Black Sea Fleet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Black Sea Fleet
Sleeve Insignia of the Russian Black Sea Fleet.svg
Black Sea Fleet sleeve ensign
Active May 13, 1783–present
Allegiance  Russian Empire
(1783–1918)
 Soviet Union
(1918–1991)
 Russian Federation
(1991–present)
Branch Emblem of the Военно-Морской Флот Российской Федерации.svg Russian navy
Role Naval warfare
Amphibious warfare
Size 11,000 (including Marines)
41 Warships
2 Submarines
Part of Medium emblem of the Вооружённые Силы Российской Федерации.svg Russian Armed Forces
Garrison/HQ Crimea
Krasnodar Krai
Anniversaries May 13
Engagements Battle of Kerch Strait
Crimean War
Russo-Japanese War
World War I
Russian Civil War
World War II
Yom Kippur War
2008 South Ossetia war
Crimean Crisis (2014)
Commanders
Current
commander
Vice.Adm. Aleksandr Vitko
Notable
commanders
Adm. Fyodor Ushakov
Adm. Alexander Menshikov
Adm. Yevgeni Alekseyev
Adm. Alexander Kolchak
Adm. Ivan Yumashev
Fleet Adm. Sergey Gorshkov
Fleet Adm. Vladimir Kasatonov
Adm. Vladimir Masorin
Navies of Russia

Flag of Russia.svg Imperial Russia

Navy (1696–1917)

Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union

Soviet Navy (1918–1991)

Flag of Russia.svg Russian Federation

Russian Navy (1991–Present)

The Black Sea Fleet (Russian: Черноморский Флот, Chernomorsky Flot) is a large operational-strategic sub-unit of the Russian (and formerly Soviet) Navy, operating in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea since the late 18th century. It's ships are based in various harbors of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, while its aviation and infrastructure is based in various locations in Crimea and Krasnodar Krai.

It is considered to have been founded by Prince Potemkin on May 13, 1783, together with its principal base, the city of Sevastopol. Russia struggled for a long time against its main rival in the region, the Ottoman Empire, with the Ottoman Navy being its main opponent in the Black Sea. The Black Sea Fleet defeated the Turks in 1790, fought the Ottomans during World War I, the Romanians during World War II, and Georgia during the 2008 South Ossetia war. The division of the fleet in 1997 became the basis of the Ukrainian Navy.[citation needed]

History[edit]

Russian Black Sea Fleet after the battle of Sinope, 1853

The Black Sea Fleet is considered to have been founded by Prince Potemkin on May 13, 1783, together with its principal base, the city of Sevastopol. Formerly commanded by such legendary admirals as Dmitriy Senyavin and Pavel Nakhimov, it is a fleet of enormous historical and political importance for Russia. In 1790, Russian naval forces under the command of Admiral Fyodor Ushakov defeated the Turkish fleet at the Battle of Kerch Strait.[1]

From 1841 onward, the fleet was confined to the Black Sea by the London Straits Convention.

As a result of the Crimean War, one provision of the Treaty of Paris was that the Black Sea was to be a demilitarized zone like the Island of Åland in the Baltic Sea, although Russia subsequently renounced the treaty and reconstituted its naval strength and fortifications in the Black Sea.

The crew of the battleship Potemkin revolted in 1905 soon after the Navy's defeat in the Russo-Japanese War. Lenin wrote that the Potemkin uprising had had a huge importance in terms of being the first attempt at creating the nucleus of a revolutionary army.

During World War I, there were a number of encounters between the Russian and Ottoman navies in the Black Sea. The Ottomans initially had the advantage due to their having under their command the German battleship SMS Goeben, but after the two modern Russian dreadnoughts Imperatritsa Mariya and Imperatritsa Ekaterina Velikaya had been built in Mykolaiv, the Russians took command of the sea until the Russian government collapsed in November 1917. German submarines of the Constantinople Flotilla and Turkish light forces would continue to raid and harass Russian shipping until the war's end.

Soviet Navy[edit]

During the Russian Civil War, the vast majority of the Black Sea Fleet was scuttled by Bolsheviks in Novorossiysk; some were managed to be interned by the Central powers (later passed to Ukraine) or Western Allies (later passed to the White movement, see Wrangel's fleet). In 1919 out of the remnants of the Russian Imperial Fleet was established the Red Fleet of Ukraine which existed few months before a major advance of the Armed Forces of South Russia which occupied all the South and East Ukraine. Most of the ships became part of the "Russian Squadron" of Wrangl's armed forces and after the evacuation sailed to Tunisia. Out of those ships, some were passed to the French Navy and some were salvaged.

Upon the defeat of the Armed Forces of South Russia, the Ukrainian National Army and the Polish Armed Forces in Ukraine the Soviet government signed a military union with the Russian SFSR transferring all the command to the Commander-in-chief of Russia. Few ships that did stay in Black Sea were salvaged in the 1920s, while a large scale new construction programme began in the 1930s. Over 500 new ships were built during that period as well as massive expansion of coastal infrastructure took place. The Fleet was commanded by Vice Admiral F.S. Oktyabrskiy on the outbreak of war with Germany in June 1941. The Fleet gave a credible account of itself as it fought alongside the Red Army during the Siege of Odessa and the Battle of Sevastopol.[2] (See Black Sea Campaigns (1941–44) for more details.)

