Birmingham–Shuttlesworth International Airport

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the Birmingham, England, airport, see Birmingham Airport. For military use of this airport, see Birmingham Air National Guard Base.
Birmingham-Shuttlesworth International Airport
Birmingham International Airport.svg
Birmingham-Shuttlesworth International Airport.jpg
NAIP aerial image, June 2006
IATA: BHMICAO: KBHMFAA LID: BHM
WMO: 72228
Summary
Airport type Public
Owner City of Birmingham
Operator Birmingham Airport Authority
Serves Birmingham, Alabama
Elevation AMSL 650 ft / 198 m
Coordinates 33°33′50″N 086°45′08″W / 33.56389°N 86.75222°W / 33.56389; -86.75222Coordinates: 33°33′50″N 086°45′08″W / 33.56389°N 86.75222°W / 33.56389; -86.75222
Website FlyBirmingham.com
Map
BHM is located in Alabama
BHM
BHM
Location of airport in Alabama
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
6/24 11,998 3,657 Asphalt
18/36 7,099 2,164 Asphalt
Statistics (2013)
Aircraft operations 104,864
Based aircraft 206
Passengers
Daily aircraft operations 301 (avg)
Sources: FAA[2] Birmingham Airport Authority,[3] ACI[4]

Birmingham–Shuttlesworth International Airport (IATA: BHM[5]ICAO: KBHMFAA LID: BHM), formerly Birmingham Municipal Airport and later Birmingham International Airport, is a joint civil-military airport serving Birmingham, Alabama and its metropolitan area including Tuscaloosa. It is located in Jefferson County, five miles northeast of downtown Birmingham,[2] near the interchange of I-20 and I-59.

Birmingham–Shuttlesworth International Airport averages 301 aircraft operations a day, including 136 flights to 43 airports in 40 cities.[2][6] BHM served 3,222,689 passengers in 2007, and is the largest and busiest airport in the state of Alabama.[7] It had also been mentioned by Atlanta talk show host Clark Howard as a cheap alternate airport for Atlanta travelers due to the presence of Southwest Airlines. The airport was renamed in July 2008 after Fred Shuttlesworth.

The Southern Museum of Flight is on Airport Authority property, on the east side of the North-South runway. The airfield can handle all aircraft types. The main runway is 12,002 feet (3,658 m) long.[8] The secondary runway is 7,100 feet (2,200 m) long. A Category II ILS allows operations in visibility as low as a quarter-mile.

History[edit]

Aerial photo of Birmingham Airport, March 1951

Commercial air service to Birmingham began in 1928 by St. Tammy and Gulf Coast Airways, at Roberts Field on the west side of Birmingham on a route from Atlanta, Georgia to New Orleans, Louisiana.[9] Delta Air Service began service to Birmingham in late 1929 with six seat Travel Air airplanes along a route from Love Field in Dallas, Texas to Birmingham.[10] When American Airways (now American Airlines) began their Atlanta, Georgia to Fort Worth, Texas route, Birmingham was not included because their Ford Tri-Motors could not land at Roberts Field. So Birmingham began construction of what is now Birmingham–Shuttlesworth International Airport.[11]

The airport opened on May 31, 1931 with a two-story, white, Georgian style terminal and a single east-west runway. The terminal was just east of the later 1962 and 1971 terminal complexes.[12][13] No remains of the 1931 terminal or landscaping are visible. With the addition of American Airlines in 1931 and Eastern Airlines in 1934, air traffic increased enough to warrant a second runway.[11]

World War II saw the airport leased to the United States Army Air Forces for $1 a year to support national defense. Birmingham Army Airfield was a section assigned to the Third Air Force as a fighter base, operated by the 310th Army Air Force Base Unit. The Army Air Force considerably improved the airport with land acquisitions, paving of additional taxiways, and construction of a control tower and an aircraft modification center south of the terminal (this is now operated by Pemco).[11]

After the airport returned to city control in August 1948 Southern Airways began service.[11] By March 1951 four runways were in use, Runways 5/23 (now designated 6/24) and 18/36, and runways at about 45/225 degrees north of Runway 5/23 and 85/265 degrees mostly south of Runway 5/23. Runway lengths were about 4,000 feet (1,200 m) to 5,500 feet (1,700 m). The runway at 45/225 degrees is now largely removed, though a paved portion remains crossing taxiway F near the Alabama Air National Guard facilities, used for airport equipment and helicopter landing/parking. The runway at 85/265 is also mostly removed, with remaining segments making up taxiway A5 and a portion of taxiway F east of Runway 18/36.[12][14]

