Education in Malaysia
|Ministry of Education|
|Minister of Education||Maszlee Malik|
|National education budget (2018)|
|Budget||MYR61.6 billion (USD16 billion)1|
|Total||95% (all 15 yrs and above)|
|Male||95% total, 98% 15–24 yrs|
|Female||95% total, 98% 15–24 yrs|
|Total||5,407,865 with 405,716 teachers (ratio 13:1), incl. 163,746 pre-school|
|Primary||2,899,228 (survival rate to last primary grade, Grade 6 is 99%)|
|Secondary||2,344,891 (66% male & 72% female students move up to Secondary 1 from Primary 6 - some studies suggest that some of the remaining 34% and 28% switch to private institutions after secondary school)|
|1"Budget 2014", NST|
Education in Malaysia is overseen by the Ministry of Education (Kementerian Pendidikan). Although education is the responsibility of the Federal Government, each state and federal territory has an Education Department to co-ordinate educational matters in its territory. The main legislation governing education is the Education Act 1996.
The education system is divided into preschool education, primary education, secondary education, post-secondary education and tertiary education. It is further divided into public and private education. Education may be obtained from the multilingual public school system, which provides free education for all Malaysians, or private schools, or through homeschooling. International and private institutions charge school fees. By law, primary education is compulsory. As in many Asia-Pacific countries such as the Republic of Korea, Singapore and Japan, standardised tests are a common feature. Currently, there are 43 universities, 31 private university colleges, 9 foreign university branch campuses and 414 private colleges in Malaysia.
- 1 History
- 2 School grades
- 3 Preschool education
- 4 Primary education
- 5 Secondary education
- 6 Post-secondary education (Pre University)
- 7 Tertiary education
- 8 Other types of schools
- 9 School uniforms
- 10 Education policy
- 11 Issues in Malaysian education
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
Sekolah Pondok (literally, Hut school), Madrasah and other Islamic schools were the earliest forms of schooling available in Malaysia. Early works of Malay literature such as Hikayat Abdullah mention these schools indicating they pre-date the current secular model of education.
Secular schools in Malaysia were largely an innovation of the British colonial government. Many of the earliest schools in Malaysia were founded in the Straits Settlements of Penang, Malacca, and Singapore. The oldest English-language school in Malaya is the Penang Free School, founded in 1816, followed by Malacca High School, St. Xavier's Institution, King Edward VII School (Taiping) and Anglo Chinese School, Klang. Many English-language schools are considered quite prestigious.
British historian Richard O. Winstedt worked to improve the education of the Malays and was instrumental in establishing Sultan Idris Training College with the purpose of producing Malay teachers. Richard James Wilkinson helped established the Malay College Kuala Kangsar in 1905 which aimed to educate the Malay elite.
Initially, the British colonial government did not provide for any Malay-language secondary schools, forcing those who had studied in Malay during primary school to adjust to an English-language education. Many Malays failed to pursue additional education due to this issue. Despite complaints about this policy, the British Director of Education stated:
It would be contrary to the considered policy of government to afford to a community, the great majority of whose members find congenial livelihood and independence in agricultural pursuits, more extended facilities for the learning of English which would be likely to have the effect of inducing them to abandon those pursuits.
Malay representatives in the Federal Council as well as the Legislative Council of Singapore responded vehemently, with one calling the British policy "a policy that trains the Malay boy how not to get employment" by excluding the Malays from learning in the "bread-earning language of Malaya". He remarked:
In the fewest possible words, the Malay boy is told 'You have been trained to remain at the bottom, and there you must always remain!' Why, I ask, waste so much money to attain this end when without any vernacular school, and without any special effort, the Malay boy could himself accomplish this feat?
To remedy this problem, the British established the Malay College Kuala Kangsar. However, it was mainly intended as a way to educate low-level civil servants and not as a means to opening the doors of commerce to the Malays – the school was never intended to prepare students for entrance to higher institutions of education.
Missionaries of Christian denominations, such as the Roman Catholic Josephian order and the Lasallian Brothers, Marist Brothers, Seventh-day Adventists, Anglicans, and Methodists started a series of mission schools which provided primary and secondary education in the English language. Most of these were single-sex schools. Although nowadays they have fully assimilated into the Malay-medium national school system and most admit students regardless of gender and background (some single-sex schools remain), many of the schools still bear their original names, such as the ones with the names of saints or words such as "Catholic", "Convent", "Advent" and "Methodist".
During the British colonial period, large numbers of immigrants from China and India arrived in Malaya. The Chinese and Indian communities eventually established their vernacular schools with school curricula and teachers from China and India respectively.
In the 1950s, there were four initial proposals for developing the national education system: the Barnes Report (favoured by the Malays), Ordinance Report (modification of the Barnes Report), the Fenn-Wu Report (favoured by the Chinese and Indians), and the Razak Report (a compromise between the two reports). The Barnes proposal was implemented through the 1952 Education Ordinance amidst Chinese protests. In 1956, the Razak Report was adopted by the Malayan government as the education framework for independent Malaya. The Razak Report called for a national school system consisting of Malay-, English-, Chinese- and Tamil-medium schools at the primary level, and Malay- and English-medium schools at the secondary schools, with a uniform national curriculum regardless of the medium of instruction. Malay-medium schools would be known as "national", while other languages schools would be known as "national-type".
In the early years of independence, existing Chinese, Tamil and mission schools accepted government funding and were allowed to retain their medium of instructions on the condition that they adopt the national curriculum. Chinese secondary schools were given the options of accepting government funding and change into English national-type schools or remain Chinese and private without government funding. Most of the schools accepted the change, although a few rejected the offer and came to be known as Chinese Independent High Schools. Shortly after the change, some of the national-type schools reestablished their Chinese independent high school branches.
In the 1970s, in accordance to the national language policy, the government began to change English-medium primary and secondary national-type schools into Malay-medium national schools. The language change was made gradually starting from the first year in primary school, then the second year in the following year and so on. The change was completed by the end of 1982.
In 1996, the Education Act of 1996 was passed to amend the Education Ordinance of 1956 and the Education Act of 1961.
In 2004, the Ministry of Education was split into two; the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Higher Education. The latter handles matters regarding tertiary education. After a brief merging of the two departments, they again split in 2015. They are still split as of 2018[update].