In 1952, Turkey decided to join NATO, placing the Bosporus Strait in the Western sphere of influence. Together with the advent of long-range nuclear weapons, this dramatically decreased the strategic value of any naval activity in the Black Sea.[citation needed]

In the later post-war period, along with the Northern Fleet, the Black Sea Fleet provided ships for the 5th Operational Squadron (ru:5-я Средиземноморская эскадра кораблей ВМФ) in the Mediterranean, which confronted the United States Navy during the Arab-Israeli wars, notably during the Yom Kippur War in 1973.[3]

Monument to Heroes of the Soviet Black Sea Fleet Squadron 1941–1944 in Sevastopol, featuring the list of 28 military ships that distinguished themselves in battles with Nazi invaders

In 1988 Coastal Troops and Naval Aviation units of the Black Sea Fleet included:[4]

  • Danube Flotilla:
    • 116th River Ship Brigade (Izmail, Odessa Oblast)
  • 112th Reconnaissance Ship Brigade (Lake Donuzlav (Mirnyy), Crimean Oblast)
  • 37th Rescue Ship Brigade (Sevastopol, Crimean Oblast)
  • Department of Coastal Troops
    • 810th Naval Infantry Brigade (Sevastopol, Crimean Oblast)
    • 362nd independent Coastal Missile Regiment (Balaklava, Crimean Oblast)
    • 138th independent Coastal Missile Regiment (Chernomorsk, Crimean Oblast)
    • 417th independent Coastal Missile Regiment (Sevastopol, Crimean Oblast)
    • 51st independent Coastal Missile Regiment (Mekenzerye, Crimean Oblast)
  • Department of Naval Aviation Black Sea Fleet
    • 2nd Guards Maritime Missile Aviation Division (Gvardeyskoye, Crimean Oblast)(three regiments of maritime attack Tu-22M2s[5]
      • 5th Maritime Missile Aviation Regiment (Veseloye, Crimean Oblast) - disbanded 15.11.94.
      • 124th Maritime Missile Aviation Regiment (Gvardeskoye, Crimean Oblast) - disbanded 1993.
      • 943rd Maritime Missile Aviation Regiment (Oktyabrskoye) - disbanded 1996.
    • 30th independent Maritime Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment (Saki-Novofedorovka, Crimean Oblast)(Tu-22P)
    • 318th independent Anti-Submarine Aviation Regiment (Lake Donuzlav, Crimean Oblast)
    • 78th independent Shipborne Anti-Submarine Helicopter Regiment (Lake Donuzlav, Crimean Oblast)
    • 872nd independent Shipborne Anti-Submarine Helicopter Regiment (Kacha, Crimean Oblast)
    • 917th independent Transport Aviation Regiment (Kacha, Crimean Oblast)
    • 859th Training Center for Naval Aviation (Kacha, Crimean Oblast)

In 1989, the 126th Motor Rifle Division at Simferopol was transferred to the Black Sea Fleet from the Odessa Military District.

After the fall of the Soviet Union[edit]

Vladimir Putin with Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma on board the Black Sea Fleet's flagship, July 2001

The military importance of the fleet has degraded since the collapse of the Soviet Union, due to significant funding cuts and, to a degree, the loss of its major missions.[citation needed] However, in the early 21st century, local conflicts in the Caucasus region (particularly the 2008 South Ossetia war) saw Moscow employ elements of the Black Sea Fleet off the coast of Georgia, and the development of oil transit in the region has strengthen Russia's support of the fleet.[citation needed]

In 1992, the major part of the personnel, armaments and coastal facilities of the Fleet fell under formal jurisdiction of the newly independent Ukraine as they were situated on Ukrainian territory. Later, the Ukrainian government ordered the establishment of its own Ukrainian Navy based on the Black Sea Fleet; several ships and ground formations declared themselves Ukrainian.

However, this immediately led to conflicts with the majority of officers who appeared to be loyal to Russia. Simultaneously, pro-Russian separatist groups became active in the local politics of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the Sevastopol municipality where the major naval bases were situated, and started coordinating their efforts with pro-Moscow seamen.

Joint Fleet and its partition[edit]

To ease the tensions, the two governments signed an interim treaty, establishing a joint Russo-Ukrainian Black Sea Fleet under bilateral command (and Soviet Navy flag) until a full-scale partition agreement could be reached. Formally, the Fleet's Commander was to be appointed by a joint order of the two countries' Presidents. However, Russia still dominated the Fleet unofficially, and a Russian admiral was appointed as Commander; the majority of the fleet personnel adopted Russian citizenship. Minor tensions between the Fleet and the new Ukrainian Navy (such as electricity cut-offs and sailors' street-fighting) continued.

