 6, they will be required to take the STPM examination. Although generally taken by those desiring to attend public universities in Malaysia, an STPM certification is internationally recognized and may also be used, though rarely required, to enter private local universities for undergraduate courses.

Educational stages in Malaysia
Year Ages School
Kindergarten (optional) 4–6 Preschool
Tahun 1 (Year 1) 6–7 Tahap Satu (Level One or Lower Primary)
Tahun 2 (Year 2) 7–8
Tahun 3 (Year 3) 8–9
Tahun 4 (Year 4) 9–10 Tahap Dua (Level Two or Higher Primary)
Tahun 5 (Year 5) 10–11
Tahun 6 (Year 6) 11–12
Tingkatan 1 (Form 1) 12–13 Menengah Rendah (Lower Secondary)
Tingkatan 2 (Form 2) 13–14
Tingkatan 3 (Form 3) 14–15
Tingkatan 4 (Form 4) 15–16 Menengah Atas (Upper Secondary)
Tingkatan 5 (Form 5) 16–17
Tingkatan 6 (Form 6) (optional) 17–18 Pre-university programme



In Mexico, grades 1 through 12 can be divided into two stages: Educación Básica, and Educación Media Superior.[16] Educación Básica covers pre-primary education to the equivalent of ninth grade.[17] Educación Media Superior covers tenth through twelfth grade, and students' levels are identified by their current semester, not by their grade.[18]

Year Ages School
Educación Básica 3 – 5/6 Preescolar / Kinder
Primer grado (1o) 6/7 Primaria
Segundo grado (2o) 7/8
Tercer grado (3o) 8/9
Cuarto grado (4o) 9/10
Quinto grado (5o) 10/11
Sexto grado (6o) 11/12
Primero de secundaria 12/13 Secundaria
Segundo de secundaria 13/14
Tercero de secundaria 14/15
Educación Media Superior Primer semestre, and Segundo semestre 15/16 Bachillerato / Preparatoria
Tercer semestre, and Cuarto semestre 16/17
Quinto semestre, and Sexto semestre 17/18



In Nepal, the stages of education are primary education, secondary education, and higher secondary. Pre-primary education is also found in some areas. Generally, the pre-primary level covers nursery and kindergarten. Primary education consists of grades one through five, while lower secondary education covers grades six through eight and secondary education covers grades nine through ten. Higher secondary covers grades eleven and twelve. Students get Secondary Education Examination certificate in grade ten. According to the new Education Act, the national grade 12 Examination will result in the School Leaving Certificate (SLC).

Year Ages School
Nursery 3–4 Preschool
Kindergarten 4–5
Year 1 5–6 Primary
Year 2 6–7
Year 3 7–8
Year 4 8–9
Year 5 9–10
Year 6 10–11 Lower secondary
Year 7 11–12
Year 8 12–13
Year 9 13–14 Junior higher secondary
Year 10 14–16
Year 11 15–17 Senior higher secondary
Year 12 16–18

New Zealand


In New Zealand children are required by law to attend 10 years of educational instruction, from the age of 6 to 16. The law also provides in the same legislation that all people are allowed to attend free education to the age of 18, this legislation is the Education Act 1989. Children can be enrolled at primary school when they turn five years old, and must be enrolled by the time they turn six years old. From years 1–6 students attend primary school. In years 7 and 8 students attend intermediate, or a joint school (years 1–8 or years 7–13). The final years of free education are spent in secondary school (years 9–13). New Zealand also has two older educational stage-numbering systems; standards 5 and 6 were largely unused with the introduction of intermediate schools in the 1950s, while "primmer" numbering was in use well into the 1970s, and some academically focused secondary schools still use "form" numbering.

