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Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab

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Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb
at-Tamīmī
Calligraphic representation of the name of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab
Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb's name in Islamic calligraphy
TitleShaykh
Personal
Born1703 (1115 A.H)
Died22 June 1792 (1206 AH) (aged 88–89)
ReligionIslam
Children
List
  • ‘Alī (first)
  • Ḥasan
  • Ḥusain
  • Ibrāhīm
  • Abdullāh
  • ‘Alī
  • Fāṭimah
  • ‘Abdulazīz
DenominationSunni
JurisprudenceḤanbalī,[1][2][3][4][5] Ahl al-Ḥadīth/Independent[6][7][8][9]
CreedAṯharī[10]
MovementWahhābiyyah[1][2][3][11][12][13][14]
Salafīyyah[1][3][14][15][16][17][18]
Main interest(s)‘Aqīdah (Islamic theology)
Notable work(s)Kitāb at-Tawḥīd (Arabic: كتاب التوحيد‎; "The Book of Oneness")[3][19][20][16]
Muslim leader
Arabic name
Personal (Ism)Muḥammad
Patronymic (Nasab)ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb ibn Sulaymān ibn ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Rāshid
Teknonymic (Kunya)Abū al-Ḥasan
Epithet (Laqab)an-Najdī
Toponymic (Nisba)at-Tamīmī

Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb at-Tamīmī (/wəˈhɑːb/; Arabic: مُحَمَّدُ بنُ عَبْدِ الوَهَّابِ التَّمِيْمِيُّ‎; 1703 – 22 June 1792) was an Islamic scholar, [3][19][20][16][13] preacher,[22] religious leader,[3] reformer,[23] activist,[24] and theologian[1][2][4][25] from Najd in central Arabia, considered as the eponymous founder of the Wahhabi movement.[1][2][4][13][26][14][27][28][29] His prominent students included his sons Ḥusayn, ʿAbdullāh, ʿAlī, and Ibrāhīm, his grandson ʿAbdur-Raḥman ibn Ḥasan, his son-in-law ʿAbdul-ʿAzīz ibn Muḥammad ibn Saʿūd, Ḥamād ibn Nāṣir ibn Muʿammar, and Ḥusayn āl-Ghannām.

The label "Wahhabi" is not claimed by his followers but rather employed by Western scholars as well as his critics.[3][30][12][16] Born to a family of jurists,[4] Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's early education consisted of learning a fairly standard curriculum of orthodox jurisprudence according to the Hanbali school of Islamic law, which was the school most prevalent in his area of birth.[4] He promoted strict adherence to traditional Islamic law, proclaiming the necessity of returning directly to the Quran and Hadith rather than relying on medieval interpretations, and insisted that every Muslim – male and female – personally read and study the Quran.[31] He opposed taqlid (blind following) and called for the use of ijtihad (independent legal reasoning through research of scripture).[32][33] He had initial rudimentary training in classical Sunni Muslim tradition, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab gradually became opposed to many popular, yet contested, religious practices such as the visitation to and veneration of the shrines and tombs of Muslim saints,[2][4][13][34] which he felt amounted to heretical religious innovation or even idolatry.[4][13][14][34][35] His call for social reform in society was based on the key doctrine of tawhid (oneness of God).[16][36][37]

Despite his teachings being rejected and opposed by many of the most notable Sunni Muslim scholars of the period,[1][4][35][38] including his own father and brother,[1][4][35][38][39] Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab charted a religio-political pact with Muhammad bin Saud to help him to establish the Emirate of Diriyah, the first Saudi state,[2][40] and began a dynastic alliance and power-sharing arrangement between their families which continues to the present day in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.[2][3][41] The Al ash-Sheikh, Saudi Arabia's leading religious family, are the descendants of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab,[3][16][41] and have historically led the ulama in the Saudi state,[41][42] dominating the state's clerical institutions.[41][43]

Early years

Background

Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab is generally acknowledged[Note 1] to have been born in 1703[4][44] into the sedentary and impoverished Arab clan of Banu Tamim[45][46] in 'Uyayna, a village in the Najd region of central Arabia.[44][47] Before the emergence of the Wahhabi movement, there was a very limited history of Islamic education in the area.[46][48] For this reason, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab had modest access to Islamic education during his youth.[46] Despite this,[46][49][50][51] the area had nevertheless produced several notable jurists of the Hanbali school of orthodox Sunni jurisprudence, which was the school of law most prominently practiced in the area.[4] In fact, Ibn ʿAbd-al-Wahhab's own family "had produced several doctors of the school,"[4] with his father, Sulaymān b. Muḥammad, having been the Hanbali jurisconsult of the Najd and his grandfather, ʿAbd al-Wahhāb, having been a judge of Hanbali law.[4]

Early studies

Ibn ʿAbd-al-Wahhab's early education was taught by his father,[4] and consisted of learning the Quran by heart and studying a rudimentary level of Hanbali jurisprudence and Islamic theology as outlined in the works of Ibn Qudamah (d. 1223), one of the most influential medieval representatives of the Hanbali school, whose works were regarded "as having great authority" in the Najd.[4] As the veneration of Muslim saints and the belief in their ability to perform miracles by the grace of God had become one of the most omnipresent and established aspects of Sunni Muslim practice throughout the Islamic world, being an agreed-upon tenet of the faith by the vast majority of the classical scholars,[52][53][54][55][56][57][58] it was not long before Ibn ʿAbd-al-Wahhab began to encounter the omnipresence of saint-veneration in his area as well; and he probably chose to leave Najd and look elsewhere for studies to see if the honoring of saints was as popular in the neighboring places of the Muslim world or the possibility that his home town offered inadequate educational resources. Even today, the reasoning for why he left Najd is unclear.[4]

Pilgrimage to Mecca

After leaving 'Uyayna, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab performed the Greater Pilgrimage in Mecca, where the scholars appear to have held opinions and espoused teachings that were unpalatable to him.[4] After this, he went to Medina, the stay at which seems to have been "decisive in shaping the later direction of his thought."[4] In Medina, he met a Hanbali theologian from Najd named ʿAbd Allāh ibn Ibrāhīm al-Najdī, who had been a supporter of the neo-Hanbali works of Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 1328), the controversial medieval scholar whose teachings had been considered heterodox and misguided on several important points by the vast majority of Sunni Muslim scholars up to that point in history.[59][60][61][62]

Tutelage under Al-Sindhi

Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's teacher, 'Abdallah ibn Ibrahim ibn Sayf, introduced the relatively young man to Mohammad Hayya Al-Sindhi in Medina, who belonged to the Naqshbandi order (tariqa) of Sufism,[63][64] and recommended him as a student.[65][66][67] Muhammad Ibn ʿAbd-al-Wahhab and al-Sindhi became very close, and Ibn ʿAbd-al-Wahhab stayed with him for some time.[65] Muhammad Hayya taught Muhammad Ibn ʿAbd-al-Wahhab to reject popular religious practices associated with walis and their tombs. He also encouraged him to reject rigid imitation (Taqlid) of medeival legal commentaries and develop individual research of scriptures (Ijtihad).[65] Influenced by Al-Sindi's teachings, Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab became critical of the established Madh'hab system, prompting him to disregard the instruements of Usul al-Fiqh in his intellectual approach. Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab rarely made use of Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) and various legal opinions in his writings, by and large forming views based on his direct understanding of Scriptures.[68]