Some major ships (including the flagship) of the Soviet and Russian Black Sea Fleet in Sevastopol, August 2007

In 1997, Russia and Ukraine signed the Partition Treaty, establishing two independent national fleets and dividing armaments and bases between them.[6] Ukraine also agreed to lease major parts of its new bases to the Russian Black Sea Fleet until 2017. However, the treaty appeared to be far from perfect: permanent tensions on the lease details (including often reported issue of lighthouses) control continued. The Fleet's main base is still situated in the Crimean port city of Sevastopol. In 2009 the Yushchenko Ukrainian government declared that the lease would not be extended and that the fleet would have to leave Sevastopol by 2017.[7] In 2010 the Russian leasehold was renegotiated with an extension until 2042 and an option for an additional five years until 2047. Following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, in March 2014, the Russian Federation annexed Crimea.[8][9][10]

Georgia in the Fleet partition[edit]

The newly independent nation of Georgia, which also hosted several bases of the Soviet Black Sea Fleet when it was the Georgian SSR, also claimed a share of the Fleet, including 32 naval vessels formerly stationed at Georgia's Black Sea port of Poti. Not a CIS member at that time, Georgia was not, however, included in the initial negotiations in January 1992. Additionally, some low-importance bases situated in the Russian-backed breakaway autonomy of Abkhazia soon escaped any Georgian control. In 1996, Georgia resumed its demands, and the Russian refusal to allot Georgia a portion of the ex-Soviet navy became another bone of contention in the progressively deteriorating Georgian-Russian relations. This time, Ukraine endorsed Tbilisi's claims, turning over several patrol boats to the Georgian Navy and starting to train Georgian crews, but was unable to include in the final fleet deal a transfer of the formerly Poti-based vessels to Georgia.[11] Later, the rest of the Georgian share was decided to be ceded to Russia in return for diminution of debt.

Since the 2008 South Ossetia war the Russian Black Sea Fleet has not taken part in any joint naval exercises involving Georgian warships.[12] However, such a statement has little meaning since the Georgian Navy has ceased to exist (early 2009 it was merged with the Georgian coast guard).[13]

Russia is a member of the Black Sea Naval Co-operation Task Group usually referred to as BLACKSEAFOR.

Combat operations[edit]

Russia employed part of the fleet during the 2008 Georgian conflict. Russian units operating off Georgia's separatist Abkhazia region resulted in a reported skirmish with the Georgian Navy unconfirmed by Georgia. As a result, Ukraine's then President Viktor Yushchenko decreed that the Black Sea Fleet would henceforth need permission to cross the Ukrainian border to enter and leave to Sevastopol,[14] to which a Russian admiral retorted that the President of the Russian Federation and not Ukraine commands the Black Sea Fleet.[citation needed] Yushchenko's decrees[14] were without force and deployed units of the Russian Black Sea Fleet returned to their home moorings without incident.

Black Sea Fleet and Ukraine[edit]

Ukraine's president Viktor Yushchenko had repeatedly pointed out that the Black Sea Fleet (BSF) is an agent of instability in Crimea, Ukraine that facilitates separatism. In a letter to Russian president Medvedev, Yushchenko stated that "Throughout the period of the BSF’s base on Ukrainian territory, its commanding structures had systematically permitted a great number of infringements of bilateral agreements and Ukrainian legislation, which the Ukrainian side had regularly informed the Russian side."[15]

In 2009, Ukraine government announced the lease of Russian naval bases on the Crimea will not be extended beyond 2017,[16][17] in response the Russian Black Fleet initiated the expansion of its base in Novorossiysk. In July 2007, the Navy Commander announced that the new base will be ready in 2012.[18] Under the 1997 bilateral treaty, Russia paid $98 million annually and the treaty provided for an extension by mutual agreement. Russian officials repeatedly said they would like to extend the lease.[19][20]

In June 2009, the head of the Ukrainian Security Service said that after December 13, 2009, all officers from the Russian Federal Security Service (FSB) represented at the (Russian) Black Sea Fleet must leave Ukraine, from then the Security Service of Ukraine will ensure the security of the (Russian) Black Sea Fleet and Russian sailors on Ukrainian territory.[21] According to the Russian Foreign Ministry the employees of the FSB, who are working at the Black Sea Fleet facilities, are staying on the Ukrainian territory "in line with bilateral agreements".[22]

In October–November 2009, the (Russian) Black Sea Fleet complained about inspection of (non-boat) transport vehicles owned by the fleet by the Sevastopol State Auto Inspectorate and Ukrainian security officers, calling them "disrespect for the status of the Russian military units and an unfriendly step aimed at worsening the Russian-Ukrainian relations".[23][24]

On April 21, 2010, Ukrainian President Yanukovych and Russian President Medvedev reached an agreement whereby the Russian lease on naval facilities in Crimea would be extended beyond 2017 by 25 years with an additional 5-year renewal option (to 2042–47) in exchange for a multiyear discounted contract to provide Ukraine with Russian natural gas.[25][26][27] This deal is controversial in Ukraine.[28][29][30][31][32]