Public Schools & Private Schools following the National Curriculum
The school year is divided into two semesters. The first begins in early January and ends in late May; the second begins in early June and ends in November. Ages may vary. After Pentaksiran Tingkatan Tiga (PT3) is introduced, student who failed their PT3 examination may proceed to Form 4. This is contrary to the previous system, where those who fail the Lower Secondary Examination (PMR) must retake the examination before proceeding to Form 4.
|Form 6 (Pre-University)||18–19 (Available in some schools)|
|Tertiary education (College, Polytechnic or University)||Ages vary|
Chinese Independent Schools
Students usually spend six years in a Chinese Independent High School, which are only for secondary school students. The six years are divided into two stages: three years in junior middle and three years in senior middle, similar to the secondary school systems in mainland China and Taiwan. Students are streamed into tracks like Science or Art/Commerce in the senior middle stage. At the end of each stage, students sit for the Unified Examination Certificate (UEC). A few schools offer an additional year in senior middle, catering to students taking the government's Sijil Tinggi Pelajaran Malaysia (STPM, equivalent to A-level). Chinese independent high schools use the same academic year as government schools. An academic year consists of two semesters: Semester 1 from January to May and Semester 2 from June to November, with examinations at the end of each semester. The overall academic performance of a student in an academic year determines his/her promotion to the next study year in the next academic year. Failing requires repeating the study year. Usually, failing to be promoted for two years in a row results in a dismissal. In contrast, students in government schools are automatically promoted regardless of academic performance.
|Junior Secondary 1 (Chinese: 初一; pinyin: Chū yī)||13–14|
|Junior Secondary 2 (Chinese: 初二; pinyin: Chū èr)||14–15|
|Junior Secondary 3 (Chinese: 初三; pinyin: Chū sān)||15–16|
|Senior Secondary 4 (Chinese: 高一; pinyin: Gāo yī)||16–17|
|Senior Secondary 5 (Chinese: 高二; pinyin: Gāo èr)||17–18|
|Senior Secondary 6 (Chinese: 高三; pinyin: Gāo sān)||18–19|
|Tertiary education (College, Polytechnic or University)||Ages vary|
International Schools following International Curriculums
There are many students who attend international schools in Malaysia. Typically, students either are enrolled in international schools from either Year 7 onwards, as the public education system for secondary school students is entirely in Bahasa Malaysia, whereas most Universities and Colleges conduct their lectures in the English Language. Many of these parents also wish for their children to pursue an international education in the future, and entering an English Medium environment enables students to be prepared for that. International schools in Malaysia follow various curriculums, such as the Cambridge International Curriculum (UK), Australian Curriculum (Western Australia), Canadian Curriculum (Ontario) and the IB Curriculum (Switzerland). Many students from International Schools enter University at the age of 17 due to the age arrangements.
|Tertiary education (College, Polytechnic or University)||Ages vary|
There is no fixed rules on when a child needs to start preschool education but majority would start when the child turns 3 years old. Schooling can begin earlier, from 3–6, in kindergarten. Preschool education usually lasts for 2 years, before they proceed to primary school at age 7. There is no formal preschool curriculum except a formal mandatory training and certification for principals and teachers before they may operate a preschool. The training covers lessons on child psychology, teaching methodologies, and other related curricula on childcare and development. Preschool education is not compulsory.
Preschool education is mainly provided by private for-profit preschools, though some are run by the government or religious groups. Some primary schools have attached preschool sections. Attendance in a preschool programme is not universal; while people living in urban areas are generally able to send their children to private kindergartens, few do in rural areas. Registered preschools are subjected to zoning regulations and must comply to other regulations such as health screening, fire hazard assessment and educational guidelines. Many preschools are located in high density residential areas, where normal residential units compliant to regulations are converted into the schools.
Primary education in Malaysia begins at age seven and lasts for six years, referred to as Year (Tahun) 1 to 6 (also known as Standard (Darjah) 1 to 6). Year 1 to Year 3 are classified as Level One (Tahap Satu) while Year 4 to Year 6 are considered as Level Two (Tahap Dua). Students are promoted to the next year regardless of their academic performance.
From 1996 until 2000, the Penilaian Tahap Satu (PTS) or the Level One Evaluation was administered to Year 3 students. Excellence in this test allowed students to skip Year 4 and attend Year 5 instead. However, the test was removed from 2001 onwards due to concerns that parents and teachers were unduly pressuring students to pass the exam.
Before progressing to secondary education, Year 6 pupils sit for the Primary School Achievement Test (Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah, UPSR). The subjects tested are Malay comprehension, Malay writing, English comprehension, English writing, Science and Mathematics. In addition to the six subjects, Chinese comprehension and written Chinese are compulsory in Chinese schools, while Tamil comprehension and written Tamil are compulsory in Tamil schools.
School types and medium of instruction
Public primary schools are divided into two categories based on the medium of instruction:
- Malay-medium National Schools (Sekolah Kebangsaan, SK)
- non-Malay-medium National-type Schools (Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan, SJK), also known as "vernacular schools", further divided into
All schools admit students regardless of racial and language background.
Malay and English are compulsory subjects in all schools. All schools use the same syllabus for non-language subjects regardless of the medium of instruction. The teaching of the Chinese language is compulsory in SJK(C), and Tamil language is compulsory in SJK(T). Additionally, a National School must provide the teaching of Chinese or Tamil language, as well as indigenous languages wherever practical, if the parents of at least 15 pupils in the school request that the particular language be taught.
In January 2003, a mixed medium of instruction was introduced so that students would learn Science and Mathematics in English. Due to pressure from the Chinese community, SJK(C) teach Science and Mathematics in both English and Chinese. However, the government reversed the policy of teaching Science and Mathematics in English in July 2009, and previous languages of instruction will be reintroduced in stages from 2012.
By degree of government funding, National Schools are government-owned and operated, while National-type Schools are mostly government-aided, though some are government-owned. In government-aided National-type Schools, the government is responsible for funding the school operations, teachers' training and salary, and setting the school curriculum, while the school buildings and assets belong to the local ethnic communities, which elect a board of directors for each school to safeguard the school properties. Between 1995 and 2000, the Seventh Malaysia Plan allocation for primary education development allocated 96.5% to National Schools which had 75% of total enrolment. Chinese National-type Schools (21% enrolment) received 2.4% of the allocation while Tamil National-type Schools (3.6% enrolment) received 1% of the allocation.