Year level Ages Old systems School
0 5 (if born after March) Primary school
1 5–6 Junior 1 Primmers 1, 2 & 3
2 6–7 Junior 2 Primmers 3 & 4
3 7–8 Standard 1
4 8–9 Standard 2
5 9–10 Standard 3
6 10–11 Standard 4
7 11–12 Form 1 Standard 5 Intermediate school (some primary schools and secondary schools also offer these year levels)
8 12–13 Form 2 Standard 6
9 13–14 Form 3 Secondary school
10 14–15 Form 4
11 15–16 Form 5
12 16–17 Form 6
13 17–18 Form 7



In Norway children start school at the age of six; before that kindergarten is voluntary. This school is called barneskole (childrenschool):

  • 6–7: First grade
  • 7–8: Second grade
  • 8–9: Third grade
  • 9–10: Fourth grade
  • 10–11: Fifth grade
  • 11–12: Sixth grade
  • 12–13: Seventh grade

The second school is ungdomsskole (youth-school). At this level the students are rated with grades in each subject, in addition to behavior and orderliness:

  • 13–14: Eighth grade
  • 14–15: Ninth grade
  • 15–16: Tenth grade

The last school before higher education is called videregående skole (ongoing school) and is voluntary, though most choose to attend. At this level students decide among separate career-related schools. The most popular such school is designed to prepare one for further education,[citation needed] while others prepare students for such as mechanics, electricians, cooks and so on. Educational stages in these schools begin again at "one" and are named Vg1, Vg2, Vg3 and Vg4. Some of the more practical schools last only two years, and some students may choose to attend an extra year to study higher education. The typical duration is three years, though some schools offer a four-year program to enable students to engage in more athletics or gather real work experience.

  • 16–17: Vg1
  • 17–18: Vg2
  • 18–19: Vg3
  • 19–20: Vg4



From 1945 until 2017, there were ten years of compulsory education under the K–10 system until it phased out entirely on June 5, 2017. Grades 11 and 12 were added on June 13, 2016, as a result of the K–12 implementation four years earlier on June 4, 2012. School years start in the first or second week of June, and end in the last week of March or first week of April. There are three stages of education in the Philippines – elementary school, junior high school, and senior high school.

Philippine educational system used since June 4, 2012
Grade Age School Stage
Kindergarten 5–6 or 4–5 Preschool Elementary school
Grade 1 6–7 or 5–6 Primary school
Grade 2 7–8 or 6–7
Grade 3 8–9 or 7–8
Grade 4 9–10 or 8–9
Grade 5 10–11 or 9–10
Grade 6 11–12 or 10–11
Grade 7 (freshman) 12–13 or 11–12 Secondary school Junior high school
Grade 8 (sophomore) 13–14 or 12–13
Grade 9 (junior) 14–15 or 13–14
Grade 10 (senior) 15–16 or 14–15
Grade 11 (super senior) 16–17 or 15–16 Senior high school
Grade 12 (super senior) 17–18 or 16–17



From 1998 to 2019, the Polish education system was divided into six years of primary education, followed by three years of secondary education and three or four years of optional high school education. Attending general education high school or vocational school allows graduates to attend university while attending a basic vocational school (zasadnicza szkoła zawodowa) requires its graduates to attend supplementary liceums if they wish to proceed with university education. Since 2019, the three stages were merged into two, returning to the country's pre-reform system. Kindergarten education is optional, while compulsory education starts with year 0. The school year lasts from early September to late June, with the exception of the final year of high school, which ends in late April, followed by matura exams throughout May.
The "Age" column represents the age at which children start a school year.

Grade Age School
(pre-reform; again since 2019)
(1998-2019; gimnazjum reform)
Kindergarten 3–5 Preschool Preschool
Grade 0 (zerówka) 5–6
Grade 1 6–7 Primary school Primary school
Grade 2 7–8
Grade 3 8–9
Grade 4 9–10
Grade 5 10–11
Grade 6 11–12
Grade 7 12–13 Gimnazjum
Grade 8 13–14
Grade 9 14–15 High school
Grade 10 15–16 High school
Grade 11 16–17
Grade 12 17–18
Grade 13 (only in vocational schools) 18–19



In Russia, compulsory education lasts eight or nine years and begins the year the child turns seven (8 years) or, sometimes, six (9 years). The first stage of elementary school can last either 3 years (so called 1–3 programme for children starting at the age of 7) or 4 years (so called 1–4 programme for children starting at the age of 6). After of the first stage all pupils enter 5th grade, thus pupils that started at the age of 7 do not attend the 4th grade.