Joint exercises of the Ukrainian Navy and the (Russian) Black Sea Fleet may be resumed after a seven-year interval in June 2010.[33]

In 2010, based on an agreement between Ukrainian and Russian governments military counterintelligence officers from the Russian Federal Security Service returned to the (Russian) Black Sea Fleet base.[34]

While a Yushchenko administration minister said that Russia cannot unilaterally replace its Black Sea Fleet ships without Ukraine's consent,[35] the recent lease extension also revalidated the agreements of 1997. Those agreements stipulate that the Russian Black Sea Fleet can maintain the same numbers and types of ships that it had based in Sevastopol as a result of the 1997 fleet division without approval by Ukraine. This stipulation permits Russia to increase the current size of the fleet which has fallen below those numbers.[36]

As a result of the stance of the Ukrainian authorities, it was reported on 20 May 2013 that Russia would be concentrating on its new base in Novorossiysk and putting Sevastopol on hold as it upgrades the Black Sea Fleet. The Project-11356 frigate Admiral Grigorovich and the Project-636 submarines (Kilo class submarine) Novorossiysk and Rostov-na-Donu are expected to join the Fleet in 2014 and new moorings are being made ready for them at the base.[37]

Additions of ships to the Fleet[edit]

Repeated and sometimes contradictory announcements have been made claiming that new ships will join the fleet. On December 3, 2009, First Vice Mayor of Sevastopol Vladimir Kazarin stated that Russia's Black Sea Fleet could lose its combat capability, given a small number of ships and the absence of new ones.[38] Similar doubts had been stated by the Russian media. The Gazeta newspaper noted that, by 2015, the majority of the warships would no longer be fit for duty.[39]

In April 2010, Russian Navy sources said that up to four frigates and four diesel-electric submarines will be added to the Black Sea Fleet by 2015.[40] In June 2010, Russian Navy Commander-in-Chief Admiral Vladimir Vysotsky announced that Russia was reviewing plans for the naval modernization of the Black Sea Fleet. The plans include 15 new warships and submarines by 2020.[41][42] These vessels will partially replace the reported decommissioning of Kerch, Ochakov (decommissioned in 2011 and sunk as a blockship in 2014), several large support ships, and a diesel-electric submarine.

Russian Navy Headquarters sources have said that, by 2020, six frigates of Project 22350 Gorshkov-class, six submarines of Project 677 Lada-class, two large landing ships of Project 11711 Ivan Gren-class and four class-unspecified ships will be delivered. Due to the obsolescence of the Beriev Be-12 by 2015, they will be replaced with Il-38s. Sukhoi Su-24M aircraft are planned to be upgraded to Su-24M2 at the same time.[43][44][45] However, the November 2011 suspension of the building of the second and third Lada-class boats throws this particular announcement into doubt.

The Project 636.3 (Kilo-class) diesel-electric submarine Novorossiysk — the first of three such new submarines, which was laid down at Admiralty Wharves Shipyard, St. Petersburg on August 20, 2010 — is destined to serve in the Black Sea Fleet.[46] Navy sources also say that Project 11356 Grigorovich-class frigate will be dispatched to the Black Sea.[47] The Admiral Grigorovich, the lead ship of the class, was laid down on December 18, 2010 and was expected to be in service 34 months from that date (October 2013). Three ships of this class are to be in service in the Black Sea Fleet before 2015.[48]

With the 2014 Crimean crisis, Russia plans to integrate several vessels from the Ukrainian Navy into the Black Sea Fleet. According to sources from Black Sea Fleet Headquarters, inspections of all ships will be done by the end of 2014.[49]

Incidents with Ukraine[edit]

The Russian Black Sea Fleet's (BSF) use of leased facilities in Sevastopol and the Crimea have been controversial. A number of incidents have taken place:

  • The BSF has refused to permit Ukrainians to inspect its aircraft to see if they are illegally carrying nuclear weapons, which would infringe upon Ukraine's status under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)[15]
  • The BSF has illegally transported rockets repeatedly through the densely populated port of Sevastopol without first seeking permission from Ukrainian authorities.[15]
  • A lighthouse is located on the headland which, starting in 2005, was the subject of a controversy between Ukraine and Russia. From August 3, 2005, the lighthouse was occupied by the Russian Army.[50] Despite the ruling of the Government Court in Sevastopol on the subject of the return of 77 geographical objects to Ukraine (including the lighthouse on Sarych), Russian military officials have referred to the fact that they only take orders from the chief of the Russian Navy headquarters and no one else. Ukrainian public activists have stated that Sarych is illegally occupied by the Russian Navy.[51] As a military object, the territory around the Sarych headland is closed to trespassers with barbed wire, and the Russian flag flew over Sarych.[52]
  • In 2006, Ukrainian officials prevented Russian workers from entering the BSF lighthouse in Yalta.[citation needed]
  • During the 2008 South Ossetia War, the Ukrainian Navy was ordered to block the entrance to Sevastopol from Russian vessels taking part in the hostilities.[53] However, Russian Navy ships returned to base unimpeded.
  • June 20, 2009 – In Sevastopol, an incident again took place involving the BSF. In 2007, the administration of the BSF was contracted by some 200 citizens of Sevastopol to build four several story residential buildings. The job was never finished, although the financial aspect of the contract was fulfilled as it was a prepaid venture. At this time, there are only two buildings that are only 95% finished as stated in the local newspaper Novyi Sevastopol. Protesters were being simply kicked out by force without any intention to regulate the conflict. The protesters also sent letters to the President and the Prime-Minister of the Russian Federation, Dmitry Medvedev and Vladimir Putin, and also to the Minister of Defense of Russia, Anatoliy Serdyukov. Those attempts brought no results though.[54]
  • On August 27, 2009, Russian marines prevented Ukrainian bailiffs from enforcing Ukrainian court rulings on transferring (back to Ukrainian sovereignty) lighthouses under the illegal control of the BSF.[15] Russia stated that Ukrainians may not step onto its bases without permission.[55] The Ukrainian Foreign Ministry described the Russian obstruction as a blatant disregard for Ukrainian legislation and international agreement.[15]
  • On April 16, 2013, a "high-ranking Russian Defense Ministry official" complained to Interfax that "Ukraine’s stubborn position" was slowing the cancellation of customs payments (for the fleet) and that Ukraine still upheld (former) Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko's 2008 decrees that banned the "relaxed procedure" of BSF formations across the Ukrainian border.[14]

Fleet Commanders[edit]

# Rank Name Year
1 VADM Aleksey Fedotovich Klokachev 1783
2 VADM Yakov Filippovich Sukhotin 1784–1785
3 RADM Nikolay Semenovich Mordvinov 1785–1789
4 RADM Marko Ivanovich Voynovich 1789–1790
5 RADM Fyodor Fyodorovich Ushakov 1790–1792
# ADM Nikolay Semenovich Mordvinov 1792–1799
6 ADM Vilim Petrovich Fondezin 1799–1802
7 ADM Aleksandr Ivanovich deTravers 1802–1811
8 ADM Roman Romanovich Gall 1811
9 VADM Nikolay Lvovich Yazykov 1811–1816
10 ADM Aleksey Samuilovich Greig 1816–1833
11 ADM Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev 1834–1851
12 ADM Morits Borisovich Berg 1851–1855
13 VADM Nikolay Fedorovich Metlin Sep 1855–Dec 1855
14 VADM Aleksandr Ivanovich Panfilov Jan 1856-Aug 1856
15 RADM Grigoriy Ivanovich Butakov Aug 1856-Jan 1860
16 VADM Bogdan Aleksandrovich Glazenap 1860-Jan 1871
17 ADM Nikolay Andreyevich Arkas 1871–1881
18 ADM Mikhail Pavlovich Manganari 1881 – 1882
19 VADM Aleksey Alekseyevich Peshchurov 1882 – 1890
20 RADM Roman Andreevich Grenkvist 1890
21 VADM Nikolay Vasilyevich Kopytov 1891 – 1898
22 VADM Yevgeni Ivanovich Alekseyev 1898
23 VADM Sergey Petrovich Tyrtov 6 May 1898 – 1903
24 VADM Yakov Appolonovich Giltebrandt 1903
25 VADM Nikolay Illarionovich Skrydlov 1903 – 1904
26 VADM Aleksandr Khristianovich Kriger 1904
27 VADM Grigoriy Pavlovich Chukhnin 1904 – 1906
28 RADM Ivan Konstantinovich Grigorovich 1906
29 VADM Nikolay Illarionovich Skrydlov 1906 – 1907
30 RADM Genrikh Faddeevich Tsyvinskiy 1907
31 RADM Robert Nikolayevich Viren 1907 – 1908
32 VADM Ivan Fyodorovich Bostrem 1908 – 1909
33 VADM Vladimir Simonovich Sarnavskiy 1909 – 1911
34 VADM Ivan Fyodorovich Bostrem 1911
35 RADM Pavel Ivanovich Novitskiy 1911
36 VADM Andrey Avgustovich Ehbergard 1911 – Jun 1916
37 VADM Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak Jun 1916 – Jun 1917
38 (Acting) RADM Veniamin Konstantinovich Lukin Jun 1917 – Jul 1917
39 RADM Aleksandr Vasilyevich Nemitts Jul 1917 – Dec 1917
40 RADM Mikhail Sablin 1918
41 Captain 1st Rank Aleksandr Ivanovich Tikhmenev 1918
42 Captain 1st Rank Aleksandr Ivanovich Sheykovskiy 1919
43 Captain 1st Rank Aleksey Vladimirovich Dombrovskiy May 1920 – Oct 1920
44 Senior Lieutenant Ehduard Samuilovich Pantserzhanskiy Nov 1920 – Nov 1921
45 VADM Andrey Semenovich Maksimov Nov 1921 – Jul 1922
46 Captain 2nd Rank Aleksandr Karlovich Vekman Jul 1922 – May 1924
47 Lieutenant Mikhail Vladimirovich Viktorov May 1924 – Dec 1924
48 Senior Lieutenant Ehduard Samuilovich Pantserzhanskiy Dec 1924 – Oct 1926
49 Warrant Officer Vladimir Mitrofanovich Orlov Oct 1926 – Jun 1931
50 Fleet Flag Officer 2nd Rank Ivan Kuz'mich Kozhanov Jun 1931 – Aug 1937
51 Fleet Flag Officer 2nd Rank Petr Ivanovich Smirnov-Svetlovskiy Aug 1937 – Dec 1937
52 Fleet Flag Officer 2nd Rank Ivan Stepanovich Yumashev 1938 – Mar 1939
53 VADM Filipp Sergeyevich Oktyabrskiy Mar 1939 – Apr 1943
54 VADM Lev Anatol'evich Vladimirskiy Apr 1943 – Mar 1944
55 VADM Filipp Sergeyevich Oktyabrskiy Mar 1944 – Nov 1948
56 ADM Nikolay Efremovich Basistyy Nov 1948 – Aug 1951
57 ADM Sergey Georgiyevich Gorshkov Aug 1951 – Jul 1955
58 VADM Viktor Aleksandrovich Parkhomenko Jul 1955 – Dec 1955
59 ADM Vladimir Afanasyevich Kasatonov Dec 1955 – Feb 1962
60 ADM Serafim Evgeniyevich Chursin Feb 1962 – Dec 1968
61 ADM Viktor Sergeyevich Sysoyev Dec 1968 – Mar 1974
62 ADM Nikolay Ivanovich Khovrin Mar 1974 – April 1983
63 ADM Aleksey Mikhailovich Kalinin Apr 1983 – Jul 1985
64 ADM Mikhail Nikolayevich Khronopulo Jul 1985 – Oct 1991
65 ADM Igor Vladimirovich Kasatonov Oct 1991 – Dec 1992
66 ADM Ehduard Dmitriyevich Baltin Dec 1992 – Feb 1996
67 ADM Viktor Andreyevich Kravchenko Feb 1996 – Jul 1998
68 ADM Vladimir Petrovich Komoyedov Jul 1998 – Oct 2002
69 ADM Vladimir Vasilyevich Masorin Oct 2002 – Feb 2005
70 ADM Aleksandr Arkadyevich Tatarinov Feb 2005 – Jul 2007
71 VADM Aleksandr Kletskov (Admiral) Jul 2007 – Jul 2010
72 VADM Vladimir Ivanovich Korolev Jul 2010 – Jun 2011
73 VADM Aleksandr Nikolayevich Fedotenkov Jun 2011 – May 2013
74 VADM Aleksandr Viktorovich Vitko[56] 17 May 2013  – present