Previously, there were also other types of National-type Schools. The English National-type Schools were assimilated to become National Schools as a result of decolonisation. Others, such as those for the Punjabi language were closed due to the dwindling number of students. The role of promoting the Punjabi language and culture is currently fulfilled by Gurdwaras (Sikh temples) based organisations.
The division of public education at the primary level into National and National-type Schools has been criticised for allegedly creating racial polarisation at an early age. To address the problem, attempts have been made to establish Sekolah Wawasan ("vision schools"). Under the concept, three schools (typically one SK, one SJK(C) and one SJK(T)) would share the same school compound and facilities while maintaining different school administrations, ostensibly to encourage closer interaction. However, this was met with objections from most of the Chinese and Indian communities as they believe this will restrict the use of their mother tongue in schools.
Public secondary education in Malaysia is provided by National Secondary Schools (Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan, SMK). National Secondary Schools use Malay as the main medium of instruction because Malay language is the National language of Malaysia while English is a compulsory subject in all schools. Since 2003, Science and Mathematics had been taught in English, however in 2009 the government decided to revert to use Malay starting in year 2012.
As in primary schools, a National Secondary School must provide teaching of Chinese and Tamil languages, as well as indigenous languages wherever practical, on request of parents of at least 15 pupils in the school. In addition, foreign languages such as Arabic or Japanese may be taught at certain schools.
Secondary education lasts for five years, referred to as Form (Tingkatan) 1 to 5. Form 1 to Form 3 are known as Lower Secondary (Menengah Rendah), while Form 4 and 5 are known as Upper Secondary (Menengah Atas). Most students who had completed primary education are admitted to Form 1. Students from national-type primary schools have the additional requirement to obtain a minimum C grade for the Malay subjects in UPSR, failing which they will have to attend a year-long transition class, commonly called "Remove" (Kelas/Tingkatan Peralihan), before proceeding to Form 1. As in primary schools, students are promoted to the next year regardless of their academic performance.
Co-curricular activities are compulsory at the secondary level, where all students must participate in at least 2 activities for most states, and 3 activities for the Sarawak region. There are many co-curricular activities offered at the secondary level, varying at each school and each student is judged based in these areas. Competitions and performances are regularly organised. Co-curricular activities are often categorised under the following: Uniformed Groups, Performing Arts, Clubs & Societies, Sports & Games. Student may also participate in more than 2 co-curricular activities.
At the end of Form 3, the Pentaksiran Tingkatan 3 (PT3) or Form Three Assessment is taken by students. Based on PT3 results and choice, they will be given three streams to choose from, (1)Academic Stream (Science/Art), Technical and Vocational Stream, and Religious Stream. The Academic stream is generally more desirable. Students are allowed to shift to the Arts stream from the Science stream, but rarely vice versa. In 2013, the government announced to replace Lower Certificate of Education (LCE) evaluation system or "Penilaian Menengah Rendah" with another assessment system which is the Form 3 Assessment or Pentaksiran Tingkatan 3 (PT3).
At the end of Form 5, students are required to take the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) or Malaysian Certificate of Education examination, before graduating from secondary school. The SPM was based on the old British 'School Certificate' examination before it became General Certificate of Education 'O' Levels examination, which became the GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education). As of 2006, students are given a GCE 'O' Level grade for their English paper in addition to the normal English SPM paper. (Previously, this was reported on result slips as a separate result labelled 1119, which meant students received two grades for their English papers.) This separate grade is given based on the marks of the essay-writing component of the English paper. The essay section of the English paper is remarked under the supervision of officials from the British 'O' Levels examination. Although not part of their final certificates, the 'O' Level grade is included on their results slip.
Shortly after the release of the 2005 SPM results in March 2006, the Education Ministry announced it was considering reforming the SPM system due to what was perceived as over-emphasis on As. Local educators appeared responsive to the suggestion, with one professor at the University of Malaya deploring university students who could not write letters, debate, or understand footnoting. He complained that "They don't understand what I am saying. ... I cannot communicate with them." He claimed that "Before 1957 (the year of independence), school heroes were not those with 8As or 9As, they were the great debaters, those good in drama, in sport, and those leading the Scouts and Girl Guides." A former Education Director-General, Murad Mohd Noor, agreed, saying that "The rat race now begins at Standard 6 with the UPSR, with the competition resulting in parents forcing their children to attend private tuition." He also expressed dismay at the prevalence of students taking 15 or 16 subjects for the SPM, calling it "unnecessary".
A subset of the public secondary schools are known as National-type Secondary Schools (Sekolah Menengah Jenis Kebangsaan, SMJK). At Malayan Independence (1957), it was decided that secondary education would be provided in Malay-medium National Secondary Schools and English-medium National-type Secondary Schools. Fee paying, English-medium schools owned and administered by missionaries/religious bodies were offered government aid provided that they adopted the national curriculum. Secondary schools using other languages as medium of instruction, most of them Chinese schools, were offered government aid on the condition that they convert into English-medium schools. In the 1970s, as the government began to abolish English-medium education in public schools, all National-type Secondary School were gradually converted into Malay-medium schools. The term "National-type Secondary School" is not present in the Education Act of 1996, which blurred the distinction between SMK and SMJK. However, Chinese educational groups are unwelcoming of the new development and continue to push for the distinction to be made between the 78 formerly Chinese-medium schools and other secondary schools. The schools continue to have "SMJK" on the school signboards and boards of directors continue to manage the school properties, as opposed to schools that are directly managed by the government. Most former Chinese-medium SMJK continue to have a majority Chinese student and teacher population, usually only accept students from Chinese-medium primary schools, have Chinese language as a compulsory subject and have bilingual (Malay and Chinese) school announcements.
Other types of government or government-aided secondary schools include Religious Secondary School (Sekolah Menengah Agama), Technical Schools (Sekolah Menengah Teknik), Fully Residential Schools and MARA Junior Science College (Maktab Rendah Sains MARA).
Within the national public school system are a few magnet type/charter public high schools. Admissions are very selective, reserved for students who demonstrate outstanding academic achievement and potential at the elementary level, Year/Standard 1 through 6. These schools are either full-time day or boarding schools ('asrama penuh'). Examples of these schools are Malacca High School, Royal Military College (Malaysia) and Penang Free School.
Residential schools or Sekolah Berasrama Penuh are also known as Science Schools. These schools used to cater mainly for Malay elites but have since expanded as schools for nurturing Malays who are outstanding academically or those displaying talents in sports and leadership. The schools are modelled after British Boarding School.