1954 and 1969 airport diagrams

By 1959 Runway 5/23 was 10,000 feet (3,000 m) and service was started to Birmingham by Capital Airlines with British-made Vickers Viscounts. The first scheduled jets were Delta 880s in October 1961, flying ATL-BHM-MSY-LAX and back. (Birmingham then had nonstops to Newark and Washington, but no other nonstops beyond Charlotte, Memphis and New Orleans, and no nonstops to Florida.) By the late 1960s Douglas DC-8, Douglas DC-9, Convair 880 and Boeing 727s were all scheduled to BHM.

During the 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion, pilots and crews from the Alabama Air National Guard's 117th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing at Birmingham were selected to train Cuban exile fliers in Nicaragua to fly the Douglas B-26 Invader in the close air support role. Although the 117th was flying the RF-84F Thunderflash, it had only recently retired its RB-26C Invaders, the last squadron in the Air Force to do so; thus the 117th was seen as the logical choice for the CIA's secret mission. Seven of the volunteer aviators participated combat operations during the final day of the invasion, on August 19, 1961. Birmingham natives Leo Baker, Wade Gray, Riley Shamburger, and Thomas "Pete" Ray were killed when their (two) aircraft were shot down. While American involvement had been suspected since before the invasion even began, Pete Ray's frozen body was kept as concrete proof of U.S. support.[15]

The lobby of the 1962 Birmingham Air Terminal viewed from the front doors. The ticketing area is in the background and the stair led to the boarding area. The terminal was torn down to make way for the 2011 terminal expansion.

Continued growth in passenger traffic by 1962 resulted in the construction of a second passenger terminal and a new air traffic control tower,[11] built west of the original 1931 terminal. This was dedicated on February 11, 1962 as the Birmingham Air Terminal. Charles H. McCauley Associates was the supervising architect and Radar & Associates was the designing architect.[16] It consisted of a single story building of repeated bays with steeply pitched roofs, which flanked a wider, higher center bay at the south end of the building for ticketing. A long, flat roofed northern section comprised the ground-level aircraft gates.[13][17] The south portion remains today for various airport support functions.

In 1973 the current semi-circular terminal was completed west of the 1962 terminal and air traffic control tower. It had 15 aircraft gates and a 1,600 space parking deck. Allegheny Air (now US Airways) began service from Birmingham to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in the late 1970s. Deregulation of the airline industry saw airlines such as Comair, Florida Express, People Express, Air New Orleans, L'Express Airlines, and most importantly Southwest Airlines enter the Birmingham market.[11] With the introduction of flights to Canada and Mexico, the official name of the airport was changed to Birmingham International Airport on October 20, 1993.[18] Also in 1993, the airport marked the completion of a $50.4m terminal renovation.[19]

The 75th anniversary logo

In the early 1990s Runway 18/36 was extended to 7,100 feet, allowing use by airline jets. By the early 2000s Birmingham had constructed a new 211 feet (64 m) tall control tower and completed improvements to the air cargo areas, including a new facility at the far west end. The 1960s blue air traffic control tower was demolished in 2001. In 2006 Birmingham International Airport celebrated its 75th year. In July 2007 an 2,000-foot (610 m) eastward extension to Runway 6/24 was completed. Now 12,002 feet (3,658 m) in length, Runway 6/24 allows a fully loaded Boeing 747 to land or take off.[11][20]

On June 23, 2008 Birmingham city mayor Larry Langford announced his proposal to rename the airport as the Fred L. Shuttlesworth International Airport, in honor of civil rights activist Fred Shuttlesworth.[21] On July 16, 2008, Mayor Langford and the Birmingham Airport Authority voted to change the name of the airport from the Birmingham International Airport to the Birmingham–Shuttlesworth International Airport after the former civil rights activist. The name change cost about $300,000.[22] In October 2008 the airport was renamed again to Birmingham–Shuttlesworth International Airport. The FAA approved the name change and signage of the airport took place on April 3, 2009.