Apart from his emphasis on hadith studies, aversion for the madhhab system and disregard for technical juristic discussions involving legal principles, Ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhāb’s views on ziyārah (visitations to the shrines of Awliyaa) were also shaped by Al-Sindhi. Sindi encouraged his student to reject folk practices associated with graves and saints.[69] Various themes in Al-Sindi's writings, such as his opposition to erecting tombs and drawing human images, would be revived later by the Wahhabi movement.[70] Sindi instilled in Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab the belief that practices like beseeching the dead saints constitued apostasy and resembled the customs of the people of Jahiliyya (pre-Islamic era).[71] In a significant encounter between a young Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab and Al-Sindhi reported by the Najdi historian 'Uthman Ibn Bishr (d. 1288 A.H./ 1871/2 C.E.):

"... one day Shaykh Muḥammad [Ibn ‘Abdi’l-Wahhāb] stood by the chamber of the Prophet where people were calling [upon him or supplicating] and seeking help by the Prophet’s chamber, blessings and peace be upon him. He then saw Muḥammad Ḥayāt [al Sindī] and came to him. The shaykh [Ibn ‘Abdi’l-Wahhāb] asked, “What do you say about them?” He [al-Sindī] said, “Verily that in which they are engaged shall be destroyed and their acts are invalid.”"[72]


Journey to Basra

Following his early education in Medina, Ibn ʿAbd-al-Wahhab traveled outside of the Arabian Peninsula, venturing first to Basra[49][73] which was still an active center of Islamic culture.[4] During his stay in Basra, Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab studied Hadith and Fiqh under the Islamic scholar Muhammad al-Majmu'i. In Basra, Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab came into contact with Shi'is and would write a treatise repudiating the theological doctrines of Rafidah, an extreme sect of Shiism.[74]

Early preaching

His leave from Basra marked the end of his education and as he returned home, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab began to attract followers, including the ruler of 'Uyayna, Uthman ibn Mu'ammar. Once returned to Huraymila, where his father had settled, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab wrote his first work on the Unity of god.[4] With Ibn Mu'ammar, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab agreed to support Ibn Mu'ammar's political ambitions to expand his rule "over Najd and possibly beyond", in exchange for the ruler's support for Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's religious teachings. Initially, he condemned popular folk practices prevalent in Najd on doctrinal grounds, without seeking to enforce his views in practical terms. Starting from 1742, Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab would shift towards an activist stance; and began to implement his reformist ideas.[75] First, he persuaded Ibn Mu'ammar to help him level the grave of Zayd ibn al-Khattab, a companion of Muhammad, whose grave was revered by locals. Secondly, he ordered the cutting down of trees considered sacred by locals, cutting down "the most glorified of all of the trees" himself. Third, he organized the stoning of a woman who confessed to having committed adultery.[76][77]

These actions gained the attention of Sulaiman ibn Muhammad ibn Ghurayr of the tribe of Bani Khalid, the chief of Al-Hasa and Qatif, who held substantial influence in Najd. Ibn Ghurayr threatened Ibn Mu'ammar by denying him the ability to collect a land tax for some properties that Ibn Mu'ammar owned in Al-Hasa if he did not kill or drive away from Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab. Consequently, Ibn Mu'ammar forced Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab to leave.[77][78]

Emergence of Saudi state

Pact with Muhammad bin Saud

First Saudi State (1744–1818)

Upon his expulsion from 'Uyayna, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab was invited to settle in neighboring Diriyah by its ruler Muhammad bin Saud. After some time in Diriyah, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab concluded his second and more successful agreement with a ruler.[79] Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab and Muhammad bin Saud agreed that, together, they would bring the Arabs of the peninsula back to the "true" principles of Islam as they saw it. According to one source, when they first met, bin Saud declared:

This oasis is yours, do not fear your enemies. By the name of God, if all Nejd was summoned to throw you out, we will never agree to expel you.

— Madawi al-Rasheed, A History of Saudi Arabia: 16

Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab replied:

You are the settlement's chief and wise man. I want you to grant me an oath that you will perform jihad against the unbelievers. In return, you will be imam, leader of the Muslim community and I will be leader in religious matters.

— Madawi al-Rasheed, A History of Saudi Arabia: 16

The agreement was confirmed with a mutual oath of loyalty (bay'ah) in 1744.[80][better source needed] From a person who started his career as a lone activist, Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab would become the spiritual guide of the nascent Emirate of Muhammad ibn Saud Al-Muqrin.[81] Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab would be responsible for religious matters and Ibn Saud in charge of political and military issues.[79] This agreement became a "mutual support pact"[82][83] and power-sharing arrangement[84] between the Al Saud family, and the Al ash-Sheikh and followers of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, which has remained in place for nearly 300 years,[85] providing the ideological impetus to Saudi expansion.[86]

Emirate of Diriyah (First Saudi State)

The 1744 pact between Muhammad bin Saud and Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab marked the emergence of the first Saudi state, the Emirate of Diriyah. By offering the Al Saud a clearly defined religious mission, the alliance provided the ideological impetus to Saudi expansion.[43] First conquering Najd, Al Saud's forces expanded the Wahhabi influence to most of the present-day territory of Saudi Arabia,[43] eradicating various popular practices they viewed as akin to polytheism and propagating the doctrines of ʿAbd al-Wahhab.[43][87]

Family

According to academic publications such as the Encyclopædia Britannica while in Baghdad, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab married an affluent woman. When she died, he inherited her property and wealth.[88][89] Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab had six sons; Hussain (died 1809), Abdullah (1751–1829), Hassan, Ali (died 1829), Ibrahim and Abdulaziz[90] who died in his youth. Four of his sons, Hussain, Abdullah, Ali and Ibrahim, established religious schools close to their home in Diriyah and taught the young students from Yemen, Oman, Najd and other parts of Arabia at their majlis.[90] One of their pupils was Husayn Ibn Abu Bakr Ibn Ghannam, a well-known Hanbali scholar.[90] Though al-Uthaymin writes about Ibn Ghannam that he was a Maliki scholar from al-Ahsa.

The descendants of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, the Al ash-Sheikh, have historically led the ulama in the Saudi state,[42] dominating the state's religious institutions.[43] Within Saudi Arabia, the family is held in prestige similar to the Saudi royal family, with whom they share power, and has included several religious scholars and officials.[91] The arrangement between the two families is based on the Al Saud maintaining the Al ash-Sheikh's authority in religious matters and upholding and propagating the Salafi doctrine. In return, the Al ash-Sheikh support the Al Saud's political authority[92] thereby using its religious-moral authority to legitimize the royal family's rule.[93]

Teachings

On Tawhid

Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab sought to revive and purify Islam from what he perceived as non-Islamic popular religious beliefs and practices by returning to what, he believed, were the fundamental principles of the Islamic religion. His works were generally short, full of quotations from the Qur'an and Hadith, such as his main and foremost theological treatise, Kitāb at-Tawḥīd (Arabic: كتاب التوحيد‎; "The Book of Oneness").[4][3][19][20] He taught that the primary doctrine of Islam was the uniqueness and oneness of God (tawhid),[94][95] and denounced what he held to be popular religious beliefs and practices among Muslims that he considered to be akin to polytheism (shirk).

