Burton-upon-Trent

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Burton-upon-Trent
Town Hall - geograph.org.uk - 352398.jpg
Burton-upon-Trent Town Hall, built in 1894.[1]
Burton-upon-Trent is located in Staffordshire
Burton-upon-Trent
Burton-upon-Trent
 Burton-upon-Trent shown within Staffordshire
Population 43,784 (2001 Census)
District East Staffordshire
Shire county Staffordshire
Region West Midlands
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town BURTON-ON-TRENT
Postcode district DE13-DE15
Dialling code 01283
Police Staffordshire
Fire Staffordshire
Ambulance West Midlands
EU Parliament West Midlands
UK Parliament Burton
List of places
UK
England
Staffordshire

Coordinates: 52°47′58″N 1°38′17″W / 52.7995°N 1.6380°W / 52.7995; -1.6380

Burton-upon-Trent, also known as Burton-on-Trent or simply Burton, is a town on the River Trent in East Staffordshire, England. In 2001, it had a population of 43,784.[2] The demonym for residents of the town is "Burtonian".

Burton is known for brewing.[3] The town originally grew up around Burton Abbey. Burton Bridge was also the site of two battles, in 1322 when Edward II defeated the rebel Earl of Lancaster and 1643 when royalists captured the town during the First English Civil War. Sir William Paget and his descendants were responsible for extending the manor house within the abbey grounds and facilitating the extension of the River Trent Navigation to Burton. Burton grew into a busy market town by the early modern period.

The town is served by Burton-on-Trent railway station.

History[edit]

Ryknild Street, a Roman road, ran north-east through what later became the parish of Burton, linking camps at Letocetum (Wall), near Lichfield, and Derventio (Little Chester), near Derby.[4]

Between 666 and 669 Wilfrid, the pro-Roman bishop of York, exercised episcopal functions in Mercia, whose Christian king, Wulfhere, gave him land in various places, on which he established monasteries. Burton was almost certainly one of the sites: the name Andresey given to an island in the river Trent near the parish church means "Andrew's isle" and refers to a church there dedicated to St Andrew.[4] The island is associated with the legend of St Modwen or Modwenna, an Irish abbess.[5] It is likely that any surviving religious house would have been destroyed during the Danish incursion into the area in 874. Place names indicate Scandinavian influence, and several personal names of Scandinavian origin were still used in the area in the early 12th century.[4] In 1003 a Benedictine abbey was established on a new site on the west bank of the Trent at Burton by Wulfric Spott, a thegn possibly descended from King Alfred. He is known to have been buried in the abbey cloister in 1010, alongside his wife.

Burton Abbey was mentioned in Domesday book, where it was said to control lands in Mickleover, Appleby Magna in Leicestershire, Winshill and Stapenhill in Staffordshire, Coton in the Elms, Caldwell and Ticknall. The monastery was the most important in Staffordshire and by the 1530s had the highest revenue. It is known that there were frequent Royal visits to the abbey, including those by William I, Henry II and Edward I. In the 12th and 13th centuries streets were laid out off the west side of High Street, the earliest being New Street which stretched from the abbey gates towards the line of Ryknild Street. Horninglow Street at the north end of High Street was part of a major east-west route using the bridge over the river.[6]

A royal charter was granted on 12 April 1200 by King John to the Abbot to hold a market in Burton every Thursday.[7] This charter was later renewed by King Henry III and King Edward IV[8] There were four annual fairs for trade in horses, cattle and produce: on Candlemas Day, April 5, Holy Thursday, and October 29 (the feast of St. Modwen) although as in other British towns this practice has now died out.

An early photograph of the 36 arch medieval Burton bridge. The bridge was an important crossing point and was the site of battles in 1322 and 1643. It was demolished and replaced in 1863.

While Burton's great bridge over the Trent was in poor repair by the early 16th century it served as "a comen passage to and fro many countries to the grett releff and comfort of travellyng people", according to the abbot.[9] The bridge was the site of two battles, first in 1322 when Edward III defeated the rebel Earl of Lancaster and also in 1643 when the Royalists captured the town during the First English Civil War.

William Paget, 1st Baron Paget was granted the lands at Burton Abbey in 1546 by Henry VIII and expanded the Manor House using materials from the abbey. The family's ownership was later confiscated after being implicated in a Catholic plot against Elizabeth I, but was restored to his descendent William Paget, 6th Baron Paget.