Facilities and aircraft[edit]

Birmingham–Shuttlesworth International Airport covers 2,000 acres (809 ha) at an elevation of 650 feet (198 m) above mean sea level. It has two asphalt runways: 6/24 is 11,998 by 150 feet (3,657 x 46 m) and 18/36 is 7,099 by 150 feet (2,164 x 46 m).[2]

Atlantic Aviation operates two general aviation fixed base operator facilities, and there are numerous corporate hangars north of Runway 6/24 and east of Runway 18/36. AirMed International, a fixed-wing air ambulance company, operates its main hub from here.

There is a large, full service aircraft modification and maintenance facility on the south side of the airport. It was originally built during World War 2, but has subsequently been expanded and is now operated by Kaiser Aircraft Industries. The facility sits on approximately 180 acres of land and is 1.7 million square feet. It has 10 aircraft pull-through bays with space under the roof for 54 737 sized narrow-body aircraft. Much of the work performed at this facility is in support of U.S. Air Force KC-135 Stratotanker, C-130 Hercules, U.S. Navy P-3 Orion, and U.S. Army UH-60 Black Hawk aircraft.

In 2011 the airport had 104,864 aircraft operations, average 287 per day: 40% general aviation, 30% scheduled commercial, 26% air taxi, and 5% military. 206 aircraft were then based at this airport: 37% jet, 36% single-engine, 18% multi-engine, 7% military, and 2% helicopter.[2]

Commercial aircraft[edit]

Seven narrow body mainline airplanes start the day at Birmingham International Airport in May 2008. See photo description for more details.

In September 2014 typical commercial passenger traffic included Airbus A319/A320s, Boeing 737s, Boeing 757s, Embraer 170s, MD-80s, Boeing 717s, CRJ 900s, CRJ700s, CRJ 200s, and Embraer 145s models on about 128 take offs or landings daily.[23] The dominant mainline aircraft was the Boeing 737 due to Southwest Airlines and Delta Airlines service. Delta Air Lines also uses the Boeing 717-200, Airbus A319/A320 and MD-80 on its mainline flights. American Airlines uses the MD-80 and occasionally the Boeing 737 on its mainline flights. US Airways Express (Republic Airlines) and Delta Connection (Compass Airlines) uses the Embraer 170. The CRJ700/900 family was the most common regional aircraft, being used by Delta Connection, United Express, and US Airways Express. The Canadair Regional Jets and ERJ 145 shared the second spot for regional jets, being utilized by the airlines above as well as American Eagle. No scheduled passenger service is offered on turboprop aircraft from BHM, although Mountain Air Cargo operates daily flights to Memphis using the ATR-72 twin-turboprop aircraft on behalf of FedEx Express. Unique regularly scheduled aircraft included a Boeing 727-200 and Boeing 757-200 operated by FedEx as well as the Airbus A300-600 and Boeing 767-300F (seasonal) operated by UPS, the only wide body aircraft to routinely use the airport. Numerous other aircraft are used for frequent charter flights. Birmingham Shuttlesworth International Airport is also a primary diversion airport for both Memphis International Airport and Atlanta Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport due to its 12,002 ft runway, which frequently brings brief but unique visitors.

Military aircraft[edit]

Birmingham Air National Guard Base is also located at the airport and consists of approximately 147 acres and essential facilities to support the mission of the 117th Air Refueling Wing (117 ARW), an Alabama Air National Guard unit operationally-gained by the Air Mobility Command (AMC), and its KC-135 Stratotanker aircraft.

The 117 ARW occupies 101 facilities including offices, mission support structures, maintenance hangars, s petroleum/oil/lubricants (POL) storage and refueling station, and a joint Army and Air Force evacuation hospital. As of 2002 the 117 ARW was nine (9) KC-135R Stratotankers. The current complement of personnel is 275 full-time personnel, including military and civilian employees. This expands to 1,243 personnel for Unit Training Assembly (UTA) weekends and during activation.

The Alabama Army National Guard (AL ARNG) also has facilities and units co-located on the base. These facilities provide for aircraft hangar and maintenance, the 109th Evacuation Hospital and an OMS storage facility.

Terminal and concourses[edit]

Airport terminal, tower, and parking deck on March 14, 2008

BHM currently has one new terminal building with three new concourses, which opened on March 13, 2013 (Concourses A, B) and on August 14, 2014 (Concourse C). The landside terminal (the area before the security threshold) has two levels. The upper level has ticketing and check-in facilities, a business center, and a large function room. The lower level has baggage claim facilities, airline baggage offices, airport operations offices, and meeting rooms available for use. The airport also has its own police force with offices on the lower level of the terminal. There are vending machines and ATMs located throughout both levels, pre-security.