The "core" of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's teaching is found in Kitāb at-Tawḥīd, a theological treatise which draws from material in the Qur'an and the recorded doings and sayings of the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Hadith literature.[96] It preaches that worship in Islam includes conventional acts of worship such as the five daily prayers (Salat); fasting (Sawm); supplication (Dua); seeking protection or refuge (Istia'dha); seeking help (Ist'ana and Istighatha) of Allah.[97][page needed][non-primary source needed]

Traditionally, many Muslims throughout history have held the view that declaring the testimony of faith is sufficient in becoming a Muslim.[98] Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab did not agree with this. He held the view that an individual who believed that there could be intercessors with God was actually performing shirk (polytheism or idolatry). This was the major difference between him and his opponents,[99] and led him to accuse Muslims who engaged in these religious practices to be apostates (a practice known in Islamic jurisprudence as takfir) and idolaters (mushrikin).[100]

On Taqlid

Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab was highly critical of the practice of Taqlid ( blind-following), which in his view, deviated people away from Qur'an and Sunnah. He also advocated for Ijtihad of qualified scholars in accordance with the teachings of Qur'an and Hadith. In his legal writings, Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab referred to a number of sources- Qur'an, hadith , opinions of companions, Salaf as well as the treatises of the 4 schools of thought. Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab argued that Qur'an condemned blind emulation of forefathers and nowhere did it stipulate scholarly credentials for a person to refer to it directly. His advocacy of Ijtihad and harsh denunciation of Taqlid arose widespread condemnation from Sufi orthodoxy in Najd and beyond, compelling him to express many of his legal verdicts ( fatwas ) discreetly, using convincing juristic terms. He differed from Hanbali school in various points of law and in some cases, also departed from the positions of the 4 schools. In his treatise Usul al-Sittah (Six Foundations), Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab vehemently rebuked his detractors for raising the description of Mujtahids to what he viewed as humanely unattainable levels. He condemned the establishment clergy as a class of oppressors who ran a "tyranny of wordly possessions" by exploiting the masses to make money out of their religious activities. The teachings of Medinan hadith scholar Muhammad Hayat as Sindi highly influenced the anti-taqlid views of Ibn 'Abd al Wahhab.[101][102][103][104][105]

Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab opposed partisanship to madhabs (legal schools) and didn't consider it obligatory to follow a particular madhab. Rather, in his view, the obligation is to follow Qur'an and the Sunnah.[106] Referring to the classical scholars Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn Qayyim, ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab condemned the popular practice prevalent amongst his contemporary scholars to blindfollow latter-day legal works and urged Muslims to take directly from Qur'an and Sunnah. He viewed it as a duty upon every Muslim, laymen and scholar, male & female, to seek knowledge directly from the sources. Radically departing from both Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn Qayyim, Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab viewed the entirety of the prevalent mad'hab system of jurisprudence (Fiqh) as a fundamentally corrupt institution, seeking a radical reform of scholarly institutions and preached the obligation of all Muslims to directly refer to the foundational texts of revelation. He advocated a form of scholarly authority based upon the revival of the practice of ittiba, i.e., laymen following the scholars only after seeking evidences. The prevalent legal system was, in his view, a "factory for the production of slavish emulators" symbolic of Muslim decline.[107][108]

Influence on Salafism

Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's movement is known today as Wahhabism (Arabic: الوهابية‎, romanizedWahhābiyyah).[1][2][4][13][14][109][110][111][34][112][113] The designation of his doctrine as Wahhābiyyah actually derives from his father's name, ʿAbd al-Wahhab.[114] Many adherents consider the label "Wahhabism" as a derogatory term coined by his opponents,[3][30][12] and prefer it to be known as the Salafi movement.[115][116][117] Modern scholars of Islamic studies point out that "Salafism" is a term applied to several forms of puritanical Islam in various parts of the world, while Wahhabism refers to the specific Saudi school, which is seen as a more strict form of Salafism. However, modern scholars remark that Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab's followers adopted the term "Salafi" as a self-designation much later.[30] Indeed, his first followers denominated themselves as ahl al-Tawhid[30] and al-Muwahhidun[1][3][30][12][13] ("Unitarians" or "those who affirm/defend the unity of God"),[1][3][30][12][13] and were labeled "Wahhabis" by their opponents.[3][30][12] According to professor Abdullah Saeed, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab should be considered one of the "precursors" of the modern Salafi movement rather than a full-fledged Salafi, because his teachings predate modern Salafism.[20] Nevertheless, the Wahhabi movement is considered by modern scholars "the most influential expression of Salafism of the Islamist sort, both for its role in shaping (some might say: 'creating') modern Islamism, and for disseminating salafi ideas widely across the Muslim world."[12]

On Islamic Revival

As a young scholar in Medina, Muhammad Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab was profoundly influenced by the revivalist doctrines taught by his teachers Muhammad Hayyat ibn Ibrahim al-Sindhi and Abdullah Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Sayf. Much of the Wahhabi teachings such as opposition to saint-cults, radical denunciation of blind-following medieval commentaries, adherence to Scriptures and other revivalist thoughts came from Muhammad Hayyat. Ibn Abd al-Wahhab's revivalist efforts were based on a strong belief in Tawhid (Oneness of Allah) and a firm adherence to the Sunnah. His reformative efforts left exemplary marks on contemporary Islamic scholarship. Viewing Blind adherence ( Taqlid ) as an obstacle to the progress of Muslims, he dedicated himself to educating the masses for them to be vanguards of Islam. According to Ibn Abd al-Wahhab, the degradation and lagging behind of Muslims was due to their neglect of the teachings of Islam, emphasizing that progress could be achieved only by firmly adhering to Islam. He also campaigned against popular Sufi practices associated with istigatha, myths and superstitions.[118][119]

On Sufism

Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab praised Tasawwuf. He stated the popular saying: "From among the wonders is to find a Sufi who is a faqih and a scholar who is an ascetic (zahid)".[120] He described Tasawwuf as "the science of the deeds of the heart, which is known as the science of Suluk", and considered it as an important branch of Islamic religious sciences.[121][122]

At the end of his treatise, Al-Hadiyyah al-Suniyyah, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's son 'Abd Allah speaks positively on the practice of tazkiah (purification of the inner self).[123][124]

'Abd Allah Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab ends his treatise saying:

We do not negate the way of the Sufis and the purification of the inner self from the vices of those sins connected to the heart and the limbs as long as the individual firmly adheres to the rules of Shari‘ah and the correct and observed way. However, we will not take it on ourselves to allegorically interpret (ta’wil) his speech and his actions. We only place our reliance on, seek help from, beseech aid from and place our confidence in all our dealings in Allah Most High. He is enough for us, the best trustee, the best mawla and the best helper. May Allah send peace on our master Muhammad, his family and companions.