Educational stages in Russia
Year Ages School
Yasli 1–2 Early
Kindergarten 3–6 (5–7)
First Grade 7–8 (6–7) Elementary
Second Grade 8–9 (7–8)
Third Grade 9–10 (8–9)
Fourth grade 9–10 (only for the pupils studying by 1–4 programme)
Fifth Grade 10–11 Middle
Sixth Grade 11–12
Seventh Grade 12–13
Eighth Grade 13–14
Ninth Grade 14–15
Tenth Grade 15–16 High
Eleventh Grade 16–17

While it is not compulsory to remain in school after graduating from middle school, a student cannot progress to tertiary school without graduating from high school or vocational school.



In Serbia, children undergo thirteen years of formal education, usually starting at age 4, 5 or 6, and finishing at age 18 or 19. By the law children need to enter Primary school at the year they will turn 7 years of age, with some wiggle room if the child is born too close to a new year. The first four years of primary school, children have their own classroom and one teacher that teaches them all the subjects, from grade 5 of primary school to the end of high school lessons are held by number of teachers specialised for specific subjects and children change their classrooms every class. Children start their school year on September 1, and end the year at the end of June/beginning of July. The exception is the grade 8 of primary school and the grade 4 of high school when the classes end a couple of months earlier so the children can study for their entry exams for high school/college. Depending on which high school a child chooses, they can get more focused education and a professional degree. High school is not compulsory education but is needed to get some professional degrees in order to be able to find a job (for example: Nurse, Locksmith, Computer network administrator, Textile design technician, etc.)

Year Ages School
Nursery 1–3 Preschool
Kindergarten 3–5 Preschool
Prep/Kindergarten/Pre-primary 5–6 Preschool
Grade or Year 1 6–7 Primary school
Grade or Year 2 7–8
Grade or Year 3 8–9
Grade or Year 4 9–10
Grade or Year 5 10–11
Grade or Year 6 11–12
Grade or Year 7 12–13
Grade or Year 8 13–14
Grade or Year 1 14–15 Secondary – High school
Grade or Year 2 15–16
Grade or Year 3 16–17
Grade or Year 4 17–18



In Singapore, compulsory education lasts ten years and begins the year the child turns seven. However, most children receive a preschool education spanning two to three years before entering primary school after which they will move on to a secondary school, where Sec 5 is only made compulsory for students who have achieved a determined score for their PSLE. For Secondary School, there are three streamings: Express (Exp), Normal Academic (NA), and Normal Technical (NT), among which Exp and NT students study for four years while NA students need to study for five years. The Exp stream leads to a Singapore-Cambridge GCE Ordinary Level while the NA and NT stream leads to a Singapore-Cambridge GCE Normal Level. Some schools also offer the Integrated Programme which combines secondary school and junior college to directly offer the Singapore-Cambridge GCE Advanced Level. Depending on which stream one is in, and whether the school's scoring requirement is met, a student may be retained/transferred to NA/NT.

Educational stages in Singapore
Year Ages School
Nursery (N1/2) 3–4 Nursery Kindergarten
Kindergarten (K1/2) 5–6
Primary One 6–7 Primary
Primary Two 7–8
Primary Three 8–9
Primary Four 9–10
Primary Five 10–11
Primary Six 11–12
Secondary One [Express/Normal Academic (NA)/Normal Technical(NT)] 12–13 Secondary
Secondary Two [Express/Normal Academic (NA)/Normal Technical(NT)] 13–14
Secondary Three [Express/Normal Academic (NA)/Normal Technical(NT)] 14–15
Secondary Four [Express/Normal Academic (NA)/Normal Technical(NT)] 15–16
Secondary Five [Normal Academic (NA)/Normal Technical(NT)] 16–17
Junior College One or Pre-University One 17–18 Junior College (JC) or Centralised Institute (CI)
Junior College Two or Pre-University Two 18–19
Pre-University Three [CI only] 19–20

While it is not compulsory to remain in school after graduating from secondary school, most go on to receive their tertiary education at a Junior College, a polytechnic, or an institute of technical education (ITE) before moving on to university. Most junior colleges offer the Singapore-Cambridge GCE Advanced Level while some offer the International Baccalaureate after 2 years of study.



