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In Islam, ziyara(h) (Arabic: زيارة ziyārah, "visit") or ziyarat (Persian: زیارت, ziyārat, "pilgrimage") is a form of pilgrimage to sites associated with Muhammad, his family members and descendants (including the Shī‘ī Imāms), his companions and other venerated figures in Islam such as the prophets, Sufi Saints and Islamic scholars. Sites of pilgrimage include mosques, graves, battlefields, mountains, and caves.
Different Muslim-majority countries, speaking many different languages, use different words for these sites where ziyarat is performed.
- Ziyāratgāh – Persian word meaning, "sites of Ziyarat"
- Imāmzādeh – in Iran, tombs of the descendants of the Twelver Imāms
- Dargah (Urdu, Turkish: Dergâh, Persian: درگاہ;, Hindi: दरगाह; literally: "threshold, doorstep [of the interred holy person's spiritual sanctum];" the shrine is considered a "doorstep" to a spiritual realm) – in South Asia, Turkey and Central Asia for tombs of Sufi saints
- Ziarat or Jiarat – in Southeast Asia
- Ziyaratkhana – in South Asia (less common)
- Gongbei (Chinese: 拱北) – in China (from Persian gonbad "dome")
- Mazar – a general term meaning a shrine, typically of a Shi'i Saint or noble.
Etymology and usage
Sufi places of worship and retreat may be built near the graves of famous Sufi Saints; they are often called khanqahs or tekkes. Ziyarat" comes from Arabic: زور "to visit". Iranian and south-Asian Muslims use the word ziyarat for both the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca as well as for pilgrimages to other sites such as visiting a holy place. In Indonesia the term is ziarah for visiting holy places or graves.
Views on Ziyarat
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Majority of Sunni scholars declare that the purpose of visiting the graves, cemeteries and tombs is only to remind people of death, and the dead that are buried there while supplications are made only to Allah. They point out to the Sunni historical sources proving that ziyarat is allowed and was always practiced:
|“||"Whenever he would go to Baghdad, Imam Al-Shafi‘i would pay a visit to the grave of Abū Ḥanīfa. He would stand beside his grave, offer salutation to him and seek his intermediation for the fulfillment of his needs. Ahmad ibn Hanbal did the same practice with respect to his master (Imam ash-Shafi'i) to such an extent that his son would get astonished. Ahmad ibn Hanbal explained to his son that there is nothing wrong in seeking the intermediation of Imam ash-Shafi'i for the removal of difficulties because he, like the sun, was beneficial to the people." (‘Allamah Amini, Al-Ghadir, "Bab Fada'il wa Manaqib Abu Hanifah" (“Virtues and Merits of Abu Hanifah”), vol. 5, p. 194.).||”|
It was narrated from Katheer ibn Zayd al-Madani that al-Muttalib said:
|“||"When Uthman bin Maz'oon died, his bier was brought out and he was buried, then the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) ordered a man to bring a rock but he was not able to carry it. So the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stood up and rolled up his sleeves. Katheer said: al-Muttalib said: the one who narrated that to me from the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: it is as if I can see the whiteness of the arms of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) when he rolled up his sleeves. Then he carried it and placed it at the head (of the grave), and said, “From this I will recognize the grave of my brother, and I can bury those among my family who die near him.” (Narrated by Abu Dawood, 3206. The isnaad of this hadeeth was classed as hasan by al-Haafiz ibn Hajar in al-Talkhees al-Habeer, 2/133.)||”|
Al-Daraqutni reported in his Sunan (2/278) with an isnaad from Haatib that Muhammad said:
|“||“Whoever visits me after I die, it is as if he visited me when I was still alive."||”|
The purpose of visiting a grave is to gain divine knowledge and to pray for the person in the grave.