Terminal A referred to the former 1962 terminal, which was still in use as office space until it was closed in 2011. The former Concourse B was closed in June 2011 and demolished alongside Terminal A for the first phase of the terminal modernization project to make way for two new concourses, concourses A and B, which opened on March 13, 2013.[24] Concourse C was closed in March 13, 2013 upon completion of concourses A and B. Concourse C was not demolished, but was completely gutted and structurally modified, removing the rotunda at the end of the old concourse and changing the structure to make a rectangle shape with the same width from end to end. It then underwent an intensive remodel covering all aspects of the concourse, culminating in the opening of the concourse to flights on August 14, 2014.

There is a rental car facility located in an annex on the ground floor of the parking deck. There are 8 rental car companies housed within this facility. The airport offers a parking deck with over 5000 spaces available for hourly and daily parking. There is also a remote lot available for long term parking with over 700 spaces. There is a shuttle that runs between the terminal and the remote lot continuously throughout the day. There is also a free cell phone waiting lot with a digital flight display for people waiting on arriving passengers.

Concourses[edit]

A ribbon cutting ceremony for the new concourses A and B took place on February 26, 2013.[25] The new terminal officially opened for business on March 13, 2013.[24] The new concourse C was completed along with the second half of the main terminal building and baggage claim upon the completion of the second and final phase of the terminal modernization project. A ribbon cotton ceremony for the concourse C and phase 2 completion was held on August 11, 2014 and concourse C officially opened for arriving and departing flights on August 14, 2014.[26]

Concourse A, which opened on March 13, 2013, consists of 8 gates: A1-A8. It is used by Delta and US Airways.

Concourse B, which opened on March 13, 2013, consists of 5 gates: B1-B5. It is used by American and US Airways as well as by any charter or diverted domestic aircraft.

Concourse C, which opened on August 14, 2014, consists of 6 gates: C1-C6. It is used by Southwest and United.

Former concourse B consisted of 6 gates, B1-B6. Prior to its closure and demolition, concourse B was used by Northwest/Northwest Airlink, American/American Eagle, Continental/Continental Express, and US Airways Express. Northwest moved to concourse C in May 2009 and was merged into Delta a year later. American Airlines moved to concourse C on June 10, 2011; while US Airways and Continental moved to concourse C on June 24, 2011.[27] Concourse B was then closed and demolished in August 2011 to make way for the construction for future concourses A and B.[28]

Former concourse C consisted of 13 gates, C1-C14. It was the only concourse at the airport in operation and in use during the first phase of the terminal modernization project. Therefore all commercial and charter services used this concourse. Concourse C was then closed when the new concourses A and B opened on March 13, 2013.[29]

Architecture[edit]

The 1974 terminal was built in the International style of architecture popular for American commercial and institutional buildings from the 1950s through the late 1970s. It consists of a single curved terminal with concourses radiating outward. Large floor to ceiling plate glass windows form curtain walls on the departure level of the terminal with horizontal bands of repetitive white architectural panels above and below. A slight departure from typical International style, the upper band of panels was decorated with raised circles of four sizes, two circles per size per panel. The roof is flat over the terminal and concourses; a series of steel columns painted white with stay cables for the terminal awning project from the roof. An enclosed white-clad Observation Deck jutted out from the airside terminal face at a sharp angle between the old concourses B and C. On the airside of the terminal, a large horizontal white sign with teal lettering identified the city as Birmingham.

The Birmingham–Shuttlesworth International Airport terminal and the former concourse C at night as viewed from parking deck

Externally, concourse C and concourse B before their reconstruction were radically different than the terminal structure, consisting of straight radial spokes clad with white panels. Concourse C included a circular end which invokes the appearance of the terminal, whereas concourse B terminated at a flat wall. The concourse walls had relatively few windows, typically at waiting and dining areas. The presence of multiple shops, restrooms and service areas reduced the need for windows in the concourses. Jetways were used for the majority of the gates and aircraft, though Delta Connection and United Express used stairs leading to the tarmac to board flights on regional jets (currently all flights at the new concourses uses jetways). Passenger gates and services are located on the second floor with airside baggage handling and aircraft servicing on the ground level.