Under Henry VIII the abbey was dissolved in 1539, to be refounded in 1541 as a collegiate church for a dean (who had been the last abbot) and four prebendaries. It was again dissolved in 1545 and granted to Sir William Paget. Paget began planning to expand the Manor House within the abbey precincts, known to have existed since at least 1514, into a grand mansion. To provide the materials for this project, the old abbey buildings were to be cannibalised. There were major alterations to the house over the next three centuries. Sir William died in 1563. After his death, the Paget family was implicated in Catholic plots against Queen Elizabeth I, the manor house along with most of the family estates were confiscated, with the Manor House leased to Richard Almond in 1612.[10] Parts of the abbey church may have been retained for parish use, however these were demolished and replaced by a new church in 1719–26. Some fragments remain of the chapter house nearby but little of the rest remains either. Two buildings were converted to residential use - a part known as the Manor House, and the former Infirmary. The Infirmary became known as The Abbey, and is now an inn.

Canals and breweries[edit]

The Paget family's lands and title were restored to them by James I in 1602 and they owned considerable estates around Burton for over 150 years.[11] In 1699, William Paget, 6th Baron Paget obtained an Act of Parliament to extend navigation on the River Trent from Nottingham up to Burton, but nothing was immediately done. In 1711, Lord Paget leased his rights to George Hayne, who in 1712 opened the River Trent Navigation and constructed a wharf and other buildings in the precinct of the old abbey.[12] This led to the development of Burton as the major town for brewing and exporting beer, as it allowed Burton beer to be shipped to Hull, and on to the Baltic Sea and Prussia, as well as to London, where it was being sold in 1712. A number of breweries opened in the second half of the 18th century. The Napoleonic blockade badly affected overseas trade, leading to some consolidation and a redirection of the trade to London and Lancashire via canals. When Burton brewers succeeded in replicating the pale ale produced in London, the advantage of the water's qualities[clarification needed] allowed the development of the trade of Burton India Pale Ale (an ale specially brewed to keep during the long sea voyage to India). New rail links to Liverpool enabled brewers to export their beer throughout the British Empire.

Burton came to dominate the brewing trade, and at its height one quarter of all beer sold in Britain was produced here. In the second half of the 19th century there was a growth in native breweries, supplemented by outside brewing companies moving into the town, so that over 30 breweries were recorded in 1880.[13] However at the beginning of the 20th century there was a slump in beer sales, causing many breweries to fail; the industry suffered from the Liberal government's anti-drinking attitudes. This time no new markets were found and so the number of breweries shrank by closure and consolidation from 20 in 1900 to 8 in 1928. After further mergers and buy-outs, just three main breweries remained by 1980: Bass, Ind Coope and Marston's.

Burton was home to the Peel family, who played a significant role in the Industrial Revolution and founded the Peelers, which became the modern day police force. The family home is still visible in the town as Peel House on Lichfield Street. HM Queen Elizabeth II visited the town on 3 July 2002 during her Golden Jubilee celebrations.

Government[edit]

Burton is the administrative centre for the borough of East Staffordshire and forms part of the Burton constituency. The local Member of Parliament is the Conservative Party's Andrew Griffiths, who has represented the Burton (and Uttoxeter) constituency since May 2010. The Conservatives took the seat from Labour in the 2010 general election with an 8.7% swing.[14]

Burton was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1878. The incorporated area was split between the counties of Staffordshire and Derbyshire - the Local Government Act 1888 incorporated the entirety of the borough in Staffordshire, including the Derbyshire parishes of Stapenhill and Winshill. It became a county borough in 1901, having reached the 50,000 population required.

It never substantially exceeded the population of 50,000, and at a population of 50,201 in the 1971 census was the smallest county borough in England after Canterbury. The Local Government Commission for England recommended in the 1960s that it be demoted to a non-county borough within Staffordshire, but this was not implemented. Under the Local Government Act 1972, the town became on 1 April 1974, an unparished area in the new district of East Staffordshire.

The town became entirely parished on 1 April 2003, when the parishes of Anglesey, Branston, Brizlincote, Burton, Horninglow & Eton, Shobnall, Stapenhill, and Winshill were created.