|“||Neither kissing the grave or moving the hands over the face after touching the grave for blessing, is suitable to the good manners (adab). Gazali, Ihya,IV,711.||”|
|“||Visiting the grave is a duty which is performed for Allah's pleasure and visiting the grave of a father and mother on a Friday is appropriate. Gazali, Ihya, IV, 711||”|
|“||The person who comes solely for the purpose of paying a visit to my grave (grave of Hz.vRasulullah) , has a right on me that I should intercede for him. (‘Ilm al-Fiqh, Vol. V).||”|
There are many reasons for which the Shī‘ah partake in the performance of Ziyarah, none of which include the worship of the people buried within the tombs - Ayatullah Borujerdi and Ayatullah Khomeini have both said
|“||"It is haram (forbidden) to prostrate to anyone except Allah. If the act of prostration in front of the shrines of the Infallible Imams ('a.s.) is a form of thanksgiving to God, there is no objection, otherwise it is haram."||”|
The Shī‘ah do however perform Ziyarah, believing that the entombed figures bear great status in the eyes of God, and seek to have their prayers answered through these people (a form of Tawassul) - Sayyid Muhammad Hasan Musawi writes
|“||"They (the holy figures) are being requested to supplicate to Allah, to deliver the person in need from his affliction, since the supplication of these saintly figures is accepted by Allah."||”|
|“||"God has some areas where he likes to be supplicated in, and the prayer of the supplicator is accepted (in those areas); the sanctuary of Husayn (a.s.) is one of these."||”|
The Ziyarah of the Imāms is also done by the Shī‘ah, not only as a means of greeting and saluting their masters who lived long before they were born, but also as a means of seeking nearness to God and more of His blessings (barakah).
The Shī‘ah do not consider the hadith collected by al-Bukhari to be authentic, and argue that if things such as Ziyarah and Tawassul were innovations and shirk, Muhammad himself would have prohibited people as a precaution, from visiting graves, or seeking blessings through kissing the sacred black stone at the Ka‘bah. Some Sunni scholars such as Ibn Taymiyyah, have also rejected the notion that such things are innovations (bid‘ah).
It is popular Shi'i belief that to be buried near the burial place of the Imams is beneficial. In Shi'i sacred texts it is stated that the time between death and resurrection (barzakh, purgatory) should be spent near the Imams.
- "List of Supplication Ziyarats". Duas.org. Retrieved 2014-02-23.
- Sahih Al-Bukhari (Eng. Trans.) vol.1, p.255, no.427 Sahih Muslim (Eng. Trans.) vol.1, p.269, no.1082, Sunan Abu Dawood (Eng. Trans.) vol.2, p.917, no.3221, Sunan an-Nass’ai vol.1, no.115 and others.
- Ayatullah Borujerdi, Tawdih al-Masa'il, p.172 ; Imam Khumayni, Tahrir al-Wasilah, vol.1, p.150; Risalah-ye Novin, vol.1, p.148.
- Sayyid Muhammad Hasan Musawi, Risalah dar Kitab wa Sunnat, Majmu'ah Maqalat, Kitab Nida'-e Wahdat, Tehran, Chehel-Sutun Publishers, p.259.
- Ibn Shu’ba al-Harrani, Tuhaf al-'Uqul, p.510.
- Moojan Moman, Introduction to Shi'i Islam, Yale University Press, 1985, p.174 ; Ahmad Abdullah Salamah, Shia & Sunni Perspective on Islam, p.52.
- Risalatan Bayn al-Shaykhayn, p.17.
- Majmu'ah Fatawa Ibn Taymiyyah, vol.1, p.106, as cited in al-Mausu'ah al-Fiqhiyyah al-Kuwaitiyyah, vol.14, pp.163-164. Ibn Taymiyya states: "Those who accuse a person of heresy for making tawassul deserve the most severe punishment."
- Takim, Liyakatali N. (2006). The Heirs of the Prophet: Charisma and Religious Authority in Shi'ite Islam. Albany, NY, USA: State University of New York Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-7914-6737-4.
- Gorshunova, Olga V. Trees of Khodzhi Baror: Phytolatry and the Cult of Female Deity in Central Asia // Etnograficheskoye obozreniye, 2008, № 1:71-82. ISSN: 0869-5415
- Privratsky, Bruce G.(2001) Muslim Turkistan: Kazak Religion and Collective Memory. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon.
- Subtelny, M. E. (1989) The cult of holy places: religious practices among Soviet Muslims. Middle East Journal, 43(4): 593–604.
- Ziyarat of Imam Husain
- AL-ARIFEEN for FAQRISM (Spiritualism & Mysticism)
- AL-FAQR for FAQRISM (Spiritualism & Mysticism)
- Views held by The Shia on Ziyarat
- Archnet shrine directory, with pictures
- Madurai Hazrats'Maqbara
- Book: Your Personal Guide to UMRA, HAJJ, and ZIYARAT (pdf file)
- Listing of ziyarat sites
- Visiting the Graves (Sunni)
- Visiting (the graves of) the Righteous (Sunni)
- Visiting (the tomb of) the Prophet (Sunni)