Interior view of the former concourse B. Concourse B was demolished to make way for the new concourses A and B

The interior of the terminal was renovated in the early 1990s and completed in 1993 at a cost of $50.4 million[18] which included new floor surfaces, lighting, wall coverings, renovated public spaces, and public art. The flooring was a mixture of carpet and large tiles, with tile primarily in the heavily used terminal spaces, dining areas, and restrooms. Numerous planters were positioned in hallways.

Terminal expansion and modernization[edit]

There is a $201.6 million terminal renovation project in progress. This project includes a renovation and upgrade to the airport's existing concourse C, as well as completely new concourses A and B. There will also be changes made to the interior lobby and ticketing area of the main terminal building, as well as improving the way passengers get from the parking deck to the terminal. More security screening areas, concessions, as well as US customs offices will be added.[30] The new airport is said to be built with new efficient building standards, making it one of the greenest airports in the country.[31] As of August 2011 the project is well underway, with Terminal A, the old cargo terminal, and concourse B already demolished.[28][30][32] The first phase of construction was completed on February 26, 2013 with the entire modernization project to be complete by 2014.[28] The second phase of construction is expected to begin in the spring of 2013 (when the new concourses A and B opens) when the airport's current and only concourse C will be demolished and renovated.[33][34] The ribbon cutting ceremony for the new terminal took place on February 26, 2013[25] with the terminal to open for business on March 13, 2013.[24] The project team includes KPS Group and KHAFRA (Architects & Engineers), A.G. Gaston Construction (Project Management), and Brasfield & Gorrie and BLOC Global Services Group (Construction Management).[35] The second and final phase of the terminal modernization project was completed on August 7, 2014.[36]

Artwork displays[edit]

Several pieces of artwork are displayed within the Terminal and on the airport grounds. Approaching the airport along Messer Airport Boulevard, travelers pass a series of white three dimensional triangular shapes placed on raised posts along the shoulder and median of the roadway with a mid-span folded crease to suggest the wings of birds in flight or aircraft. The two-story open space between the baggage claim carousels and the exterior entrances is filled with internationally recognized artist Larry Kirkland's mixed sculptural work Birmingham Beacons. The centerpieces of this work are two tall steel towers, recalling Birmingham's heavy industrial heritage, carved with images from nature, science, leisure and cultural activities that reflect the local environment and people. A granite map of Alabama, a small red stone house with quotes from local residents, and a series of suspended objects round out the piece.[37] The viewing area between concourses B and C displays whimsical sculptures of fruits and vegetables depicted as airplanes. Across from the viewing area is a display of the dedication plaque for the 1962 Birmingham Air Terminal and the large analogue clock with blinking stars which once hung above the main entrance doorway of the 1962 terminal and, with an adjacent sign, welcomed arriving passengers to Birmingham as they exited the terminal. Modified from its original appearance, the clock now includes photos of the current terminal, the 1931 terminal, and Birmingham's Moorish style Terminal Station which served the railroads of Birmingham until being demolished in 1969.[17]

Airlines and destinations[edit]

BHM nonstop destinations (Jan 2012)

Airlines offering scheduled passenger service to non-stop destinations:

Airlines Destinations Concourse
American Airlines Dallas/Fort Worth B
American Eagle Dallas/Fort Worth, Miami B
Delta Air Lines Atlanta
Seasonal: Detroit
A
Delta Connection Atlanta, Detroit, New York-LaGuardia
Seasonal: Minneapolis/St. Paul, Orlando
A
Southern Airways Express Charter:Atlanta-DeKalb-Peachtree,[38] Destin, Gulf Shores, Panama City (FL)[39][40] FBO
Southwest Airlines Baltimore, Chicago-Midway, Dallas-Love, Houston-Hobby, Las Vegas, Orlando, Tampa C
United Express Chicago-O'Hare, Denver, Houston-Intercontinental C
US Airways Express Charlotte, Philadelphia, Washington-National A/B
Vacation Express operated by Bahamasair Seasonal: Freeport[41] B

Southwest Airlines carried the most passengers through BHM in 2011; transporting 1.31 million passengers, 45% of total BHM passengers; Delta carried 807,000 passengers as the second largest carrier.[42]

Statistics[edit]