Burton parish itself only covers the town centre, with the other parishes covering various suburbs.[15]

Geography[edit]

Burton is about 109 miles north west of London,[16] about 24 miles north east of Birmingham, the UK's second largest city[17] and about 23 miles east of the county town Stafford.[18] It is at the easternmost border of the county of Staffordshire with Derbyshire, its suburbs and the course of the River Trent forming part of the county boundary. Burton is closer to Derby (approx. 12 miles) than it is to Stafford. It is also near the south-eastern terminus of the Trent and Mersey Canal. Burton lies within the northern boundary of the National Forest.[19] The town centre is on the western bank of the River Trent in a valley bottom; its average elevation is about 50 metres above sea level; the suburbs of Winshill and Stapenhill rise to 130 m and 100 m respectively.[20]

Burton became a centre for the brewing industry due in part to the quality of the local water, which contains a high proportion of dissolved salts, predominantly caused by the gypsum in the surrounding hills. This allowed a greater proportion of hops, a natural preservative, to be included in the beer, thereby allowing the beer to be shipped further afield. Much of the open land within and around the town is protected from chemical treatment[citation needed] to help preserve this water quality.

Region[edit]

There is some confusion as to whether Burton is in the West Midlands or the East Midlands, even though the entire urban centre is southwest of the River Dove, which forms the Derbyshire/Staffordshire boundary. Being situated in Staffordshire, the town officially lies within the West Midlands region. Several factors contribute to the ambiguity of the town's status. The local vernacular shares more similarities with East Midlands English than West Midlands English; the town was formerly within the East Midlands Utility (electricity/gas) areas, and has Derby postcodes (DE13-DE15). However, it is served by the BBC Midlands (West Midlands) region, based in Birmingham and before consolidation exercises formed part of the ITV Central (West) region, again based in Birmingham.

Demography[edit]

The town had an estimated population of 43,784 (2001 Census), Stapenhill and Winshill are treated as separate and together have a population of 21,985 according to this source.[21]

The town has a large Muslim population which formed 8.5% of the population (much higher than the UK average) according to the 2001 census.[22]

Economy[edit]

Brewing[edit]

Coors Brewers Maltings Division Shobnall Site, is located on Wellington Road. The maltings were originally built by the world famous Bass Brewery, which was taken over by the American brewery Coors, around the late 1990s.

For centuries brewing was Burton's major trade, and it is still an important part of its economy. The town is currently home to 8 breweries; Coors Brewers Ltd: formerly Bass Brewers Ltd, and now the UK arm of Molson Coors Brewing Company – which produces Carling and Worthington Bitter; Marston, Thompson and Evershed plc, bought by Wolverhampton & Dudley Breweries now renamed Marstons plc. The Marston's Brewery produces its own brands, draught Marstons Pedigree, draught Hobgoblin and also draught Bass under licence from InBev.

Tower Brewery, Burton, a microbrewery based in the old Salts Water Tower of Walsitch Maltings, which were formerly used by the second biggest brewer in Burton.

Burton Bridge Brewery is a local company based in Bridge Street with a six local pubs in and around Burton. It produces a number of traditional beers including Bridge Bitter, Stairway to Heaven, Damson Porter and Golden Delicious. Tower Brewery is a microbrewery located off Wharf Road, Old Cottage Brewery, based in Hawkins Lane whose beers include Oak Ale and Halcyon Daze, Black Hole Brewery is based at the Imex Centre, Gates Brewery, and is also a microbrewery and is located in Reservoir Road.

Burton is also the corporate headquarters of the pub operators Punch Taverns plc and Spirit Pub Company, which were spun out of Bass in 1997. In addition, the White Shield micro-brewery remains open alongside the National Brewery Centre (formerly the Bass Museum of Brewing).

A by-product of the brewing industry, figuratively and literally, is the presence of the Marmite factory in the town. This in turn generated the production of Bovril. Both are now owned by multinational company Unilever[23][24]

With brewing being so ingrained with the town, it is probably not surprising that Burton is also home to CAMRA's National Breweriana Auction that takes place each October, latterly in the Town Hall.

In addition to the brewery industry, tyre manufacturer Pirelli is a major employer in the town, and they are a major sponsor of the Burton Albion Football Club. The Burton suburb of Branston is where Branston Pickle was invented.

Manufacturing[edit]

Eatough's (sometimes Etough's) was a shoemaking firm from Leicestershire which opened a factory in Burton Road, Branston in 1920. It was the first British shoe factory to introduce music in the workplace (1936), and washable children's sandals ('Plastisha' 1957), but it closed in 1989 as a result of competition from cheap imports.