List of Black Sea Fleet ships[edit]

New ships included from Ukrainian Navy[edit]

Since March 22, 2014, most members of Ukrainian Navy have pledged an oath to Russia and joined the Black Sea Fleet. Fifty-four out of sixty-seven ships of the Ukrainian Navy have been transferred to the Black Sea Fleet, with St. Andrew flags raised on them.[57]

30th Surface Ship Division[edit]

11th Anti-submarine Ship Brigade
# Type Name Class Year Status
121 Guided Missile Cruiser Moskva Slava 1983 Active, Fleet Flagship
713 Large ASW Ship Kerch Kara 1974 Active;Scheduled to be decommissioned within the next several years
810 Guided Missile Destroyer Smetlivy Kashin 1969 Active
801 Guided Missile Frigate Ladnyy Krivak-class frigate 1978 Active as of 2012[58]
808 Guided Missile Frigate Pytlivyy Krivak-class frigate 1979
197th Assault Ship Brigade
# Type Name Class Year
152 Landing Ship Nikolay Filchenkov Alligator 1975
148 Landing Ship Orsk Alligator 1968
150 Landing Ship Saratov Alligator 1966
151 Landing Ship Azov Ropucha-II 1990
142 Landing Ship Novocherkassk Ropucha-I 1987
158 Landing Ship Tsezar Kunikov Ropucha-I 1986
156 Landing Ship Yamal Ropucha-I 1988

247th Independent Submarine Division[edit]

# Type Name Class Year Base Status
554 Diesel Attack Submarine Alrosa (B-871) Kilo 1990 Sevastopol Active, only Kilo class submarine with a pump-jet propulsion system.