[125][126]

On Social Reforms

Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab concerned himself with the social reformation of his people. As an 18th-century reformer, Muhammad ibn 'Abd al Wahhab called for the re-opening of Ijtihad by qualified persons through strict adherence to Scriptures in reforming society. His thoughts reflected the major trends apparent in the 18th-century Islamic reform movements. Unlike other reform movements which were restricted to da'wa, Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab was also able to transform his movement into a successful Islamic state. Thus, his teachings had a profound influence on majority of Islamic reform-revivalist movements since the 18th century. Numerous significant socio-economic reforms would be advocated by the Imam during his lifetime. His reforms touched over various fields such as aqeeda, ibaadat (ritual acts of worship), muamalaat (social interactions), etc. In the affairs of mu'amalat, he harshly rebuked the practice of leaving endowments to prevent the rightful heirs (particularly the females) from receiving their deserved inheritance. He also objected to various forms of riba (usury) as well as the practice of presenting judges with gifts, which according to him, was nothing more than bribing. He also opposed and brought an end to numerous un-Islamic taxes that were forced upon the people.[127][128][129]

The legal writings of Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab reflected a general concern of female welfare and gender justice. In line with this approach, Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab denounced the practice of instant triple talaq, counting it as only a single talaq (regardless of the number of pronouncements). The outlawing of triple talaq is considered to be one of the most significant reforms across the Islamic World in the 20th and 21st centuries. Following a balanced approach in issues of gender, Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab advocated moderation between men and women in social interactions as well as spirituality. According to Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab, women has a place in society with both rights and responsibility, with the society being obliged to respect her status and protect her. He also condemned forced marriages and declared any marriage contracted without the consent of a woman (be it minor, virgin or non-virgin) to be "invalid". This too was a significant reform as well as a break from the four Sunni schools which allowed the wali (ward/guardian) to compel minor daughters into marriage without consent. Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab also stipulated the permission of the guardian as a condition in marriage (in line with traditional Hanbali, Shafi'i and Maliki schools). Nevertheless, as a practical jurist, Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab allowed guardians to delegate the right to contract marriages to women herself, after which his permission cannot be denied. He also allowed women the right to stipulate favourable conditions for her in the marriage contract. Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab also defended the woman's right to divorce through Khul' for various reasons, including in cases wherein she despised her husband. He also prohibited the killing of women, children and various non-combatants such as monks, elderly, blind, shaykhs, slaves and peasants in warfare.[130]

On Muslim saints

Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab strongly condemned the veneration of Muslim saints (Which he described as worship) or associating divinity to beings other than God, labeling it as shirk.[4] Despite his great aversion to venerating the saints after their earthly passing and seeking their intercession, it should nevertheless be noted that Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab did not deny the existence of saints as such; on the contrary, he acknowledged that "the miracles of saints (karāmāt al-awliyāʾ) are not to be denied, and their right guidance by God is acknowledged" when they acted properly during their life.[114]

On Non-Muslims

According to the political scientist Dore Gold,[131] Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab presented a strong anti-Christian and anti-Judaic stance in his main theological treatise Kitāb at-Tawḥīd,[131] describing the followers of both Christian and Jewish faiths as sorcerers[131] who believe in devil-worship,[131] and by citing a hadith attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad[Note 2] he stated that capital punishment for the sorcerer is "that he be struck with the sword".[131][132] Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab asserted that both the Christian and Jewish religions had improperly made the graves of their prophet into places of worship and warned Muslims not to imitate this practice.[131][133] Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab concluded that "The ways of the People of the Book are condemned as those of polytheists."[131][134]

However, Western scholar Natana J. DeLong-Bas defended the position of Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, stating that

despite his at times vehement denunciations of other religious groups for their supposedly heretical beliefs, Ibn Abd al Wahhab never called for their destruction or death … he assumed that these people would be punished in the Afterlife …"[135]

According to Vahid Hussein Ranjbar, "Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab saw it as his mission to restore a more purer and original form of the faith of Islam". In accordance with the his own theology, which upheld a strict doctrine of tawhid (oneness of God), Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab condemned the veneration of any personality other than God and sought the demolition of the tombs of Muslim saints (awliya). Those who didn't adhere to his interpretation of monotheism were considered disbelieving polytheists (including Sufi and Shia Muslims), Christians, Jews, and other Non-Muslims. He also advocated for a literalist interpretation of the Quran and its laws.[136]

Reception

By contemporaries

The doctrines of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab were criticized by a number of Islamic scholars during his lifetime, accusing him of disregarding Islamic history, monuments, traditions and the sanctity of Muslim life.[137] His critics were mainly ulama from his homeland, the Najd region of central Arabia, which was directly affected by the growth of the Wahhabi movement,[38] based in the cities of Basra, Mecca, and Medina.[38] The early critics of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab classified his doctrine as a "Kharijite sectarian heresy".[30] By contrast, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab profoundly despised the "decorous, arty tobacco-smoking, music happy, drum pounding, Egyptian and Ottoman nobility who traveled across Arabia to pray at Mecca each year",[138] and intended to either subjugate them to his doctrine or overthrow them.[138]

A handful of Arabian Hanbalis participated on the Ottoman side of the controversy. Muhammad ibn 'Abdullah ibn Humayd's 19th century biographical dictionary sheds light on those Hanbali scholars.[139] However, the reliability of his biography itself is disputed for its inherent biases, which portrays Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab and his followers as heretics. It also misrepresents many Najdi Hanbali scholars as on the side of Ottoman Hanbalis.[140] Ibn Humayd's maternal lineage, Al-Turki, was of some local renown for its religious scholars, including two men who opposed the Wahhabi movement. One of them, named Ibn Muhammad, compared Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab with Musaylimah.[141] He also accused Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab of wrongly declaring fellow Muslims to be infidels based on a misguided reading of Quranic passages and prophetic traditions (Hadith),[141] and of wrongly declaring all scholars as infidels who did not agree with his "deviant innovation".[141] In contrast to this anti-Wahhabi family tradition, Ibn Humayd's early education included extensive studies under two Wahhabi Shaykhs, both praised in his biographical dictionary. He then travelled to Damascus and Mecca, wherein he attended lessons of men known for strong anti-Wahhabi convictions. Ibn Humayd's compatibility with Ottoman religious outlook made him eligible for the post of Ottoman Mufti in Mecca.[141]

Another Hanbali scholar whom Ibn Humayd portrays as a central figure in rejecting Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's doctrine was Ibn Fayruz Al-Tamimi al-Ahsai (1729/30 – 1801/02). Ibn Fayruz publicly repudiated Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's teachings when he sent an envoy to him. Ibn Fayruz then wrote to Sultan Abdul Hamid I and requested Ottoman assistance to subjugate Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's followers, whom he referred to as the "seditious Kharijites" of Najd. The Wahhabis, in turn, came to view him as one of their worst enemies and an exemplar of idolatry.[142]