Post-secondary education (Pre University)
After the SPM, students from public secondary school would have a choice of either studying Form 6 or the matriculation (pre-university). If they are accepted to continue studying in Form 6, they will also take the Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia (which is usually abbreviated as STPM) or Malaysian Higher School Certificate examination (its British equivalent is the General Certificate of Education A Level examination or internationally, the Higher School Certificate). STPM is regulated by the Malaysian Examinations Council. Although it is generally taken by those desiring to attend public universities in Malaysia, it is internationally recognised and may also be used, though rarely required, to enter private local universities for undergraduate courses.
Additionally all students may apply for admission to matriculation. This matriculation is a one or two-year programme run by the Ministry of Education. Previously, it was a one-year programme, but beginning 2006, 30% of all matriculation students were offered two-year programmes.
Not all applicants for matriculation are admitted and the selection criteria are not publicly declared, which has led to speculation that any criteria existing may not be adhered to. A race-based quota is applied on the admission process, with 90% of the places being reserved for the Bumiputeras, and the other 10% for the non-Bumiputeras.
Having been introduced after the abolishment of a racial-quota-based admission into universities, the matriculation programme continues the role of its predecessor, albeit in modified form. The matriculation programme adopts a semester basis examination (two semesters in a year). Similarly, STPM involves three-term examinations (one final examination every term), two resit examinations at the end of the final term (if desired by students), as well as coursework depending on each subject (except for General Studies where coursework is mandatory) covering all one and a half years' syllabus.
The Centre for Foundation Studies in Science, University of Malaya, offers two programmes only for Bumiputera students : i) The Science Program, a one-year course under the Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Higher Education. After completing the program, the students are placed into various science-based courses in local universities through the meritocracy system. ii) The Special Preparatory Program to Enter the Japanese Universities, a two-year intensive programme under the Look East Policy Division of the Public Service Department of Malaysia in co-operation with the Japanese Government.
Some students undertake their pre-university studies in private colleges. They may opt for programmes such as the British A Level programme, the Canadian matriculation programme or the equivalent of other national systems – namely the Australian NSW Board of Studies Higher School Certificate and the American High School Diploma with AP subjects. More recently, the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme is becoming more popular as a pre-university option.
The Government has claimed that admission to universities are purely meritocracy based and do not have plans to change the system.
Tertiary education is heavily subsidised by the government.
Before the introduction of the matriculation system, students aiming to enter public universities had to complete an additional 18 months of secondary schooling in Form 6 and sit the Malaysian Higher School Certificate (Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia, STPM); equivalent to the British Advanced or A Level.
Since the introduction of the matriculation programme as an alternative to STPM in 1999, students who completed the 12-month programme in matriculation colleges (kolej matrikulasi in Malay) can enrol in local universities. However, in the matriculation system, only 10% of the places are open to non-Bumiputra students. Excellence in these examinations does not guarantee a place in a public university. The selection criteria are largely opaque as no strictly enforced defined guidelines exist.
The classification of tertiary education in Malaysia is organised upon the Malaysian Qualifications Framework (MQF) which seeks to set up a unified system of post secondary qualifications offered on a national basis in the vocational and higher education sectors.
From 2004 to 2013, the government formed the Ministry of Higher Education to oversee tertiary education in Malaysia.
The government announced a reduction of reliance of racial quotas in 2002, instead leaning more towards meritocracy. Before 2004, all lecturers in public tertiary institutions were required to have some post-graduate award as a qualification. In October 2004, this requirement was removed and the Higher Education Ministry announced that industry professionals who added value to a course could apply for lecturing positions directly to universities even if they did not have postgraduate qualifications. To head off possible allegations that the universities faced a shortage of lecturers, Deputy Higher Education Minister Datuk Fu Ah Kiow said "This is not because we are facing a shortage of lecturers, but because this move will add value to our courses and enhance the name of our universities... Let's say Bill Gates and Steven Spielberg, both [undergraduates but] well known and outstanding in their fields, want to be teaching professors. Of course, we would be more than happy to take them in." He went on to offer as an example the field of architecture whereby well-known architects recognised for their talents do not have master's degrees.
There are a number of public universities established in Malaysia. The academic independence of public universities' faculty has been questioned. Critics like Bakri Musa cite examples such as a scientist who was reprimanded by Deputy Prime Minister Najib Razak for "publishing studies on air pollution" and a professor of mathematics at the National University of Malaysia who was reproved for criticising the government policy of teaching mathematics and science in English at the primary and secondary levels.
Students have the option of enrolling in private tertiary institutions after secondary studies. Private universities are gaining a reputation for international quality education and students from all over the world attend them. Many of these institutions offer courses in co-operation with a foreign institute or university — especially in the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia — allowing students to spend a portion of their course abroad as well as getting overseas qualifications. One such example is Tunku Abdul Rahman University College which partnered with Sheffield Hallam University and Coventry University.
Many private colleges offer programmes whereby the student does part of his degree course here and part of it in the other institution; this is called "twinning". The nature of these programs is diverse and ranges from the full "twinning" program where all credits and transcripts are transferable and admission is automatic to programs where the local institution offers an "associate degree" which is accepted at the discretion of the partnering university. In the latter case, acceptance of transcripts and credits is at the discretion of the partner. Some of them are branch campuses of these foreign institutions. In addition, four reputable international universities have set up their branch campuses in Malaysia since 1998. A branch can be seen as an 'offshore campus' of the foreign university, which offers the same courses and awards as the main campus. Local and international students can acquire these identical foreign qualifications in Malaysia at a lower fee. Some of the foreign university branch campuses in Malaysia are:
- University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus
- Monash University Malaysia Campus
- Curtin University, Malaysia
- Swinburne University of Technology Sarawak Campus
- Newcastle University Medicine Malaysia (NUMed)
- University of Southampton Malaysia Campus
- Heriot-Watt University Malaysia
- University of Reading Malaysia
- Xiamen University Malaysia
- Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland and University College Dublin Malaysia Campus
The net outflow of academics from Malaysia led to a "brain gain" scheme by then (1995) Prime Minister Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad. The scheme set a target of attracting 5,000 talents annually. In 2004, Science, Technology and Innovation Minister, Datuk Dr Jamaluddin Jarjis in a parliamentary reply stated that the scheme attracted 94 scientists (24 Malaysians) in pharmacology, medicine, semi-conductor technology and engineering from abroad between 1995 and 2000. At the time of his reply, only one was remaining in Malaysia.