Carrier shares: July 2013 – June 2014 [43]
Carrier Passengers (arriving and departing)
Southwest
907,000(35.15%)
Delta
651,000(25.23%)
ExpressJet
321,000(12.46%)
PSA
186,000(7.21%)
Mesa
155,000(6.02%)
Other
359,000(13.93%)
Top domestic destinations: July 2013 – June 2014 [43]
Rank City Airport Passengers
1 Atlanta, GA Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International (ATL) 348,000
2 Charlotte, NC Charlotte Douglas International (CLT) 131,000
3 Dallas/Fort Worth, TX Dallas/Fort Worth International (DFW) 81,000
4 Houston, TX George Bush Intercontinental (IAH) 70,000
5 Dallas, TX Dallas Love Field (DAL) 68,000
6 Orlando, FL Orlando International (MCO) 67,000
7 Baltimore, MD Baltimore–Washington International (BWI) 64,000
8 Chicago, IL Chicago Midway International (MDW) 64,000
9 Tampa, FL Tampa International (TPA) 55,000
10 Houston, TX William P. Hobby Airport (HOU) 55,000

Scheduled cargo airlines and destinations[edit]

Airlines Destinations
FedEx Express Memphis
UPS Airlines Louisville

Accidents and incidents[edit]

One fatal Part 121 (Air Carrier) accident has occurred at or in the immediate vicinity of Birmingham International Airport since 1934; the crash of Pennsylvania Central Airlines (a United Airlines predecessor) Flight 105 on January 6, 1946. The DC-3 landed on Runway 18 and continued off the end of the runway into Village Creek, three crew members sustained fatal injuries as a result of the accident.[44]

Two Part 135 (Air Taxi & Commuter) accidents have occurred since 1962 which resulted in fatalities. The most significant accident was the crash of L'Express Airlines Flight 508 on July 10, 1991 with the loss of 13 lives. Eight fatal General Aviation accidents have occurred at or in the vicinity of Birmingham International Airport since 1962, including a flight line ground accident[45][46]

  • On March 22, 2013 following a $201 million renovation construction in the airport terminal, a digital arrival/departure screen fixture fell on a mother and her children killing ten-year old Luke Bresette, and injuring his mother and 2 other siblings of Overland Park, KS.[47][48]

Controversy[edit]

In September 2013, Atlanta-based ExpressJet Airlines, the largest regional US passenger airline, told its pilots to avoid landing on Runway 18, where a UPS cargo jet crashed in Birmingham. An internal review following the accident concluded planes come "dangerously close" to nearby hills if even a few feet too low, that there is a significant "terrain threat" and a non-standard glide path. The National Transportation Safety Board has yet to determine the probable cause of the UPS accident, and a hearing in February 2014 focused on pilot fatigue as the cause of the crash, not any possible problems with the runway. An aviation safety expert said the runway is "absolutely" safe.[50][51]

See also[edit]