According to Ibn Humayd, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's father criticized his son for his unwillingness to specialize in jurisprudence and disagreed with his doctrine and declared that he would be the cause of wickedness.[143] Similarly his brother, Sulayman ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab, wrote one of the first treatises refuting the Wahhabi doctrine,[39][114][143] The Divine Thunderbolts in Refutation of Wahhabism (Al-Šawā'iq Al-Ilāhiyya fī Al-radd 'alā Al-Wahhābiyya),[39][114] affirming that Muhammad was ill-educated and intolerant, and classing his views as fringe and fanatical.[137][39] Sulayman's first anti-Wahhabi treatise was followed by a second book, The Unmistakable Judgment in the Refutation of Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab (Faṣl al-Ḫiṭāb fī Al-radd 'alā Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhāb).[39] Both Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's father and brother disagreed with him and didn't share his doctrinal statements because they considered his doctrine, and the way he intended to impose it in Arabia, too extreme and intolerant.[144] The Arabian historian Ahmad ibn al-Zayni Dahlan, Shaykh al-Islām[145] and Grand Mufti of the Shafi'i madhab in Mecca,[146][147] recorded the account of the dispute between Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab and his brother Sulayman, reporting that:

Sulayman [ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab] once asked his brother Muhammad [ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab], "How many are the pillars of Islam?" "Five," he answered. Sulayman replied, "No, you have added a sixth one: He who does not follow you is not a Muslim. This, to you, is the sixth pillar of Islam."[148]

Later reports claim that Sulayman repented and joined the cause of his brother.[149] However, there is a difference of opinion concerning his repentance. Ibn Ghannam, the earliest Najdi chronicler, specifically states that he repented from his previous position and joined his brother in Diriyah. Ibn Bishr simply states that he moved to Diriyah with his family and remained there while receiving a stipend, which may or may not be a sign that he had changed his views. A letter attributed to Sulayman states that he repented from his earlier views.[150]

The Mufti of Mecca, Ahmad ibn al-Zayni Dahlan, wrote an anti-Wahhabi treatise, in which he listed the religious practices that the Najdi Hanbalis considered idolatrous: visiting the tomb of Muhammad, seeking the intercession of saints, venerating Muhammad and obtaining the blessings of saints.[151] He also accused Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab of not adhering to the Hanbali school and that he was deficient in learning.[151] However, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab believed that visiting the tomb of Muhammad was a righteous deed, referring to it as "among the best of deeds" while condemning its excesses.[152][153] The medeival theologians Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn Qayyim, who inspired Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab, had issued Fatwas declaring the visitations to the tomb of Prophet Muhammad to be haram (forbidden); which would lead to their imprisonment.[154][155]

In response, the British Indian Ahl-i Hadith scholar Muhammad Bashir Sahsawani (1834-1908 C.E) wrote the treatise Sayaanah al-Insaan an Waswaswah al-Shaikh Dahlaan in order to refute Dahlan. Sahsawani stated that he met more than one scholar of the followers of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab and read many of their books; and did not find any evidence for the false claim that they declared "non-Wahhabis" disbelievers.[156][157]

Islamic scholar Rashid Rida, in his introduction to al-Sahsawani's refutation of Dahlan, described Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab as a mujaddid repelling the innovations and deviations in Muslim life. Through his Al-Manar magazine, Rashid Rida greatly contributed to the spread of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's teachings in the Islamic world. He was a strong supporter of Ibn Taymiyyah and scholars of Najd, publishing works in his magazine entitled Majmooah al-Rasaail wa al-Masaail al-Najdiyyah and al-Wahhaabiyoon wa al-Hijaaz.[158] Rida notes that given Dahlan's position in Mecca, and availability there of the works of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, he must have simply chosen to write otherwise. Rida also argued that Dahlan simply wrote what he heard from people, and criticised him for not verifying reports and seeking out the writings of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab. He condemned Dahlan for his ignorance and his sanctioning of acts of kufr and shirk; based on his reinterpretation of Islamic texts.[159]

Ali Bey el Abbassi, a Spanish explorer who was in Mecca in 1803, shortly after the Wahhabi conquest of Hejaz, presented a starkly different view of the Wahhabis. He was surprised to find that they were fairly moderate, reasonable and civilized. He further observed that, rather than engaging in rampant violence and destruction, the Wahhabis were actually quite orderly and peaceful. Puzzled by the contradiction between popular image and reality, Ali Bey examined the historical record for clues. He found an important difference between the reign of Muhammad ibn Saud Al Muqrin, when Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab was active in political life, and that of his son, Abdulaziz bin Muhammad Al Saud, when Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab withdrew from active political activity. Ali Bey noted that Muhammad Ibn Saud had supported the teachings of Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab but did not use a "convert or die" approach to gaining adherents. This practice was used only during the reign of 'Abd Al-Azeez bin Muhammad Al Saud, who made selective use of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's teachings for the purpose of acquiring wealth and property for state consolidation—a contention supported by Ibn Bishr's chronicle. Ali Bey declared that he "discovered much reason and moderation among the Wahhabites to whom I spoke, and from whom I obtained the greater part of the information which I have given concerning their nation."[160]

British diplomat Harford Jones-Brydges, who was stationed in Basra in 1784 attributed the popular hysteria about the Wahhabis to a different cause. Unlike Ottoman depictions, Brydges believed that Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's doctrine was in keeping with the teachings of Quran, was "perfectly orthodox", "consonant to the purest and best interpretations of that volume", and that Ottomans feared its spread precisely on that basis.[161]

The Egyptian historian and Azhari Islamic scholar Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti (1753–1825 C.E) was very influenced and impressed by Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab and his movement. He spread his thought in Egypt and saw in the Wahhabi doctrines a great potential for Islamic revival.[162] Al-Jabarti encountered scholars of Wahhabis in Egypt in 1814, and despite all the negative things heard in popular discourse, he was highly impressed by them. He found them to be friendly and articulate, knowledgeable and well versed in historical events and curiosities. Al-Jabarti stated that Wahhabis were "modest men of good morals, well trained in oratory, in the principles of religion, the branches of fiqh, and the disagreements of the Schools of Law. In all this they were extraordinary.”[163] He described Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab as a man who "summoned men to Qur'an and the Prophet's Sunna, bidding them to abandon innovations in worship". On doctrinal matters, Al-Jabarti emphasized that the beliefs of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab were part of Orthodox Sunni Islam and stated that Wahhabis did not bring anything new.[164]

Modern reception

Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab is accepted by Salafi scholars as an authority and source of reference. Salafi scholars Rashid Rida and 'Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz considered him a mujaddid.[165] 20th-century Albanian scholar Nasiruddin Albani referred to Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's activism as Najdi dawah.[166][better source needed] According to the 20th-century Austro-Hungarian scholar Muhammad Asad, all modern Islamic Renaissance movements took inspiration from the spiritual impetus set in motion in the 18th-century by Muhammad Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab.[167] Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, one of the founders of the Deobandi school, also praised Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab.[168] Hence, the contemporary ulema of Deoband mostly respect him while being critical of the Salafi movement.[169][170]

Islamic scholar Yusuf Al-Qārādawī praised Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab as a Mujaddid (religious reviver) of the Arabian Penisula who defended the purity of Tawhid from various superstitions and polytheistic beliefs.[171] Praising Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab's efforts, Muhammad Rashīd Ridá wrote:

"Muhammad bin Abd al-Wahhab al-Najdi was one of those Mujaddids, [who] called for the upholding of Tawhid and the sincerity of worship to God alone with what He legislated in His Book and on the tongue of His Messenger, the Seal of the Prophets; ... abandoning heresies and sins, establishing the abandoned rituals of Islam, and venerating its violated sanctities."[172]


In 2010, Prince Salman bin Abdulaziz, at the time serving as the governor of Riyadh, said that the doctrine of Muhammad Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab was pure Islam, and said regarding his works:

"I dare anyone to bring a single alphabetical letter from the Sheikh's books that goes against the book of Allah and the teachings of his prophet, Muhammad."