The following is a list of the polytechnics in Malaysia in order of establishment:
|Official Name in Malay||Acronym||Foundation||Type||Location||Link|
|Politeknik Ungku Omar||PUO||1969||Premier Polytechnic (University Status)||Ipoh, Perak|||
|Politeknik Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah||POLISAS||1976||Conventional Polytechnic||Kuantan, Pahang|||
|Politeknik Sultan Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah||POLIMAS||1984||Conventional Polytechnic||Bandar Darul Aman, Kedah|||
|Politeknik Kota Bharu||PKB||1985||Conventional Polytechnic||Ketereh, Kelantan|||
|Politeknik Kuching Sarawak||PKS||1987||Conventional Polytechnic||Kuching, Sarawak|||
|Politeknik Port Dickson||PPD||1990||Conventional Polytechnic||Si Rusa, Negeri Sembilan|||
|Politeknik Kota Kinabalu||PKK||1996||Conventional Polytechnic||Kota Kinabalu, Sabah|||
|Politeknik Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah||PSA||1997||Premier Polytechnic (University Status)||Shah Alam, Selangor|||
|Politeknik Ibrahim Sultan||PIS||1998||Premier Polytechnic (University Status)||Pasir Gudang, Johor|||
|Politeknik Seberang Perai||PSP||1998||Conventional Polytechnic||Permatang Pauh, Pulau Pinang|||
|Politeknik Melaka||PMK||1999||Conventional Polytechnic||Malacca|||
|Politeknik Kuala Terengganu||PKKT||1999||Conventional Polytechnic||Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu|||
|Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin||PSMZA||2001||Conventional Polytechnic||Dungun, Terengganu|||
|Politeknik Merlimau||PMM||2002||Conventional Polytechnic||Merlimau, Malacca|||
|Politeknik Sultan Azlan Shah||PSAS||2002||Conventional Polytechnic||Behrang, Perak|||
|Politeknik Tuanku Sultanah Bahiyah||PTSB||2002||Conventional Polytechnic||Kulim, Kedah|||
|Politeknik Sultan Idris Shah||PSIS||2003||Conventional Polytechnic||Sungai Air Tawar, Selangor|||
|Politeknik Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin||PTSS||2003||Conventional Polytechnic||Ulu Pauh, Perlis|||
|Politeknik Muadzam Shah||PMS||2003||Conventional Polytechnic||Bandar Muadzam Shah, Pahang|||
|Politeknik Mukah Sarawak||PMU||2004||Conventional Polytechnic||Mukah, Sarawak|||
|Politeknik Balik Pulau||PBU||2007||Conventional Polytechnic||Balik Pulau, Pulau Pinang|||
|Politeknik Jeli||PJK||2007||Conventional Polytechnic||Jeli, Kelantan|||
|Politeknik Nilai||PNS||2007||Conventional Polytechnic||Negeri Sembilan|||
|Politeknik Banting||PBS||2007||Conventional Polytechnic||Kuala Langat, Selangor|||
|Politeknik Mersing||PMJ||2008||Conventional Polytechnic||Mersing, Johor|||
|Politeknik Hulu Terengganu||PHT||2008||Conventional Polytechnic||Kuala Berang, Terengganu|||
|Politeknik Sandakan||PSS||2009||Conventional Polytechnic||Sandakan, Sabah|||
|Politeknik METrO Kuala Lumpur||PMKL||2011||METrO Polytechnic||Setiawangsa, Kuala Lumpur|||
|Politeknik METrO Kuantan||PMKU||2011||METrO Polytechnic||Kuantan, Pahang|||
|Politeknik METrO Johor Bahru||PMJB||2011||METrO Polytechnic||Johor Bahru, Johor|||
|Politeknik METrO Betong||PMBS||2012||METrO Polytechnic||Betong, Sarawak|||
|Politeknik METrO Tasek Gelugor||PMTG||2012||METrO Polytechnic||Butterworth, Pulau Pinang|||
|Politeknik Tun Syed Nasir Syed Ismail||PTSN||2013||Conventional Polytechnic||Muar, Johor|||
Other types of schools
Apart from national schools, there are other types of schools in Malaysia.
Islamic religious schools
A system of Islamic religious schools exists in Malaysia. Primary schools are called Sekolah Rendah Agama (SRA), while secondary schools are called Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Agama (SMKA). Another group of religious schools are Sekolah Agama Bantuan Kerajaan (SABK). SABK includes secondary schools and may also include a type of primary schools called community religious schools or sekolah agama rakyat (SAR).
The SAR schools teach Muslim students subjects related to Islam such as early Islamic history, Arabic language and Fiqh. It is not compulsory though some states such as Johor make it mandatory for all Muslim children aged six to twelve to attend the schools as a complement to the mandatory primary education. In the final year, students will sit an examination for graduation. Most SAR are funded by respective states and managed by states' religious authority. Previously, former Prime Minister Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohammad suggested to the government that the SARs should be closed down and integrated into the national schools. However, his proposal was met with resistance and later, the matter was left to die quietly. Such schools still exist in Malaysia, but are generally no longer the only part of a child's education in urban areas. Students in rural parts of the country do still attend these schools. Some of the academic results published by these schools are accepted by mainline universities by taking Malaysia High Certificate of Religious Study (Sijil Tinggi Agama Malaysia, abbreviated as STAM), and many of these students continue their education in locations such as Pakistan or Egypt. Some of their alumni include Nik Adli (son of PAS spiritual leader Nik Aziz). SAR may become part of SABK formed in 2005.
Some parents also opt to send their children for religious classes after secular classes. Sunday schools and after school classes at the mosque are various options available. In many normal schools, there are also religious classes called Kelas Aliran Agama.
Chinese independent high schools
After receiving primary education in national-type primary schools, some students from SJK(C) may choose to study in a Chinese Independent High School（Chinese: 华文独立中学）. Chinese independent high schools are funded by the Malaysian Chinese public, with UCSCAM (United Chinese School Committees' Association of Malaysia, also known as Dong Zong after its Chinese acronym) as the overall co-ordination body. Students in Chinese independent high schools study in three junior middle levels and three senior middle levels; each level takes one year. Like the students in public secondary schools, students in Chinese independent high schools are put into several streams like Science or Art/Commerce in the senior middle levels. However, some schools recently provided unique streams like Electrical Engineering, Food and Beverage Studies or Arts Design. The medium of instruction in Chinese independent high schools is Mandarin and uses simplified Chinese characters in writing.