In Spain, education is divided into several stages: Kindergarten, primary education and secondary education. Kindergartens are schools for children 0–3 years old, and are normally private institutions, although some of them receive public funding as well ("Concertados"). Primary education is delivered almost exclusively through primary schools which offer education for pupils aged between 3 and 12. Children are entitled to preschool education from their third birthday, although it is not compulsory (but it is recommended) and must enter compulsory education from the September after their 5th birthday. There is some leeway in the starting date for pupils.

Education lasts 6 years in the compulsory section of primary school, before pupils move to a secondary school for between 4 and 6 years, the last two being optional. There is some variation in the phasing of education because private institutions may provide education from kindergarten or primary school until the end of secondary school, and private institutions with public funding normally teach from kindergarten until the 4th year in the secondary school level.

Numbering of years in Spanish state schools
Year Optionality Ages School
Nursery/Kindergarten Optional 0–3
Primero de infantil (Preschool 1) Optional 2–3, or 3–4 Primary
Segundo de infantil (Preschool 2) Optional 3–4, or 4–5
Tercero de infantil (Preschool 3) Optional 4–5, or 5–6
Primary One Compulsory 5–6, or 6–7
Primary Two Compulsory 6–7, or 7–8
Primary Three Compulsory 7–8, or 8–9
Primary Four Compulsory 8–9, or 9–10
Primary Five Compulsory 9–10, or 10–11
Primary Six Compulsory 10–11, or 11–12
First year (or 1 ESO) Compulsory 11–12, or 12–13 Secondary
Second Year (or 2 ESO) Compulsory 12–13, or 13–14
Third Year (or 3 ESO) Compulsory 13–14, or 14–15
Fourth Year (or 4 ESO) Compulsory 14–15, or 15–16
1 Bachillerato Optional 15–16, or 16–17
2 Bachillerato Optional 16–17, or 17–18

Sri Lanka


Sri Lanka enforces compulsory education and it is mandatory for a child to at least complete one year of pre-school by the time the child reaches the completion of age 4. By the time they have reached the age of 5 years, enrollment to Grade 1 is made a legal obligation with continuation through at least age 14.

Primary school to higher education are primarily funded and overseen by two governmental ministries and the main Department.[19]

Educational stages in Sri Lanka
Year Ages School
Kindergarten 3–5 Pre-School
Grade One 5–6 Primary
Grade Two 6–7
Grade Three 7–8
Grade Four 8–9
Grade Five – Optional Scholarship Examination 9–10
Grade Six 10–11 Secondary
Grade Seven 11–12
Grade Eight 12–13
Grade Nine 13–14
Grade Ten 14–15
Grade Eleven – G.C.E Ordinary Level Examination 15–16
Grade Twelve 16–17 Collegiate
Grade Thirteen – G.C.E Advance Level Examination 17–18

Tertiary education


Undergraduate education in state universities is free but extremely competitive, limited, and standardized. Selection of students is done on the basis of rank order on average Z Scores obtained by candidates at the Advanced Level under a transparent national policy to replicate a district basis representation. Only the top students from each district receive admission.



In Sweden children start school at the age of six with preschool class; before that preschool is voluntary.

  • 6–7: Preschool class (Förskoleklass)

First set of grades are called "lågstadiet" (low grades).

  • 7–8: "ettan" (First Grade)
  • 8–9: "tvåan" (Second Grade)
  • 9–10: "trean" (Third grade)

Second set of grades are called "mellanstadiet" (middle grades).

  • 10–11: "fyran" (Fourth grade)
  • 11–12: "femman" (Fifth grade)
  • 12–13: "sexan" (Sixth grade)

Third set of grades are called "högstadiet" (high grades).