Briggs of Burton (formerly S. Briggs & Co.) is a Burton-based brewery and process engineering company established in 1732 by Samuel Briggs. Famous for its manufacturing innovation and craftsmanship across the world, Briggs moved from its works in New Street to Derby Street having taken over its rival Robert Morton DG in the mid-1980s.[citation needed] The former site is now occupied by the Octagon Shopping Centre.

Retail[edit]

Entrance to Coopers Square shopping centre, Burton town centre.
Burton Market Hall on market day. Built in 1883 to replace an older structure, the footprint of which is marked by 4 'L' shaped metal pieces set into the ground roughly half way between the church and the high street. The hall has a trussed roof with cast iron support pillars. Architects: Dixon & Moxon of Barnsley.

Burton town centre is run by Burton Town Centre Management, which was formed as a limited company in 2002.[25] The average monthly footfall in Burton town centre in the period October 2011 to January 2012 was approximately 1.6 million.[26] The average shop vacancy rate for the same period was 9.1625%, this seemed to be decreasing.[26]

The market square

A market has been held on Thursdays in Burton since a charter was granted to the Abbott by King John[7] on 12 April 1200. Burton today has an indoor and an outdoor market, which are owned by East Staffordshire Borough Council.[27] In 2011 the council contracted out responsibility for market stall rentals to private letting agency Quarterbridge.[28][29] The Market Hall was built in 1883 from designs by Dixon & Moxon of Barnsley and opens from Tuesday to Saturday.[30] A fish market was added to the hall in 1925.[31] The outdoor market is held every Thursday, Friday and Saturday from 8.30am until 4pm.[30] A farmer's market is held in the market square on the last Friday of every month.[32]

The Cooper's Square shopping centre is the principal shopping area originally opened in 1970 by HRH the Princess Alexandra but since considerably upgraded with a roof being added in the mid-1990s. The older Riverside Shopping Centre (known as Bargates) is now demolished.

A picture of the now demolished Bargates in Burton-on-Trent

A new shopping area has been added off Guild Street including a multiplex cinema, Matalan and Aldi etc. An additional shopping centre is Octagon Centre on New Street constructed in the mid-1980s. There is another, much smaller shopping centre, Burton Place Shopping Centre which was built in 1986. Burton Place was originally known as Worthington Walk.


In 2005 a report by the New Economics Foundation rated Burton at 13.3 out of 60 for "individuality", putting it in the top ten clone towns in England, because of the large number of chain stores in the town centre.[33] Since then events such as a French market have been organised to bring more footfall into the town centre.

Culture and community[edit]

Culture[edit]

The main venue for live theatre and other performing and visual arts is The Brewhouse[34] which is run by East Staffordshire Council.[35] During the 1970s and 1980s a number of well known rock bands appeared at the 76 Club nightclub in Burton, including Dire Straits and the Sex Pistols. Burton upon Trent is the home of contemporary visual artist, Alistair Kennedy.[36] Burton Operatic Society is a Musical Theatre Company based in Burton and produces two productions each year. Burton upon Trent was also home to the Burton School of Speech and Drama on Guild Street where many professional and hard-working amateur actors and actresses learned their craft. Following the closure of the school in July 1984, its in-house amateur company the Little Theatre Players continued life as an independent amateur drama company called The Little Theatre Company often referred to locally and by its 70+ members as LTC. LTC currently stages at least four productions a year in the town: two plays, a musical and a youth production.

Burton upon Trent has one of the oldest amateur radio clubs in the UK. It was formed in 1919, although there were enthusiasts of wireless telegraphy in Burton well before the First World War. One of the founder members of the club was Mr F. V. A. Smith, call sign XSR, (X = experimental station). Mr Smith was licensed on 3 July 1914. One month later he received a message from the Marconi spark transmitter at Poldhu in Cornwall, being sent to London, on the eve of the outbreak of World War One. The message, which has survived and is in the present club archives, was announcing the mobilisation of Russian, French and Belgian troops.

The Statutes Fair takes place in the town every year on the first Monday and Tuesday after Michaelmas (29 September). This is usually the first Monday and Tuesday in October, but can occasionally fall on 30 September/1 October, as in 2002. The fair occupies the Market Place and parts of High Street, New Street and Lichfield Street for two days.