Students in Chinese independent high schools take standardised tests known as the Unified Examination Certificate (UEC) at the end of Junior Middle 3 and Senior Middle 3. UEC has been run by UCSCAM since 1975 and has won ISO9001 certification from Malaysia, China, UK,Japan and so on. The UEC is available in three levels: Vocational Unified Exam (UEC-V), UEC Junior Middle Level (UEC-JML/JUEC) and Senior Middle Level (UEC-SML/SUEC). The syllabus and examinations for the UEC-V and UEC-JML are only available in the Chinese language. The UEC-SML has questions for mathematics, sciences (biology, chemistry and physics), bookkeeping, accounting and commerce in both Chinese and English.
The government of Malaysia does not recognise the UEC-SML currently, hence the UEC holders are not accepted into public universities in Malaysia. UEC-SML is however, accepted by most private universities and colleges in Malaysia. In addition, UEC-SML is recognised as an entrance qualification in many tertiary educational institutions internationally, including those in The United States, the United Kingdom, Taiwan, Japan, Mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Australia and some European countries.
After the General Election 2018 in Malaysia, the incoming Pakatan Harapan government had promised for UEC to be recognised for entrance into public universities and civil service in Malaysia. It is a matter that is still under consideration and has not been implemented.
Dong Jiao Zong's policy
A "rooted" Chinese
According to the UCSCAM, it was the British colonial policy (1786–1957) to allow vernacular language schools to exist and develop, along with Sekolah Pondok (Malays) and Sekolah Tamil (Indians). This was part of the British strategy of "dividing and rule". For those who are willing to attend English schools, they will gain better opportunities in employment than any other schools, sometimes at the expense of their own racial/ethnic and religious root(s). Nevertheless, the development of Chinese language education thrived due to the conformity to the divide and rule policy. Before Malaysia gained independence, the Chinese had 1300 primary schools, nearly 100 high schools, and even a tertiary institution, Nanyang University, built without the financial support of the government. The report of Dong Zong claimed that the main reason for many Chinese parents sending their children to Chinese schools was that they generally hoped their children would retain their Chinese identity, with love and awareness of the nation of Malaysia, love of their own culture and traditions, ethnic pride, and most importantly being aware of their ethnic roots.
Lim Lian Geok (simplified Chinese: 林连玉; traditional Chinese: 林連玉), known as the "Soul of the Malaysian Chinese" (Chinese: 族魂), the former president of UCSCAM regarded cultural right as of utmost importance since culture is the soul of every ethnicity, deserving the most respect among all of the rights. He said: "One’s culture is the soul of one’s nation, and its value as important to us as our lives.", "We, Chinese become Malayan nationals on the condition that we do our duty and loyalty to this country, not on the condition that we abandon our mother tongue and destroy our culture.", "Malayan was a virgin land, it gain the prosperous of today under the efforts of all nations." and "In ethnically diverse nations, harmony, friendship, peace and cooperation are important principles, but all must be based on equality."
The UCSCAM believed that the government of Malaysia had a "final goal" (referring to the Razak Report) to eradicate the Chinese schools and Tamil schools. The report claimed that the government of Malaysia's culture and language education policy, over the past 50 years was, to not give up implementation of the "final goal": a final "national school" with the Malay language (National language) as the main medium of instruction. The language of other ethnic groups, namely Chinese and Tamil, thus could only serve as a foreign language. The reason given by the government was that the Chinese and Tamil primary schools were the root cause of disunity of this country. To achieve "national unity", all other non-national schools should be restricted, and finally merged with the national school.
"Do not give up and do not compromise"
The standpoint of UCSCAM is that only the implementation of a multilingual school policy befits Malaysia's multi-ethnic, multi-cultural, multi-linguistic and multi-religious society. Dong Jiao Zong's distinctive position for this protest has remained unchanged over the last 50 years. 
Dong Zong promote racism
Malaysian Prime Minister Dr Mahathir Mohamad has called Dong Zong as a racist organization after the chinese education group opposition to the introduction of Jawi Khat into school syllabus. He also added that Dong Zong don't like Malay and did not want their children mix with Malay children that is why they also oppose Sekolah Wawasan, where Chinese, Tamil and national schools are placed in a single campus.
International schools use curricula of foreign countries or international curricula such as International Baccalaureate, Edexcel or Cambridge International Examinations. See Template:International schools in Malaysia for a listing.
Present-day Malaysia introduced Western style school uniforms (pakaian seragam sekolah) in the late 19th century during the British colonial era. Today, school uniforms are almost universal in the public and private school systems. Standardised beginning 1 January 1970, public school uniforms are compulsory for all students[who?] and standardised nationwide.
A common version of Malaysian school uniform is of public schools. The dress code for males is the most standardised while female uniforms are more varied based on the religion of students and the type of schools. Male students are required to wear a collared shirt with a pair of shorts or long pants. Female students may wear a knee-length pinafore and a collared shirt, a knee-length skirt and a collared shirt, or a baju kurung consisting of a top and a long skirt with an optional hijab (tudung) for Muslim students. White socks and shoes of black or white are almost universally required for students, while ties are included in certain dress codes. Prefects, Librarians, Form Six students(varies in some school) and students with other additional school duties may wear uniforms of different colours; colours may differ between primary and secondary schools.
Education in Malaysia is monitored by the federal government Ministry of Education. In July 2006, Higher Education Deputy Minister Datuk Ong Tee Keat stated that a review of the controversial Universities and University Colleges Act 1971 will be held among Malaysian MPs. The ruling political alliance is composed of ethnically based parties and one of the concessions allowed by the controlling Malay party is to allow the Chinese and Indian parties to start colleges.