  • 13–14: "sjuan" (Seventh grade)
  • 14–15: "åttan" (Eighth grade)
  • 15–16: "nian" (Ninth grade)

The last school before higher education is called "gymnasiet" (ongoing school) and is voluntary, though most choose to attend. At this level students decide among separate career-related programmes.

  • 16–17: "första ring" (First Level)
  • 17–18: "andra ring" (Second Level)
  • 18–19: "tredje ring" (Third Level)


Level Grade Age Notes
Kindergarten none 3–6 Preschool education
Regulated by the Early Childhood Education and Care Act
Elementary school 1st 6–7 National education, compulsory education
Regulated by the Primary and Junior High School Act
2nd 7–8
3rd 8–9
4th 9–10
5th 10–11
6th 11–12
Junior high school 7th 12–13
8th 13–14
9th 14–15
Senior high school Senior High 1st (10th) 15–16 National education since 2019
Regulated by the Senior High School Education Act
Senior High 2nd (11th) 16–17
Senior High 3rd (12th) 17–18


Year Ages Stage
Kindergarten 5–6 Before School / Kindergarten
Year 1 6–7 Elementary
Year 2 7–8
Year 3 8–9
Year 4 9–10
Year 5 10–11 Secondary
Year 6 11–12
Year 7 12–13
Year 8 13–14
Year 9 14–15 High school
Year 10 15–16
Year 11 16–17
Year 12 17–18

United Kingdom


England, Wales and Northern Ireland


In England, Wales and Northern Ireland education is divided into two stages: primary education and secondary education. Required assessment within the National Curriculum takes place in years 2 and 6 (National Curriculum assessments) and Year 11 (GCSEs). School education is generally followed by two years of further education – often in a 6th form or 6th form college and then three or four years at university by those who decide to stay in education.

In England, children begin school either in the school year or school term in which they reach their fifth birthday. In Wales, children begin school on a part-time basis the September after they reach their third birthday. Primary schools educate children from Reception through to Year 6, and may be subdivided into infant and junior schools. Alternatively, children may attend private prep schools.

Secondary education is compulsory to the age of 16. However, in England you will be required to return to full-time education, take on an apprenticeship or internship or work or volunteer at least 20 hours a week while part-time studying until the age of 18. Schools have various possible names, such as grammar, comprehensive and secondary schools, which may or may not indicate selective admission or tuition fees (see main article). Sixth form education is not compulsory at present, and not all secondary schools have a sixth form. There are also 6th form colleges just for Year 12 and 13 students.

Some secondary schools still use the 'form' system, with Year 7 being 1st Form (or '1st year'), Year 8 being Second Form, et cetera, up until Year 12 and Year 13, which together make up the 6th Form (namely lower and upper sixth form). Some independent schools use other naming systems.

In some areas in England, a three-tier system of education is used, in which students pass through three stages: First school/Lower school (Reception to Year 3/4), Middle school (Year 4/5 to Year 7/8) and finally High or Upper School (Year 8/9–Year 13)

Key stage Year Final exam Age[20] State funded schools Selective schools Fee-paying independent schools
Early years Nursery (or pre-school) None, though individual schools may set end of year tests. 3 to 4 Primary Lower Infant Various 'gifted and talented' programmes within state and independent schools.[21] Pre-preparatory
Reception (or Foundation) 4 to 5
KS1 Year 1 5 to 6
Year 2 6 to 7
KS2 Year 3 7 to 8 Junior
Year 4 8 to 9 Preparatory or Junior
Year 5 9 to 10 Middle
Year 6 SATs
A grammar school entrance exam, often the 11-plus
10 to 11
KS3 Year 7 None, though individual schools may set end of year tests, or mock GCSE exams. 11 to 12 Secondary Lower school Senior Grammar school
Year 8 12 to 13
Year 9 13 to 14 Upper Senior (public/private school)
KS4 Year 10 14 to 15 Upper school
Year 11 GCSE 15 to 16
KS5 Year 12 Advanced subsidiary level or school-set end of year tests. 16 to 17 College Sixth form
Year 13 A-Levels 17 to 18



In Scotland, education is divided into two stages: primary education and secondary education. Primary education is delivered almost exclusively through primary schools which offer education for pupils aged between 4 and 12. Children are entitled to pre-school education from their third birthday, and must enter compulsory education from the August after their 5th birthday. There is some leeway in the starting date for pupils.[22]

Education lasts 7 years in the primary school, before pupils move to a secondary school for between 4 and 6 years, the last two being optional. There is some variation in the phasing of education in more remote areas of Scotland, where provision may be made in a through school, or in other combinations of institutes.