The main stage at Bloodstock Open Air annual festival of heavy metal music, at Catton Hall in Walton-on-Trent, 7 miles south-west of Burton

Bloodstock Open Air is an annual festival of heavy metal music which takes place in August and has been held at Catton Hall in Walton-on-Trent, 8 miles south-west of Burton since 2005.[37] One of the co-founders is artist Paul Gregory. The festival attracts 11,000 visitors and acts such as Motörhead, Dio and Alice Cooper.[38]

Community facilities[edit]

The local Sea Cadet unit is TS (Training Ship) Modwena alongside the River Trent and road bridge. The town's Air Training Corps unit is No 351 (Burton on Trent) Squadron. The local Army Reserve unit is F (Fire Support) Company, 4 Mercian Regiment an infantry unit at Coltman House TA centre, Hawkins Lane. The unit was formerly a volunteer brigade of the North Staffordshire Regiment.

Landmarks[edit]

The Burton Cooper, Coopers Square Shopping Centre The bronze sculpture, The Burton Cooper by James Walter Butler was commissioned in 1977 and depicts a local craftsman. It originally stood opposite the market and was moved to its present location in 1994.

The town's connection with the brewing industry is celebrated in The Burton Cooper a bronze sculpture, by James Walter Butler. It was commissioned in 1977 and depicts a local craftsman making a barrel. It originally stood opposite the market and was moved to its present location inside the Cooper's Square Shopping Centre in 1994.

The National Brewery Centre (previously Coors Visitor Centre & the Museum of Brewing and before that the Bass Museum of Brewing) which celebrates the town's brewing heritage is its biggest tourist attraction. Claymills Pumping Station on the north side of Burton is a restored Victorian sewage pumping station, adjacent to the modern sewage works. Until 2006, one of Burton's most distinguishable landmarks was the Drakelow Power Station, just south of Burton on the opposite side of the River Trent. The cooling towers have since been demolished.

Transport[edit]

The town is served by Burton-on-Trent railway station, which is accessed from the bridge on Borough Road. The station has two platforms, Platform One for Derby, Nottingham, London and the North, Platform Two for Tamworth, Birmingham and the South. The station is situated on the Cross Country Route, between the principal cities of Derby and Birmingham.

The station's operator is East Midlands Trains, although no East Midlands Trains trains call there. All of services are provided by CrossCountry, with trains between Cardiff Central, Birmingham, and Nottingham, as well as longer-distance services to destinations such as Bristol Temple Meads, Leeds and Newcastle. Burton is positioned at the southern terminus of the aborted Ivanhoe Line.

East Midlands Trains used to run two direct return weekday services to London via Derby and Leicester along the Midland Main Line. These services ended at the December 2008 timetable change with the last service running on Saturday 13 December 2008.[39] The station utilises the PlusBus scheme where train and bus tickets can be bought together at a saving.

The town had its own municipal buses known as Burton Corporation and later East Staffordshire District Council after 1974. This was taken over by Stevenson's of Spath in the mid-1980s and in turn was absorbed by Arriva. Arriva Midlands and independents now operate locally and provide services to Uttoxeter, Derby, Horninglow, Edge Hill, Stapenhill, Queen's Hospital Burton, Winshill, Stretton, Abbots Bromley, Tatenhill, Wetmore, Lichfield and Ashby-de-la-Zouch.[40] The former Burton Corporation depot has been replaced by the Magistrates' Courts. Most buses can now be caught from New Street between the Octagon and Cooper Square shopping centres.[41]

Burton upon Trent Corporation Tramways operated a tramway service in Burton upon Trent between 1903 and 1929.[42] The system comprised four routes going out from Station Street to Horninglow, Branston Road, Stapenhill, and Winshill.[43] The depot was in Horninglow Road.

The town is served by the general aviation airfield located at Tatenhill four miles west.

Burton is also on 2 routes of the National Cycle Network. Route 54 links Burton with Birmingham to the south and Derby to the north with the route closely following the Trent and Mersey Canal around Burton. Route 63 starts in Burton and links to South Derbyshire via the town centre, Stapenhill Viaduct and Stanton. Route 63 will terminate eventually in Shobnall at its junction with route 54.