68th Coastal Defense Ship Brigade[edit]

400th Antisubmarine Ship Division
# Type Name Class Year
059 ASW Corvette Alexandrovets Grisha I 1982
053 ASW Corvette Povorino Grisha III 1989
071 ASW Corvette Suzdalets Grisha III 1983
064 ASW Corvette Muromets Grisha III 1983
060 ASW Corvette Vladimirets Project 11451 / Mukha-class 1984
418th Minesweeper Division
# Type Name Class Year
913 Seagoing Minesweeper Kovrovets Natya I 1974
911 Seagoing Minesweeper Ivan Golubets Natya I 1973
912 Seagoing Minesweeper Turbinist Natya I 1972
909 Seagoing Minesweeper Vice Admiral Zhukov Natya I 1977

41st Missile Boat Brigade[edit]

166th Novorossiysk Small Missile Boat Division
# Type Name Class Year
615 Guided Missile Corvette Bora Dergach 1988
616 Guided Missile Corvette Samum Dergach 1991
620 Guided Missile Corvette Shtyl Nanuchka-III 1976
617 Guided Missile Corvette Mirazh Nanuchka-III 1983
295th Sulinsk Missile Boat Division
# Type Name Class Year
966 Missile Boat R-44 Matka Mod disc
955 Missile Boat R-60 Tarantul-III Mod 1985
962 Missile Boat R-71 Tarantul-II Mod 1985
952 Missile Boat R-109 Tarantul-III 1991
953 Missile Boat R-239 Tarantul-III 1991
954 Missile Boat Ivanovets Tarantul-III 1988

184th Novorossiysk Coastal Defense Brigade[edit]

# Type Name Class Year
054 Small Antisubmarine Ship Eysk Grisha-III 1987
055 Small Antisubmarine Ship Kasimov Grisha-III 1984
901 Seagoing Minesweeper Zheleznyakov Gorya-class 1988
770 Seagoing Minesweeper Valentin Pikul' Natya I Mod 2001
426 Base Minesweeper Mineralnyye Vody Sonya-class 1990
438 Base Minesweeper Leytenant Ilyin Sonya-class 1982

Black Sea Naval Infantry and Coastal Defense Force[edit]

  • 11th Independent Coastal Missile-Artillery Brigade - Anapa, Krasnodar Region: 3x K-300P Bastion-P anti-ship missile system[59]
  • 810th Naval Infantry Brigade
  • 382nd Independent Naval Infantry Battalion

Black Sea Fleet Naval Air Force – HQ Sevastopol[edit]

  • Status in 2010[43][44]
    • 25th Independent Anti-submarine Helicopter Regiment – HQ at Kacha, Crimea – ~20 helicopters of types Ka-27 and Mi-14
    • 917th Independent Composite Air Regiment – HQ at Kacha, Crimea – ~10x Antonov transport aircraft of types An-2, An-12 and An-26; 4x Be-12; ~10x Mi-8
    • 43rd Independent Naval Shturmovik (Assault) Air Squadron – HQ at Gvardeyskoye, Crimea – 18x Su-24M; 4x Su-24MR;