[173]

According to various academics, the Islamic terrorist organization Al-Qaeda has been influenced by the Wahhabi doctrine.[174][175][176][177] Other scholars note that the ideology of Al-Qaeda is Salafi jihadism that emerged as a synthesis of the Qutbist doctrine with Salafism. The Taliban in Afghanistan was often conflated with Wahhabis in the early 2000s; however, the Taliban emerged from the Deobandi school rather than the Wahhabi movement.[178][179][180] According to other sources, Salafis are fundamentally opposed to the ideology of Al-Qaeda.[181] According to various scholars, the ideology of ISIL/ISIS/IS/Daesh, another Islamic terrorist organization, has also been inspired by Wahhabi doctrines,[14][34][113] alongside Salafism, Qutbism,[182][183][184] and Salafi jihadism.[185][186] 22 months after the September 11 attacks, when the FBI considered al-Qaeda as "the number one terrorist threat to the United States", journalist Stephen Schwartz and U.S. Senator Jon Kyl have explicitly stated during a hearing that occurred in June 2003 before the Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology, and Homeland Security of the U.S. Senate that "Wahhabism is the source of the overwhelming majority of terrorist atrocities in today's world":[187]

Nearly 22 months have passed since the atrocity of September 11th. Since then, many questions have been asked about the role in that day's terrible events and in other challenges we face in the war against terror of Saudi Arabia and its official sect, a separatist, exclusionary and violent form of Islam known as Wahhabism. It is widely recognized that all of the 19 suicide pilots were Wahhabi followers. In addition, 15 of the 19 were Saudi subjects. Journalists and experts, as well as spokespeople of the world, have said that Wahhabism is the source of the overwhelming majority of terrorist atrocities in today's world, from Morocco to Indonesia, via Israel, Saudi Arabia, Chechnya. In addition, Saudi media sources have identified Wahhabi agents from Saudi Arabia as being responsible for terrorist attacks on U.S. troops in Iraq. The Washington Post has confirmed Wahhabi involvement in attacks against U.S. forces in Fallujah. To examine the role of Wahhabism and terrorism is not to label all Muslims as extremists. Indeed, I want to make this point very, very clear. It is the exact opposite. Analyzing Wahhabism means identifying the extreme element that, although enjoying immense political and financial resources, thanks to support by a sector of the Saudi state, seeks to globally hijack Islam [...] The problem we are looking at today is the State-sponsored doctrine and funding of an extremist ideology that provides the recruiting grounds, support infrastructure and monetary life blood of today's international terrorists. The extremist ideology is Wahhabism, a major force behind terrorist groups, like al Qaeda, a group that, according to the FBI, and I am quoting, is the "number one terrorist threat to the U.S. today".[187]

Contemporary recognition

The national mosque of Qatar is named after him.[188] The "Imam Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab Mosque" was opened in 2011, with the Emir of Qatar presiding over the occasion.[189] The mosque can hold a congregation of 30,000 people.[190] In 2017 there has been a request published on the Saudi Arabian newspaper Okaz signed by 200 descendants of Ibn Abd al-Wahhab that the name of the mosque be changed, because according to their statement "it does not carry its true Salafi path", even though most Qataris adhere to Wahhabism.[191]

Despite Wahhabi destruction of many Islamic, cultural, and historical sites[192] associated with the early history of Islam and the first generation of Muslims (Muhammad's family and his companions),[192] the Saudi government undertook a large-scale development of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab's domain, Diriyah, turning it into a major tourist attraction.[193][194] Other features in the area include the Sheikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahab Foundation, which is planned to include a light and sound presentation[195] located near the Mosque of Sheikh Mohammad bin Abdulwahab.[196]

Works

  • Risālah Aslu Dīn Al-Islām wa Qā'idatuhu
  • Kitab al-Quran (The book of Allah)
  • Kitab at-Tawhid (The Book of the Oneness of God)
  • Kashf ush-Shubuhaat (Clarification of the Doubts)
  • Al-Usool-uth-Thalaatha (The Three Fundamental Principles)
  • Al Qawaaid Al 'Arbaa (The Four Foundations)
  • Al-Usool us Sittah (The Six Fundamental Principles)
  • Nawaaqid al Islaam (Nullifiers of Islam)
  • Adab al-Mashy Ila as-Salaa (Manners of Walking to the Prayer)
  • Usul al-Iman (Foundations of Faith)
  • Fada'il al-Islam (Excellent Virtues of Islam)
  • Fada'il al-Qur'an (Excellent Virtues of the Qur'an)
  • Majmu'a al-Hadith 'Ala Abwab al-Fiqh (Compendium of the Hadith on the Main Topics of the Fiqh)
  • Mukhtasar al-Iman (Abridgement of the Faith; i.e. the summarised version of a work on Faith)
  • Mukhtasar al-Insaf wa'l-Sharh al-Kabir (Abridgement of the Equity and the Great Explanation)
  • Mukhtasar Seerat ar-Rasul (Summarised Biography of the Prophet)
  • Kitaabu l-Kabaair (The Book of Great Sins)
  • Kitabu l-Imaan (The Book of Trust)
  • Al-Radd 'ala al-Rafida (The Refutation of the Rejectionists)

See also

Sources

There are two contemporary histories of Muhammed ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab and his religious movement from the point of view of his supporters: Ibn Ghannam's Rawdhat al-Afkar wal-Afham or Tarikh Najd (History of Najd) and Ibn Bishr's Unwan al-Majd fi Tarikh Najd. Husain ibn Ghannam (d. 1811), an alim from al-Hasa was the only historian to have observed the beginnings of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's movement first-hand. His chronicle ends at the year 1797.[197][198] Ibn Bishr's chronicle, which stops at the year 1854, was written a generation later than Ibn Ghannam's but is considered valuable partly because Ibn Bishr was a native of Najd and because he adds many details to Ibn Ghannam's account.[197]

A third account, dating from around 1817 is Lam' al-Shihab, written by an anonymous Sunni author who respectfully disapproved of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's movement, regarding it as a bid'ah. It is also commonly cited because it is considered to be a relatively objective contemporary treatment of the subject. However, unlike Ibn Ghannam and Ibn Bishr, its author did not live in Najd and his work is believed to contain some apocryphal and legendary material concerning the details of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's life.[51][199]

Notes

  1. ^ While there is some consensus over these details, the opinion is not unanimous over the specifics in regard to his place and date of birth. Seemingly his recognition with the Banu Tamim tribe thought is in line with the justification by some scholars of being the inheritor of the teachings of Ibn Taymiyyah.
  2. ^ The attribution of this hadith is disputed; according to other sources it should be attributed to 'Umar ibn al-Khattab, companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.