Images[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.flybirmingham.com/aboutbhm-reports.shtml
  2. ^ a b c d e FAA Airport Master Record for BHM (Form 5010 PDF). Federal Aviation Administration. Effective November 15, 2012.
  3. ^ "BHM Statistical Reports". Birmingham Airport Authority. 
  4. ^ "2010 North American final rankings". Airports Council International – North America. [dead link]
  5. ^ "IATA Airport {{subst:lc:Code}} Search (BHM: Birmingham)". International Air Transport Association. Retrieved August 13, 2013. 
  6. ^ "Non-Stop and Direct Flights". Birmingham Airport Authority. 
  7. ^ "Birmingham International Airport sets passenger record for 2007 of 3.2 million". AL.com (Alabama Media Group). 
  8. ^ FAA Airport Diagram (PDF), effective September 18, 2014. Federal Aviation Administration.
  9. ^ Dodd, Don "Birmingham Aviation: From Fairgrounds Air Shows to the Southern Museum of Flight”, Alabama Review, January 2004.
  10. ^ Georgia Encyclopedia, Delta Air Lines
  11. ^ a b c d e f g "75th Anniversary Timeline". Birmingham Shuttlesworth International Airport. 
  12. ^ a b US Geological Survey, Aerial Photo; Birmingham Airport, Alabama; March 9, 1951
  13. ^ a b Aerial Photo, Birmingham Airport, 1967, University of Alabama collection
  14. ^ Federal Aviation Administration Airport Diagram, Birmingham International (BHM), SE-4, June 5, 2008
  15. ^ "3 pilots who died in Bay of Pigs remembered". Air Force Times. April 23, 2011. 
  16. ^ Birmingham Air Terminal dedication plaque; 1973 Terminal 2nd Floor
  17. ^ a b "75th Anniversary Video". Birmingham–Shuttlesworth International Airport. 
  18. ^ a b "About BHM: History". Birmingham International Airport. 
  19. ^ "Birmingham–Shuttlesworth International Airport". Airport Technology. 
  20. ^ "Birmingham International Airport". FAA Information effective February 14, 2008. AirNav. 
  21. ^ "Langford Looks to Rename Airport After Rev. Shuttlesworth". MyFox Birmingham. [dead link]
  22. ^ "Airport Authority Votes to Change Airport {{subst:lc:Name}}". MyFox Birmingham. [dead link]
  23. ^ "Live Flight Tracker: Birmingham International Airport". Flight Aware. Retrieved February 23, 2012. 
  24. ^ a b c "Birmingham Airport Cuts Ribbon". WVTM-TV. February 26, 2013. [dead link]
  25. ^ a b "Ribbon cutting ceremony scheduled for new terminal at BHM". ABC 33/40. February 23, 2013. 
  26. ^ http://www.myfoxal.com/story/26274075/new-concourse-at-bhm-opening-to-arriving-passengers
  27. ^ "US Airways, Continental moving to concourse C at BHM". Birmingham Business Journal. June 23, 2011. 
  28. ^ a b c "Birmingham-Shuttlesworth progressing on renovations". WBRC. August 30, 2011. 
  29. ^ "New Airport Terminal Opening this Week". ABC 33/40. March 10, 2013. 
  30. ^ a b "Terminal Modernization Project". Birmingham Airport Authority. 
  31. ^ "Birmingham airport aims for green efficiency with design". AL.com (Alabama Media Group). January 30, 2011. 
  32. ^ "Terminal Modernization Project: Photo Gallery". Birmingham Airport Authority. 
  33. ^ "Airport project in Birmingham two-thirds complete". WDEF-TV. [dead link]
  34. ^ "$201 million Birmingham-Shuttlesworth improvement project two-thirds complete". AL.com (Alabama Media Group). February 12, 2013. 
  35. ^ "Terminal Modernization Project: Project Team". Birmingham Airport Authority. 
  36. ^ http://www.alabamas13.com/story/26229432/ribbon-cutting-ceremony-held-for-terminal-modernization-project-at-birmingham-shuttlesworth-international-airport
  37. ^ Kirkland, Larry. Birmingham Beacons interpretative sign, 1992.
  38. ^ http://www.aviationpros.com/news/11121348/southern-airways-express-eyes-dekalb-peachtree-airport
  39. ^ "Route Map: Summer 2013". Southern Airways Express. Retrieved August 13, 2013. 
  40. ^ "Timetable". Southern Airways Express. Retrieved August 13, 2013. 
  41. ^ http://blog.al.com/spotnews/2014/05/bahamasair_flight_936_complete.html
  42. ^ Birmingham News; February 4, 2012
  43. ^ a b "Birmingham, AL: Birmingham-Shuttlesworth International (BHM)". Bureau of Transportation Statistics. December 2012. Retrieved August 13, 2013. 
  44. ^ Civil Aeronautics Board, Docket No. SA-111 File No. 301-46, adopted June 17, 1946 DOT Library – Special Collections
  45. ^ "NTSB Aviation Accident Data and Synopses database". National Transportation Safety Board. Retrieved December 2007. [dead link]
  46. ^ "NTSB Accident Report: L’Express Airlines, Inc. – Flight 508 – July 10, 1991". National Transportation Safety Board. March 3, 1992. 
  47. ^ "Father grieves son killed by Alabama airport sign's collapse". CNN. March 24, 2013. 
  48. ^ "Boy Dies, 4 Others Injured After Sign Collapses at Airport". KSEE. March 23, 2013. 
  49. ^ UPS, "UPS Flight 1354", August 14, 2013. Accessed August 14, 2013
  50. ^ http://www.seattlepi.com/news/us/article/Airline-warns-pilots-about-runway-after-UPS-crash-5299638.php
  51. ^ http://www.miamiherald.com/2014/03/08/3982067/airline-warns-pilots-about-runway.html

External links[edit]