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Black Sea Fleet (BSF) Morskoyo Flota (Naval Force). Globalsecurity.org.
  2. ^ John Erickson, The Road to Stalingrad, Cassel Military Paperbacks, 2003, p.205
  3. ^ On Airpower.org, Military Thought article on Soviet Mediterranean squadron air defence. Retrieved May 30, 2008.
  4. ^ Michael Holm, Red Banner Black Sea Fleet, accessed December 2012.
  5. ^ Michael Holm, Navy (VMF) Aviation Regiments, accessed December 2012.
  6. ^ Subtelny, Orest (2000). Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto Press. p. 600. ISBN 0-8020-8390-0. 
  7. ^ No Russian fleet in Ukraine beyond 2017 -Ukrainian PM : Ukraine News by UNIAN. Unian.net (September 24, 2008).
  8. ^ Radyuhin, Vladimir (1 March 2014). "Russian Parliament approves use of army in Ukraine". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 
  9. ^ Walker, Shaun (4 March 2014). "Russian takeover of Crimea will not descend into war, says Vladimir Putin". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 March 2014. 
  10. ^ Yoon, Sangwon; Krasnolutska, Daryna; Choursina, Kateryna (4 March 2014). "Russia Stays in Ukraine as Putin Channels Yanukovych Request". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 5 March 2104. 
  11. ^ Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty's (opt, mozilla, unix,english,,new) Newsline. Vol. 1, No. 42, Part I, May 30, 1997
  12. ^ Russia's Black Sea Fleet rules out joint drills with Georgia, UNIAN (June 17, 2009)
  13. ^ Navy to Merge with Coast Guard, FINANCIAL (December 3, 2008)
  14. ^ a b c Kyiv obstructs Black Sea Fleet’s modernization, says Russian military official, Interfax-Ukraine (16 April 2013)
  15. ^ a b c d e The Crimea: Europe's Next Flashpoint?, By Taras Kuzio, November 2010
  16. ^ Russia denies naval bases report, BBC News (January 16, 2009)
  17. ^ Yulia Tymoshenko: Russian Black Sea Fleet will not remain in Crimea, Personal web site of Yulia Tymoshenko (June 25, 2009)
  18. ^ Moscow News – News – Russia's New Black Sea Base Complete by 2012[dead link]
  19. ^ Russia hopes to keep naval base in Ukraine, Reuters, (July 14, 2009)
  20. ^ Russia fleet 'may leave Ukraine', BBC News, (October 18, 2008)
  21. ^ All FSB officers working at Russian Black Sea Fleet must leave Ukraine –SBU, UNIAN (June 17, 2009)
  22. ^ Russia says FSB to stay in Crimea, UNIAN (June 18, 2009)
  23. ^ Black Sea Fleet: Black Sea Fleet concerned by checks by Ukrainian security agencies, Kyiv Post (October 14, 2009)
  24. ^ Russian Black See Fleet slams Ukraine authorities over trucks incident, Kyiv Post (November 3, 2009)
  25. ^ The Great Power (mis)Management by Alexander Astrov, Ashgate Publishing, 2011, ISBN 1409424677 (page 82)
  26. ^ ITAR-TASS 21.04.2010 17:13
  27. ^ Deal Struck on Gas, Black Sea Fleet, The Moscow Times (April 21, 2010)
  28. ^ Russia, Ukraine agree on naval-base-for-gas deal, CNN (April 21, 2010)
  29. ^ Our Ukraine: Yanukovych should be impeached, Kyiv Post (April 21, 2010)
  30. ^ Ukrainian parliament ratifies agreement extending Russian Black Sea Fleet's presence in Crimea, Kyiv Post (April 27, 2010)
  31. ^ Oppositional deputies throw eggs in Lytvyn, Kyiv Post (April 27, 2010)
  32. ^ Police clash with protesters in front of Ukrainian parliament, Kyiv Post (April 27, 2010)
  33. ^ "Russia and Ukraine resume joint naval exercises". Voice of Russia. April 16, 2010. Retrieved April 22, 2010. 
  34. ^ Russian counterintelligence officers to return to Sevastopol, Kyiv Post (May 12, 2010)
  35. ^ Ukrainian minister: Russia cannot unilaterally replace Black Sea Fleet ships, Kyiv Post (April 28, 2010)
  36. ^ Russia-Ukraine Agreement on the Division of the Black Sea Fleet, May 1977
  37. ^ Interfax-AVN military news agency, Moscow, 0740 GMT 20 May 13
  38. ^ Sevastopol official: Black Sea Fleet risks to lose combat capability by 2017, Kyiv Post (December 3, 2009)
  39. ^ Russia's Black Sea Fleet may lose all warships by 2015. RIA Novosti.
  40. ^ Globalsecurity.org, Russia plans to upgrade Black Sea Fleet with new warships, April 13, 2010
  41. ^ Russian Black Sea Fleet to receive 15 new combat vessels by 2020. RIA Novosti. (June 23, 2010).
  42. ^ Russia admits it needs to modernize its Navy". RIA Novosti. (June 25, 2010).
  43. ^ a b Черноморская противолодочная авиация оказалась под угрозой исчезновения. Flot.com (October 20, 2010).
  44. ^ a b Black Sea Fleet to get 18 new warships and renew naval aviation till 2020. Rusnavy.com (October 25, 2010).
  45. ^ A general criticized Black Sea Fleet aviation. Rusnavy.com (October 27, 2010).
  46. ^ Проект 636. Deepstorm.ru.
  47. ^ One can fire at any target from the Black Sea – BSF ex-commander. Rusnavy.com.
  48. ^ "RIA Novosti: a new frigate is laid down in Kaliningrad for the Russian Navy (in Russian)". RIA Novosti. December 18, 2010. 
  49. ^ "Inspection of Ukrainian Ships Entering Russia’s Black Sea Fleet To Be Done by Year’s End | Defense | RIA Novosti". En.ria.ru. 2014-03-27. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  50. ^ "The owner of the "sarych" lighthouse came back with a blank document to the President of Ukraine". CPCFPU (in Ukrainian). Retrieved February 24, 2007. 
  51. ^ "Access to Ukrainians is prohibited.". Zakryta Zona (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on March 10, 2007. Retrieved February 24, 2007. 
  52. ^ ""Sarych" was surrounded with a barbed wire and had a Russian flag flying above it". Korrespondent (in Ukrainian). February 10, 2006. 
  53. ^ Ukraine drifts further from NATO as president sacks Navy chief — RT. Rt.com.
  54. ^ UNIAN
  55. ^ Ukrainian officials attempt seizure of Russian Black Sea Fleet property — RT. Rt.com.
  56. ^ Interfax-AVN, Moscow, 0903GMT 15 May 13
  57. ^ "ITAR-TASS: Russia - Russian state flags raised over most of Ukrainian mil units, ships in Crimea". En.itar-tass.com. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  58. ^ Frigate Ladny Returns from Deployment. Rusnavy.com.
  59. ^ Third Bastion missile system has been delivered to Black Sea Fleet. Rusnavy.com (January 19, 2011).

Further reading[edit]

  • Simonsen, Sven Gunnar (June 2000). ""You take your oath only once:" Crimea, The Black Sea Fleet, and national identity among Russian officers". Nationalities Papers 28 (2): 289–316. doi:10.1080/713687467. 

External links[edit]