Numbering of years in Scottish state schools
Year Ages School
Nursery 3–4 or 3–5
Primary One 4–5 or 5–6 Primary
Primary Two 5–6 or 6–7
Primary Three 6–7 or 7–8
Primary Four 7–8 or 8–9
Primary Five 8–9 or 9–10
Primary Six 9–10 or 10–11
Primary Seven 10–11 or 11–12
First year (or S1) 11–12 or 12–13 Secondary
Second Year (or S2) 12–13 or 13–14
Third Year (or S3) 13–14 or 14–15
Fourth Year (or S4) 14–15 or 15–16
Fifth Year (or S5) 15–16 or 16–17
Sixth Year (or S6) 16–17 or 17–18

United States

Table US: Ages in grades
Ages Year
1–3 Daycare
3–5 Preschool
Elementary School
5–6 Kindergarten
6–7 First grade
7–8 Second grade
8–9 Third grade
9–10 Fourth grade
10–11 Fifth grade
Middle school
11–12 Sixth grade[23][24]
12–13 Seventh grade
13–14 Eighth grade
High school
14–15 Ninth grade (freshman)
15–16 Tenth grade (sophomore)
16–17 Eleventh grade (junior)
17–18 Twelfth grade (senior)

In the United States (U.S.), grades traditionally begin at 1 and run to 12; they are referred to by ordinal number (e.g., first grade or 1st grade). An additional preceding level called kindergarten ("K") is now standard in most areas, and a further preceding level called preschool education or nursery school is not uncommon. In some parts of the state of Wisconsin, kindergarten is split further into junior and senior kindergarten.

Before the term "middle school" became much more common, 7th and 8th grades were placed in "junior high school". In certain junior high schools, either 6th grade or 9th grade was also included (but not both in the same school).

At the secondary school level ("high school"), the 9th through 12th grades are also known respectively as freshman (or "first-year"), sophomore, junior, and senior. At the postsecondary or "undergraduate" level (college or university), the same four terms are reused to describe a student's college years, but numbered grades are not used at the college level. American graduate and postgraduate education does not use grades.

The adjacent Table US outlines the ages, in years, of each grade level in the US. However, students are sometimes older because of grade retention or younger because of grade skipping.

Elementary school students at a specific grade level are traditionally assigned to a single class that usually stays together in the same classroom with the same teacher throughout each school day for the entire school year (although the teacher may temporarily hand off the class to specialists for certain subject matter units, especially science). Students in middle school and high school are allowed to build schedules from a mix of required and elective courses taught by different teachers in different classrooms, must rush from one course to the next during each school day, and are more likely to encounter students from different grades in their courses (especially electives).

Comparison of American and British English

The naming of school years in British (except Scotland) and American English
Age range British English American English
Name Alternative/old name Syllabus Name Alternative name
Preschool (optional)  
3–4 Nursery Playgroup Foundation Stage 1 Daycare
Primary school  
4–5 Reception Infants reception Foundation Stage 2 Preschool Pre-K
Elementary school
5–6 Year 1 Infants year 1 Key Stage 1 Kindergarten
6–7 Year 2 Infants year 2 1st grade  
7–8 Year 3 First year Junior Key Stage 2 2nd grade  
8–9 Year 4 Second year Junior 3rd grade  
9–10 Year 5 Third year Junior 4th grade  
10–11 Year 6 Fourth year Junior 5th grade  
Secondary school / High school Middle school Junior high school
11–12 Year 7 First form[25] Key Stage 3 6th grade  
12–13 Year 8 Second form 7th grade  
13–14 Year 9 Third form 8th grade  
High school Senior high school
14–15 Year 10 Fourth form Key Stage 4, GCSE 9th grade Freshman year
15–16 Year 11 Fifth form 10th grade Sophomore year
Sixth form / FE College[26]
16–17 Year 12 Lower sixth (AS) Key Stage 5, A level 11th grade Junior year
17–18 Year 13 Upper sixth (A2) 12th grade Senior year