National Education Blueprint 2006–2010
In 2006, the National Education Blueprint 2006–10 was released. The Blueprint set a number of goals, such as establishing a National Pre-School Curriculum, setting up 100 new classes for students with special needs, increasing the percentage of single-session schools to 90% for primary schools and 70% for secondary schools, and decreasing class sizes from 31 to 30 students in primary schools and from 32 to 30 in secondary schools by the year 2010. The Blueprint also provided a number of statistics concerning weaknesses in education. According to the Blueprint, 10% of primary schools and 1.4% of secondary schools do not have a 24-hour electricity supply, 20% and 3.4% respectively do not have a public water supply, and 78% and 42% are over 30 years old and require refurbishing. It was also stated that 4.4% of primary students and 0.8% of secondary students had not mastered the 3Ms (reading, writing and arithmetic). The drop-out rate for secondary schools was given as 9.3% in urban areas and 16.7% in rural areas.
The Blueprint also aimed to address the problem of racial polarisation in schools. Under the Blueprint, schools will hold seminars on the Constitution of Malaysia, motivational camps to increase cultural awareness, food festivals to highlight different ethnic cooking styles, and essay competitions on different cultural traditions. Mandarin and Tamil language classes will be held in national schools, beginning with a pilot project in 220 schools in 2007.
The Blueprint has been subject to some criticism. Academic Khoo Kay Kim has criticised the plan, saying:
We do not need this blueprint to produce excellent students. What we need is a revival of the old education system... meaning the education system we had before 1957. That was when we saw dedication from the teachers. The Malaysian education system then was second to none in Asia. We did not have sports schools but we produced citizens who were Asian class, if not world class.
National Education Blueprint 2013–2025
In 2013, the National Education Blueprint was released. It covers the education of Malaysian starting from Preschool until Post-Secondary.The approach of the blueprint was ground-breaking as it uses multiple perspectives to evaluate and assess the performance of Malaysia's education system. This included the World Bank, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and six local universities. The Ministries also worked with other governmental agencies to ensure alignment with other policies related to education. Furthermore, the Ministry engaged also with the people in a new scale; Over 55000 Ministry officials, teachers, school leaders, parents, students, and members of public across Malaysia via interviews, focus groups, surveys, National Dialogue town halls, Open Days and round table discussions. More than 200 memorandums and 3000 articles and blog post were submitted by the Ministry.
The blueprint highlights aspirations to ensure universal access and full enrolment of all children from preschool through to upper secondary school level by 2020; aspirations for Malaysia to be in the top third of countries in terms of performance in international assessments, as measured by outcomes in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) within 15 years, aspires to halve the current urban-rural, socio-economic and gender achievement gaps by 2020; aspirations to create a system whereby students have opportunities to build shared experiences and aspirations that form the foundation for unity, aspires to further maximise student outcomes within current budget levels.
It also has identified 11 shifts that will need to occur to deliver the step change in outcomes envisioned by Malaysians. Each shift is to address at least one of the five system outcomes of access, quality, equity, unity and efficiency. Among the many steps to be taken, it is part of the plan to increase compulsory schooling from six to 11 years, starting at the age of six years supported by targeted retention programmes, launch the Secondary School Standard Curriculum or Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Menengah (KSSM) and revised Primary School Standard Curriculum or Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah (KSSR) in 2017 to embed a balanced set of knowledge and skills such as creative thinking, innovation, problem-solving and leadership, lay out clear learning standards so that students and parents understand the progress expected within each year of schooling, revamp the national examination and school-based assessments in stages, whereby by 2016 at least 40 per cent of questions in Ujian Penilaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR) and 50 per cent in Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) are higher-order thinking questions and by the end of 2013, is to build academic and career counselling services into the secondary school timetable to help students make better informed choices about the various education pathways on offer.
By 2025, it is to ensure that Orang Asli students, other minority groups and students with physical or learning disabilities go to schools with the facilities and equipment needed to create a conductive and supportive learning environment, from 2016, is to ensure that English is made a compulsory subject to pass for SPM, by 2025, is to ensure that every student is encouraged to learn an additional language in the move to equip them well for entering the workforce in a globalising world, will focus on building up its cadre of Chinese, Tamil and Arabic language teachers to ensure that the supply of teachers matches student demand, besides expanding the provision of other important languages such as Spanish, French and Japanese, from 2013, is to ensure that the entry bar for teachers is raised to be amongst the top 30 per cent of graduates, from 2013, is to ensure that teachers enjoy a reduced administrative burden so that they can focus the majority of their time on their core function of teaching, with some administrative functions moved to a centralised service centre or to a dedicated administrative teacher at the school level, by 2015, is to ensure that all schools meet basic infrastructure requirements, starting with Sabah and Sarawak, is to ensure that the Trust School model is expanded to 500 schools by 2025, including by alumni groups and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) as potential sponsors, will publish an annual report on the progress made against each initiative outlined in the blueprint, will undertake a stock-take at key milestones in the blueprint journey in 2015, 2020 and 2025.
Issues in Malaysian education
The history of issues in Malaysian education started since the British government period: the Barnes Report in 1951 to unite all races with the colonial language. The later Razak Report was made to replace the unsuccessful Barnes Report, and the system remains until today.
The issue of language and schools is a key issue for many political groups in Malaysia. UMNO champions the cause of using Malay as the medium of instruction in all schools. However, under the Razak Report, primary schools using the Chinese and Tamil language as medium of instruction are retained. Up until 1981 in Peninsular Malaysia (and some years later in Sabah and Sarawak), there were English-medium schools, set up by the former colonial government and Christian missionaries. Following the implementation of the 1967 National Language Act which stipulated the conversion of all English-medium schools to Malay-medium schools; as well with severe race riots in Kuala Lumpur that occurred later in May 1969, English-medium schools were phased out from January 1970; by 1982 these became Malay-medium schools ("national schools").
The existence of national-type schools is used by non-Malays components of the ruling Barisan Nasional to indicate that their culture and identity have not been infringed upon by the Malay people. Dong Jiao Zhong (the association of Chinese school boards and teachers) and other Chinese education organisations took on the role of safeguarding Chinese education in the country and are opposed to Malay replacing Chinese as medium of instruction in Chinese schools. They shape much of the views of the Chinese educated community, which is a key electoral constituency.
In 2002, the government announced that from 2003 onwards, the teaching of Science and Mathematics would be done in English, to ensure that Malaysia would not be left behind in a world that was rapidly becoming globalised. This paved the way for the establishment of mixed-medium education. However, the policy was heavily criticised by Malay linguists and activists, fearing that the policy might erode the usage of Malay language in science and mathematics, which led to a massive rally in Kuala Lumpur on 7 March 2009. Chinese education groups opposed the policy as well, fearing that it might erode the usage of Chinese as the medium of instruction in Chinese schools. The government announced in 2009 that this policy will be reversed in 2012: the teaching of both subjects would revert to Malay.
