|Date first issued||24 October 2005 (biometric passport)
May 2009 (current version)
|Type of document||Passport|
|Eligibility requirements||Australian citizens|
|Expiration||10 years after issuance for adults, 5 years for children until the age of 18|
|Cost||A$238 (ordinary) / A$358 (frequent traveller) / A$119 (senior's)|
Australian passports are travel documents issued to Australian citizens by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, both in Australia and overseas, and enable the passport holder to international travel. Australian citizens are allowed to hold passports from other countries, though they are required to use an Australian passport to enter or leave Australia. 
- The 'X' series passport issued in 1917 is one of the earliest passports. It was during World War I that monitoring and identifying those crossing international borders became critical to the security of Australia and its allies;
- The War Precautions Act 1914–1915 required that all persons over 16 years of age, on leaving the Commonwealth, possess a passport.
- The words Australian Passport replaced British Passport on the cover of the Australian passport in 1949. Two types of passport were issued:
- B Series passports were issued (within Australia only) to British subjects who were not Australian citizens. The term "British subject" had a particular meaning in the context of Australian nationality law. The term encompassed all citizens of countries included in the list contained in the Australian Citizenship Act 1948. The list of countries was based on, but was not identical with, those countries (and their colonies) which were members of the Commonwealth from time to time. The list was amended from time to time as various former colonies became independent countries, but the list in the Act was not necessarily up-to-date as far as to constitute exactly a list of countries in the Commonwealth at any given time. This definition of "British subject" meant that, for the purposes of Australian nationality law, citizens of countries which had become republics, such as India, were grouped as "British subjects". This legal category was abolished in 1984 by the Australian Citizenship Amendment Act of that year.
- C Series passports were issued only to Australian citizens.
- In 1950, ‘E’ series passport replaces ‘B’ and ‘C’ series.
- In 1964, ‘G’ series passport introduced, with the St Edward's Crown at the top of the cover, the word ‘Australia’ followed by the Australian Coat of Arms, and the words ‘British Passport’ at the bottom.
- In 1967, the word ‘British Passport’ was removed from passports but retain the Crown. The word ‘Australia’ appears below the Crown, followed by the Australian Coat of Arms and the word ‘Passport’. "British subjects" under Australian nationality law continued to be eligible to be issued Australian passports.
- In 1975, Responsibility for Australian passport functions transferred to the Department of Foreign Affairs (now the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade), from the then Department of Labour and Immigration.
- In 1980, Computerised Passport Issue and Control System (PICS) launched.
- Before 1983, a married woman's passport application had to be authorised by her husband.
- In 1983, the Department partnered with Australia Post to allow the issuance of Australian passports at most Australia Post outlets.
- In 1984, ‘T’ series passport introduced, with Crown emblem removed from cover. And machine readable lines and were the first to have a laminate built into the document. The same year Australian passports begun to be issued exclusively to Australian citizens.
- In 1986, the introduction of Single Identity passports meant children could no longer be included on their parent's passport.
- In 1988, ‘H’ and ‘J’ series passports issued with Bicentennial logo. And until 1988, a woman could apply for and receive a passport in her married name, before she was actually married.
- In 1994, Digitised colour printing of photograph and signature on the glue side of the laminate introduced.
- In 1995, ‘L’ series passports introduced, with kangaroo motif security laminate. The personal data pages initially included a photograph and a cut out piece of paper with the holders signature under a sheet of adhesive laminate.
- From approximately 1998, the personal data page for 'L' series passports was colour laser printed and under a sheet of adhesive laminate
- The 'M' series passport was issued from 27 November 2003, which included enhanced security features. The personal data page of these passports is printed by ink-jet onto the adhesive surface of the security laminate, the laminate itself containing a holographic design.
- From October 2005, the 'M' series was issued as a biometric or e-passport. An electronic passport logo was printed under the passport number on the personal data page. The front cover was printed in gold ink.
- Since May 2009 the 'N' series has been issued as a biometric or e-passport. The passport is black instead of blue and has a slight font and case change to the word 'Passport' on the front cover. The front cover printing is now in silver. Additional fraud counter-measures have been included in the passport including a 'Ghost Image' and 'Retro-Reflective Floating Image' on the laminated page. Each page features images of Australia printed throughout the document making every visa page unique and more difficult to reproduce.
Types of passports
- Standard Passport (Black Cover) – Issued for ordinary travel, such as vacations and business trips, it has 37 visa pages (42 pages overall) with 10 years validity for Adults and 5 years validity for Children's passports (Series M and prior). Passports issued prior to the new series N passport had a blue cover.
- Frequent Traveller Passport – These are issued to frequent travellers, such as business people (69 pages). These cost much more than a standard passport.
- Senior's Passport – Issued for Australian citizens aged 75 years and over for half the cost of a standard passport, it has 37 visa pages with 5 years validity.
- Senior's Frequent Traveller Passport – Issued for Australian citizens aged 75 years and over for half the cost of a Frequent Traveller Passport, it has 69 visa pages
- Emergency Passport - Issued to Australian citizens that urgently need to travel on short notice or urgently need to replace their lost or stolen passport. Emergency passports will only have 12 months validity.