See also



  1. ^ http://nt5.scbbs.com/cgi-bin/om_isapi.dll?clientID=29207847&infobase=iwde.nfo&softpage=PL_frame [dead link]
  2. ^ Greenberg, Michael (2007). "A Sudbury Valley Education: The View from Inside". Sudbury Valley School. Framingham, Massachusetts, US. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2015-07-25. How do you get access to a computer at school? There are a whole lot of kids that want to use it. What you instantly find is a culture of rules. You have to be certified to use a computer, which means someone who knows has to tell you how you turn it on, how you turn it off, all the things you have to do to not damage the machine, and you have to show them that you know how to do that before you can use the computer on your own.
  3. ^ "Stages of schooling". Northern Territory Government of Australia. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  4. ^ "Republican Institute for Knowledge Control". rikc.by. Retrieved 2022-08-03.
  5. ^ "Guide to Education" (PDF). Alberta Education. September 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 February 2009.
  6. ^ "Reporting on K-12 Glossary of Terms: Grade Range". Government of British Columbia. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  7. ^ "Schools in Manitoba". Manitoba Education. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
  8. ^ "Curriculum Development". Government of New Brunswick. 30 October 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  9. ^ "Programs and Courses – Documents by Grade Level". Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009.
  10. ^ "Elementary Junior Secondary School Handbook: Approved School Curricula 2004–05: Curriculum Terminology" (PDF). Government of Northwest Territories. 2004. p. 19. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 August 2011.
  11. ^ "Public School Programs 2003–2004" (PDF). Nova Scotia Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. 2003. pp. 23–30. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 May 2005.
  12. ^ "Education Facts: Schools and School Boards". Ontario Ministry of Education. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
  13. ^ "Programs of Study: Programs of Studies and Authorized Materials". Government of Prince Edward Island. 15 March 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  14. ^ "2022–23 Registrar's Handbook for School Administrators" (PDF). Saskatchewan. pp. 10–12. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  15. ^ "Learn about the Yukon's school curriculum". Government of Yukon. Retrieved 3 August 2022. Yukon schools follow the British Columbia (BC) curriculum
  16. ^ "Secretaría de Educación Pública | Gobierno | gob.mx". www.gob.mx (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  17. ^ Pública, Secretaría de Educación. "Oferta Educativa para Educación Básica". gob.mx (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  18. ^ Pública, Secretaría de Educación. "Oferta Educativa Educación Media Superior". gob.mx (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  19. ^ "Historical Overview of Education in Sri Lanka, Ministry of Education". Archived from the original on July 16, 2007.
  20. ^ "The national curriculum". GOV.UK. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  21. ^ "Educating the gifted child". The Good Schools Guide. 3 January 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  22. ^ "Starting school for the first time". Parentzone. Archived from the original on 2008-06-12.
  23. ^ Wraga, William G.; Hlebowitsh, Peter S.; Tanner, Daniel (6 August 2012). Research Review for School Leaders. Routledge. ISBN 9781135660956 – via Google Books.
  24. ^ Gao, Zan; Zhang, Peng; Podlog, Leslie William (1 January 2014). "Examining elementary school children's level of enjoyment of traditional tag games vs. interactive dance games". Psychol Health Med. 19 (5): 605–613. doi:10.1080/13548506.2013.845304. PMID 24111947. S2CID 11201738.
  25. ^ David Else (2007). British language & culture. Lonely Planet. ISBN 9781864502862.
  26. ^ "Education and Skills Act 2008". legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 20 July 2011.

Further reading