Due to the lack of Chinese and Indian students attending national schools, coupled with the increasing number of Malay students attending Chinese and Indian national-type schools, the government announced in April 2005 that all national schools will begin teaching Chinese and Tamil to attract more students, not as mother tongue courses but as elective courses.
In 2004 the UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) representative Dr. Richard Leete stated that Malaysia's ranking in the UNDP gender index was not "as high as it should be". Former Higher Education Minister Datuk Dr Shafie Salleh replied that it was not unique to Malaysia. His quoted statistics revealed that there was a 2:1 ratio of boys to girls in polytechnics and at public higher learning institutions. In virtually all developed countries females and males enter university in approximately equal ratios. Thus, the 2:1 ratio in Malaysia is seen as rather peculiar when placed in a global context.
Malaysian polytechnics and community colleges are not degree-producing institutions and none have post-graduate programmes. Most are vocational or technical institutions. This imbalance is corrected once the respective genders leave the education system.
Racial quotas in public universities
In 1973, the Malaysian government implemented an affirmative action program, setting a quota of 55% of university places for Bumiputeras and the remaining 45% for Chinese and Indian students. The university quota system created considerable unhappiness among the Chinese and Indians.
In 2010, the Indian community was shocked at the low 2% to 3% intake of Indian students into public universities. Indians are faring badly under the meritocratic system used for university intake. Under the quota system, about 5% to 10% of the students were Indians.
- Ministry of Education
- Ministry of Higher Education
- Malaysian Qualifications Agency
- Malaysian Qualifications Framework
- Department of Skills Development
- Lists of universities and colleges by country
- Early Intervention Centres in Malaysia
- List of Chancellors and Vice-Chancellors of Malaysian universities
- "Country Facts – Malaysia". Retrieved 16 October 2005.
- "A Glimpse of History". Retrieved 16 October 2005.
- "PM Unveils Caring Budget, More New Measures To Perk Up Economy". (30 September 2005). Bernama.
- Yusop, Husna (16 October 2005). Speaking of culture. The Sun.
- Yusop, Husna (9 March 2006). Time to overhaul education system. Malaysia Today.
- Tan, Peter K. W. (2005), 'The medium-of-instruction debate in Malaysia: English as a Malaysian language?’, Problems & Language Planning 29: 1, pp. 47–66 The medium-of-instruction debate in Malaysia
- "Malaysia bans opening of new universities". Investvine.com. 12 February 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- Puthucheary, Mavis (1978). The Politics of Administration: The Malaysian Experience, p. 9. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-580387-6.
- Puthucheary, pp. 9–10.
- Puthucheary, p. 10.
- Puthucheary, pp. 10–11.
- "Primary School Education". Malaysia.gov.my. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
- Mustafa, Shazwan (22 August 2010). "Malay groups want vernacular schools abolished". The Malaysian Insider. Archived from the original on 25 August 2010. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
- English in Schools: Policy reversed but English hours extended, New Straits Times, 9 July 2009.
- Beech, Hannah (30 October 2006). Not the Retiring Type (page three). TIME.
- Gooch, Liz (10 July 2009). "In Malaysia, English Ban Raises Fears for Future – NYTimes.com". NYTimes. Retrieved 9 July 2009.
- "Experts: Go back to drawing board", p. 22. (21 March 2006). New Straits Times.
- Matriculation, From the official website of Ministry of Education, Malaysia. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- "Academic Qualification Equivalence". StudyMalaysia.com. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- Saw, Swee-Hock; Kesavapany, K (2006). Malaysia: Recent Trends and Challenges. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 259. ISBN 978-981-230-339-4.
- Musa, M. Bakri (2007). Towards A Competitive Malaysia. Petaling Jaya: Strategic Information and Research Development Centre. p. 143. ISBN 978-983-3782-20-8.
- "Collaborative Partnership". Tunku Abdul Rahman University College. Archived from the original on 29 April 2017. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
- "SABK & SMKA". Jabatan Pendidikan Negeri Terengganu.
- "Senarai Sekolah Yang Melaksanakan Kelas Aliran ..." data.gov.my.
- "董总 - Welcome".
- "Lim Lian Geok: Soul of the Malaysian Chinese". LLG Cultural Development Centre. Archived from the original on 26 April 2014.
- "Lim Lian Geok sayings". LLG Cultural Development Centre. Archived from the original on 5 April 2016.
- Reporters, F. M. T. (12 August 2019). "Dong Zong racist, says Dr M on objection over khat". Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
- Constitution of Malaysia Ninth Schedule
- theSun Archived 9 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- Koh, Lay Chin (17 January 2007). "Free hand for 'clusters' to excel", p. 12. New Straits Times.
- "Enhancing racial unity in national schools", p. 13. (17 January 2007). New Straits Times.
- "Review of curricula soon", p. 13. (January 17, 2006). New Straits Times.
- "Unesco DG commends Malaysia for introducing education blueprint - Nation - The Star Online".
- "Highlights of the National Education Blueprint". The Star Online.
- Raymond Hickey (6 December 2012). Standards of English: Codified Varieties around the World. Cambridge University Press. pp. 280–. ISBN 978-1-139-85121-3.
- "Malaysian police fire teargas at protesters: witnesses". MSN News. AFP. Archived from the original on 10 March 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2009.
- "Teaching of Science And Mathematics Back To Bahasa Melayu". Bernama. 8 July 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
- Tan, Hui May (August 2009). "Changing the language of instruction for Mathematics and Science in Malaysia: The PPSMI policy and washback effect of bilingual high-stakes secondary school exit exams. (PhD thesis)" (PDF). Department of Integrated Studies in Education McGill University.
- Tan, May; Ong Saw Lan (March 2011). "Teaching mathematics and science in English in Malaysian classrooms: The impact of teacher beliefs on classroom practices and student learning". Journal of English for Academic Purposes. 10 (1): 5–18. doi:10.1016/j.jeap.2010.11.001.
- Ministry of Education Malaysia official website
- Ministry of Higher Education official website
- Education Malaysia Global Services, official government portal for international students applying to study in Malaysia
- UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Asia, Bangkok, 1973 – The Educational statistics system of Malaysia, 1972
- Schools In Malaysia, School Directory
- MBA in Malaysia