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  62. ^ Taqi al-Din al-Hisni referred to Ibn Taymiyyah as a "heretic from Harran"; see Rapoport, Yossef; Ahmed, Shahab (1 January 2010). Ibn Taymiyya and His Times. Oxford University Press. p. 271
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  66. ^ ibn 'Hajar: 17–19
  67. ^ Official sources on Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's life put his visits to these cities in different chronological orders, and the full extent of such travels remains disputed among historians. As well, dates are missing in a great many cases, making it difficult to reconstruct a chronology of his life up until his return to 'Uyayna in 1740.
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  69. ^ Cameron, Zargar (2017). "Origins of Wahhabism from Hanbali Fiqh". UCLA Journal of Islamic and Near Eastern Law. University of California. 16 (1): 96–97. doi:10.5070/N4161038736.
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  96. ^ Commins, David (2009). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B. Tauris. p. 12. This brief essay is of tremendous significance for the Wahhabi mission and the subject of enduring controversy between supporters and detractors. It represents the core of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's teaching and the foundation of the Wahhabi canon.
  97. ^ Ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Kitab al-Tawhid
  98. ^ Commins, David (2006). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B. Tauris. p. vii. ISBN 978-1845110802. Archived from the original on 5 January 2020.
  99. ^ Commins, David (2006). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B. Tauris. p. vii. ISBN 978-1845110802. Archived from the original on 5 January 2020. Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab included in the category of such acts popular religious practices that made holy men into intercessors with God. That was the core of the controversy between him and his adversaries, including his brother.
  100. ^ Commins, David (2006). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. New York: I.B. Tauris. p. 23. ISBN 978-1845110802. Archived from the original on 5 January 2020.
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  103. ^ Farquhar, Michael (2013). Expanding the Wahhabi Mission: Saudi Arabia, the Islamic University of Medina and the Transnational Religious Economy. London: The London School of Economics and Political Science. p. 64. ..Muhammad Hayya al-Sindi in Medina influenced a shift on the part of Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab towards criticism of taqlīd and many popular religious practices
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  105. ^ Crawford, Michael (2014). "Chapter 7: The Regime of Godliness and The Political Order". Makers of the Muslim World: Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab. Oneworld Publications, 10 Bloomsbury Street, London WC1B 3SR, England: One World Publishers. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-78074-589-3.CS1 maint: location (link)
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  107. ^ M. Bunzel, Cole (2018). "MANIFEST ENMITY: The Origins, Development, and Persistence of Classical Wahhabism (1153-1351/1741-1932)". Near Eastern Studies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University: 153–161. Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb employs this proof in pursuit of a more radical conclusion than the one reached by Ibn Taymiyya. He uses it to inveigh against the entire educational institution surrounding Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh), which he takes as emblematic of the sad state of learning in Islam"... "Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb considered the institution of fiqh as a kind of factory for the production of slavish emulators. The real task of a scholar, he argued, is to return to the texts of revelation, not to the opinions of men" ... "Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb drew on both Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn al-Qayyim... Yet neither of them wrote off the entire field of jurisprudence as irredeemable, as Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb did"... "he describes his position with respect to scholarly authority as... ittibāʿ (following)
  108. ^ ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Muhammad. "A Letter on the Censure of Taqlid". Scribd. Archived from the original on 30 June 2021.
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  115. ^ The National, March 18, 2010: There is no such thing as Wahhabism, Saudi prince says Archived 27 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine Linked 3 March 2015
  116. ^ Commins, David (2009). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. New York: I.B. Tauris. p. ix. Thus, the mission's devotees contend that 'Wahhabism' is a misnomer for their efforts to revive correct Islamic belief and practice. Instead of the Wahhabi label, they prefer either salafi, one who follows the ways of the first Muslim ancestors (salaf), or muwahhid, one who professes God's unity.
  117. ^ Delong-Bas 2004, p. 4.
  118. ^ Voll, John (1975). "Muḥammad Ḥayyā al-Sindī and Muḥammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab: An Analysis of an Intellectual Group in Eighteenth-Century Madīna". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 38 (1): 32–39. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00047017. JSTOR 614196 – via JSTOR. Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhāb came to Madina as a relatively young scholar and studied under Muhammad Hayyā al-Sindi.... Scholars have described Muhammad Hayyā as having an impor- tant influence on Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhāb, encouraging him in his developing determination to denounce rigid imitation of medieval commentaries and to utilize informed individual analysis (ijtihād). Muhammad Hayyà also taught Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhāb a rejection of popular religious practices associated with saints and their tombs that is similar to later Wahhābi teachings.
  119. ^ bin Ridha Murad, Mahmoud (2000). The Life & the Aqeedah of Muhammad Bin Abdul-Wahhab. pp. 17–20.
  120. ^ Hafiz Al-Makki, Mawlana Abd-Al (1 January 2011). "Shaykh Muhammad bin 'Abd Al-Wahhab and Sufism". Deoband Org. Archived from the original on 11 January 2015. “From among the wonders is to find a Sufi who is a faqih and a scholar who is an ascetic (zahid).”
  121. ^ ‘Abd al-Hafiz al-Makki, Mawlana (1 January 2011). "Shaykh Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab and Sufism". Deoband org. Archived from the original on 11 January 2015.
  122. ^ "Kitab al Fiqh". Mu'allafat al-Imam al-Shaykh Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab. 2. p. 4.
  123. ^ al-Makki, 'Abd al-Hafiz. "Shaykh Muhammad bin 'Abd al-Wahhab and Sufism". Deoband.org. Deoband.org. Archived from the original on 11 January 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
  124. ^ Rida, Rashid (1925). Commentary of Shaykh 'Abd Allah bin Shaykh Muhammad bin 'Abd al-Wahhab al-Najdi's Al-Hadiyyah al-Suniyyah. Egypt: Al Manar Publishers. p. 50.
  125. ^ al-Makki, Mawlana ‘Abd Al-Hafiz (1 January 2011). "Shaykh Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab and Sufism". Deoband org. Archived from the original on 11 January 2015.
  126. ^ Rida, Rashid (1925). Commentary of Shaykh 'Abd Allah bin Shaykh Muhammad bin 'Abd al-Wahhab al-Najdi's Al-Hadiyyah al-Suniyyah. Egypt: Al-Manar Publishers. p. 50.
  127. ^ al-Din M. Zarabozo, Jamaal (2003). The Life, Teachings and Influence of Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhaab. Riyadh: The Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Endowments, Dawah and Guidance, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. pp. 20–22, 44, 134–139, 164–165. ISBN 9960-29-500-1.
  128. ^ bin Ridha Murad, Mahmoud (2000). The Life & the Aqeedah of Muhammad Bin Abdul-Wahhab. p. 17.
  129. ^ C. Martin, Richard (2004). Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. Macmillan Reference USA. p. 6. ISBN 0-02-865603-2. Ibn Abd al-Wahhab called for the reopening of ijtihad (independent legal judgment) by qualified persons to reform Islam..
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  132. ^ Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, Kitab al-Tawhid (Riyadh: Dar-us-Salam Publications, 1996) Chapter 24, particularly p. 97
  133. ^ Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, Kitab al-Tawhid (Riyadh: Dar-us-Salam Publications, 1996, p. 83)