- Official Passport (Grey-asparagus Cover) – Issued to individuals representing the Australian government on official business. (37 pages)
- Diplomatic Passport (Red Cover) – Issued to Australian diplomats, top ranking government officials and diplomatic couriers. (37 pages)
Australian passports have the Australian coat of arms emblazoned in the centre of the front cover. The word "Passport" is inscribed at the bottom of the cover just above a standard biometric symbol. The coat of arms is featured in the centre of the cover. The standard passport contains 37 (pps 17 & 18 unusable as they contain the contactless IC) visa pages, but it can be issued in a 69 page format upon request for an additional fee.
Identity Information Page
The Australian Passport includes the following data:
- Photo of Passport Holder
- Type (P for passport)
- Code of Issuing State (AUS)
- DOCUMENT No.
- Nationality (AUSTRALIAN)
- Date of Birth
- Sex (male, female and indeterminate); First reported in 2003 with recipient Alex MacFarlane, intersex people with "indeterminate" birth certificates could choose 'X'. In 2011, this was extended to permit intersex and trans people to choose this when supported by a doctor's statement. Individuals may report their identified gender without having had surgical intervention.
- Place of Birth (Only the city or town is listed, even if born outside Australia)
- Date of issue
- Holder's signature
- Date of expiry
- Authority (AUSTRALIA if issued in Australia, or the name of the issuing diplomatic mission if issued overseas – e.g. LONDON)
The information page ends with the Machine Readable Zone.
The passports contain a note from the issuing state that is addressed to the authorities of all other states, identifying the bearer as a citizen of that state and requesting that he or she be allowed to pass and be treated according to international norms. The note inside Australian passports states:
- The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia, being the representative in Australia of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Second, requests all those whom it may concern to allow the bearer, an Australian Citizen, to pass freely without let or hindrance and to afford him or her every assistance and protection of which he or she may stand in need.
The passport is printed in English. French translation is found on the identity information, observations, chip centre and notice pages.
- Microprinting – for example, horizontal lines on the notice/bearer's information pages are made up of microprinted words.
- In L-series passports, the first verse of Advance Australia Fair is used.
- In M-series passports, the words are from Waltzing Matilda.
- In N-series passports, the lines are made up of the word "Australia" repeated.
- N-series passports also feature microprinted words from Clancy of the Overflow on the visa pages.
- The laminate of the identity information page on M-series and later passports contains retro-reflective floating images of kangaroos.
The ePassport is very similar to the previous 'M' series Australian passport, differing only in having an embedded RFID microchip in the centre page and a gold international ePassport symbol on the front cover.
The chip embedded in the centre pages stores the holder's digitised photograph, name, gender, date of birth, nationality, passport number, and the passport expiry date. This is the same information that appears on the printed information page of every passport.
Refusal to issue passport
Under the Australian Passports Act 2005, the Minister for Foreign Affairs has the power to refuse a passport, on grounds such as national security or health.
An Australian passport does not, in itself, entitle the holder to enter another country. To enter another country, the traveller must comply with the visa and entry requirements of the other countries to be visited, which vary from country to country and may apply specifically to a particular passport type, the traveller's nationality, criminal history or many other factors.
According to the "Henley Visa Restrictions Index 2013," Australian passport holders can visit 167 countries and territories visa-free or with visa on arrival, and Australia is currently ranked 6th in terms of travel freedom (21st, counting multiple country per rank), ranked behind New Zealand (5th placing, 168 countries) but above South Korea (7th placing, 166 countries).
- Australian Certificate of Identity
- Australian nationality law
- Biometric passport
- Visa requirements for Australian citizens
- Passports.gov.au Passport History
- "The evolution of the Australian passport". Australian Government. 15 Jul 2013.
- Stephen Smith (28 May 2009). "Speech: Launch of the N Series Passport". Retrieved 2010-01-14.
- "New 'N Series' Australian Passport". Australian Government. 28 May 2009.
- "Ingrid Holme, "Hearing People's Own Stories", in Science as Culture, Volume 17, Issue 3, 2008"
- "X marks the spot for intersex Alex", West Australian, via bodieslikeours.org. 11 January 2003
- "Neither man nor woman", Sydney Morning Herald. 27 June 2010
- "Australian Government Guidelines on the Recognition of Sex and Gender"
- McGuirk, Rod (15 September 2011). "Male, female or ‘X'? Third gender choice for Australian passports". The Star (Toronto).
- Down Under Photography. "New N Series Australian Passport". Flickr. Retrieved 2010-01-14.
- "International Visa Restrictions". Henley and partners. August 2013. Retrieved August 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Passports of Australia.|
- Gateway to the IATA Timatic Web database from Qantas website
- Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT): Australian Passports website
- smarttraveller.gov.au – travel advisories and bulletins provided by DFAT including:
- Portrait of an Australian – a virtual artists' book in the form of an Australian passport created by Jonathan Tse; digitised and held by the Australian Library of Art, State Library of Queensland
- A Passport Identifies who a Person Is
- Australian Passport Office Apologises to Stephanie Imbruglia