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  135. ^ Delong-Bas 2004, p. 61.
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  146. ^ Eric Tagliacozzo (2009). Southeast Asia and the Middle East: Islam, Movement, and the Longue Durée. NUS Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-9971694241.
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  149. ^ Commins, David (2006). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. London: I.B Tauris. p. 22. ISBN 1845110803. Later reports claim that Sulayman eventually repented his errors, but those may well represent efforts to smooth over the historical record
  150. ^ al-Din M. Zarabozo, Jamaal (2005). The Life, Teachings and Influence of Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhaab. Riyadh: The Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Endowments, Dawah and Guidance The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. p. 209. ISBN 9960295001. There is a difference of opinion concerning whether Sulaimaan eventually gave up his opposition and joined the call of his brother Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhaab. Ibn Ghannaam, the earliest chronicler, specifically states that he repented from his previous position and joined his brother in al-Diriyyah. Ibn Bishr simply states that he moved to al-Diriyyah with his family and remained there while receiving a stipend, which may or may not be a sign that he had changed his views. There is actually a letter that was supposedly written by Sulaimaan in which he stated that he repented from his earlier views. Al-Bassaam in Ulamaa Najd presents logical evidence to show that that letter is false and Sulaimaan actually never changed his position
  151. ^ a b Mannah, Buṭrus Abū; Weismann, Itzchak; Zachs, Fruma (2005). Ottoman Reform and Muslim Regeneration. I.B. Tauris. p. 91. ISBN 978-1850437574. Archived from the original on 1 July 2020.
  152. ^ J. Delong-Bas, Natana (2004). "The Theology and Worldview of Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab". Wahhabi Islam:From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 67. ISBN 0195169913. Consequently, 'Abd al-Wahhab noted that although visiting Muhammad's grave was a worthy act it must not be done in a spirit or intent that compromises monotheism. Finally, prayer should never be conducted in a cemetery
  153. ^ ibn Abdul Wahhab, Muhammad. "Chapter 22 The protectiveness of Al-Mustafa (May Allah be pleased with him) of Tawhid and his blockading every path leading to Shirk". Kitab At-Tauhid (PDF). Dar us Salam Publications. 4) The Prophet (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) forbade visiting his grave in a certain manner, though visiting his grave is among the best of deeds. 5) The Prophet (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) forbade us making excessive visits to his grave
  154. ^ Beranek, Tupek; Ondrej, Pavel (2009). "From Visiting Graves to Their Destruction The Question of Ziyara through the Eyes of Salafis". Brandeis University Crown Center for Middle East Studies: 2, 12, 15 – via Brandeis University. Ibn Taymiyya spent a large portion of his life in prison for his teachings; his last imprisonment was caused by his issuance of a legal opinion reportedly denouncing the visitation of the Prophet’s grave... He was arrested, imprisoned without trial, and by a decree of the sultan, which was read out in the Umayyad Mosque, deprived of the right to issue legal opinions (ifta’). The reason for this was the discovery of Ibn Taymiyya’s fatwa on grave visitation, authored by him seventeen years earlier and exploited by Ibn Taymiyya’s adversaries. This event was connected with yet another incident. After Ibn al-Qayyim, in full accordance with his master’s teaching, had preached in Jerusalem about the intercession of the prophets and denied that one could set out to visit the Prophet’s grave without first going to the Prophet’s mosque, a group of Ibn Taymiyya’s sympathizers was arrested. Ibn al Qayyim, after he had been beaten and paraded on a donkey, was imprisoned along with Ibn Taymiyya.. Ibn Taymiyya prohibits traveling exclusively for the purpose of visiting the Prophet’s grave, but it is customary (sunna) to visit it after praying in his mosque, because it was the way of the sahaba... Ibn Taymiyya criticizes hadiths encouraging visitation of the Prophet’s grave, pronouncing them all forgeries (mawdu‘) and lies (kidhb)...
  155. ^ "Travel Towards Prophet's Resting Place". Islami Education. 17 October 2008.
  156. ^ al-Din M. Zarabozo, Jamaal (2005). The Life, Teachings and Influence of Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhaab. Riyadh: The Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Endowments, Dawah and Guidance The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. pp. 218, 234. ISBN 9960295001. Muhammad Basheer ibn Muhammad al-Sahsawaani from India (1250–1326 A.H.). He was a scholar from India who went to Makkah and met with and debated Dahlaan. Later he wrote a large volume refuting the false claims and misinterpretations of Dahlaan, entitled Sayaanah al-Insaan an Waswasah al-Shaikh Dahlaan.".. "Similarly, al-Sahsawaani stated that he met more than one scholar of the followers of ibn Abdul-Wahhaab and he read many of their books and he did not find any evidence for the false claim that they declared “non-Wahhabis” disbelievers
  157. ^ "[Biography] – Allamah Muhammad Bashir Sehsawani [1326H]". Salafi Research Institute. August 2015. Archived from the original on 25 January 2019.
  158. ^ al-Din M. Zarabozo, Jamaal (2005). The Life, Teachings and Influence of Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhaab. Riyadh: The Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Endowments, Dawah and Guidance The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. pp. 172–73. ISBN 9960295001. He was a strong supporter of ibn Taimiyyah—publishing his works—as well as of the scholars of Najd—publishing their works in his magazine and in a separate anthology entitled Majmooah al-Rasaail wa al-Masaail al-Najdiyyah. In his introduction to al-Sahwasaani’s refutation of Dahlaan, Ridha, in a lengthy passage, described ibn Abdul-Wahhaab as a mujaddid (“religious revivalist”), repelling the innovations and deviations in Muslim life. Through his magazine, al-Manaar, Muhammad Rasheed Ridha greatly contributed to the spread of ibn Abdul-Wahhaab’s teachings in the whole Muslim world. In fact, he published some of his articles from that magazine in a work entitled al-Wahhaabiyoon wa al-Hijaaz (“The Wahhabis and the Hijaz”). His magazine was unique in its thought and popularity.
  159. ^ Al Din M.Zarabazo, Jamal (2005). The Life, Teachings and Influence of Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhaab. Riyadh: The Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Endowments, Dawah and Guidance The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. pp. 213, 242–43. ISBN 9960295001. "Muhammad Rasheed Ridha notes that given Dahlaan’s position in Makkah and the availability there of works about the call, it is hard to believe that Dahlaan was not aware of the truth about the teachings of ibn Abdul Wahhab and his followers. He must have simply chosen to write otherwise. He further argues that even if he did not see such writings and he relied simply on what he heard from people, it would have been incumbent upon him to verify those reports and to seek out ibn Abdul Wahhab’s writings to see if such reports could possibly have been true." ... "Muhammad Rasheed Ridha described the situation best when he wrote, “From the amazing aspects of the ignorance of Dahlaan and others similar to him is that they think that what Allah describes concerning the falsehood of the shirk of the polytheists applies only to them [that is, the polytheists at the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)]. They think that such are not proofs against anyone who does similar to what they did. It is as if it is permissible for a Muslim to commit shirk due to his Islamic citizenship, even if he commits every type of associating of partners with Allah enumerated in the Quran. Based on that, he cannot conceive of any kind of apostasy from Islam because anyone who is called a Muslim must also have his kufr and shirk called Islamic [kufr and shirk]. Or it is considered permissible for him or, at the very least, forbidden. Indeed, they considered it sanctioned based on a reinterpretation of the texts.” Rasheed Ridha, footnotes to Siyaanah al-Insaan, pp. 479–80
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Bibliography

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