Religious sites[edit]

The mother church of Burton is St. Modwen's. Other Anglican parish churches built to serve the expanding population include St Paul's, St John the Divine, St Chad's and All Saints and St Marys in Stretton on church Road. There are five mosques in Burton, three Bareilvi or Sufi, one Deobandi and one Salafi[44] There is a Sikh Gurdwara established in St Chad's Community Centre.[45] Although there was a small Jewish community in Burton-on-Trent in the early half of the 20th centuries, there is no record of a synagogue being established. There was, however, a close relationship with the nearby community in Derby, whose minister acted as visiting teacher and shochet.[46]

Education[edit]

Burton and South Derbyshire College (BSDC) is a general further education college and is situated in the town centre. It attracts approximately 13,000 students from Burton and the surrounding towns and villages. It delivers a wide range of courses for all ages, including 14-19-year-olds, adults into part-time study, employer training and higher education. Recently a 'university centre' has been developed within the college to enable students to study on franchised higher education courses but is not, in itself a university.

Sport[edit]

Since the establishment of the Football League in 1888, Burton has been represented by four separate clubs in the League, two of which played in the league simultaneously in the 1890s. Burton Swifts became members of the Football League in 1892, and were joined by Burton Wanderers in 1894. Swifts played at Peel Croft, whilst Wanderers home ground was Derby Turn. Wanderers left the League in 1897, and the two clubs merged to form Burton United in 1901, with the new club playing at Peel Croft. United were voted out of the Football League in 1907,[47] and folded in 1910.[48] Burton All Saints were then left as the town's main club, becoming Burton Town in 1924, but folded in 1940.[49] In 1950 Burton Albion were founded. Having moved from Eton Park to the Pirelli Stadium in 2005, Albion became the town's fourth Football League club in 2009 after winning the Football Conference, and now play in League Two, the fourth tier of the English football league system. Burton is also the location of the National Football Centre, which opened in 2012.[50]

The Burton & District Cricket League[51] has many notable clubs, including Burton Cricket Club, Dunstall Cricket Club, Abbott's Bromley, Yoxall and Lichfield Cricket Club.

Burton RUFC, one of the oldest rugby union clubs in the country, was established in 1870, when it played both association and rugby football rules. It did not adopt rugby union only rules until 1876.[52]

The town is also home to the Burton Canoe Club on the banks of the River Trent. It has recently expanded and built its own clubhouse. Also along the River Trent in Burton are Burton Leander Rowing Club, which was founded in 1847 (and is one of the oldest rowing clubs in the country), and Trent Rowing Club, founded in 1863.

Burton is home to the 'Powerhouse Gym' International All Round Weightlifting team which was set up in 1985 by Steve Gardner (former World All Round Weightlifting Champion - Inducted into the IAWA (UK) Hall of Fame in 2000) The club trains All Round Weightlifters, including Powerlifting and Olympic Weightlifting and is affiliated to The International All Round Weightlifting Association.[53] The Burton club hosted the 2008 International All Round Weightlifting Association World Championships.[54]

Burton Hockey Club [55] was established in 1899. The club actively promotes and supports 7 men's teams, 4 ladies' teams, as well as a highly popular and successful youth academy. Home matches are played at Shobnall Leisure Complex in the shadows of Marstons Brewery, Shobnall Road. The club has also been recognised as working towards providing a Safe, Effective and Child Friendly club environment, and as such has been awarded the England Hockey ClubsFirst Accreditation. (EH id: 1180)

Notable historical residents[edit]

Twin towns[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Contact us". East Staffordshire Borough Council website. East Staffordshire Borough Council. Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  2. ^ "table KS01 (Key Statistics 2001) Usual resident population". ONS. Retrieved 13 March 2012.  Stapenhill and Winshill are treated as separate and together have a population of 21,985 according to this source
  3. ^ Burton upon Trent Tourist Information on AboutBritain.com
  4. ^ a b c Tringham, Nigel J. "Burton-upon-Trent General history". British HIstory Online. University of London & History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 31 March 2012. 
  5. ^ Greenslade,, M W; G C Baugh, Revd L W Cowie, Revd J C Dickinson, A P Duggan, A K B Evans, R H Evans, Una C Hannam, P Heath, D A Johnston, Professor Hilda Johnstone, Ann J Kettle, J L Kirby, Revd R Mansfield, Professor A Saltman. "Houses of Benedictine monks The abbey of Burton". British History Online. Retrieved 30 March 2012. 
  6. ^ Tringham, Nigel J. "Burton-upon-Trent Growth of settlement". British History Online. University of London & History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 31 March 2012. 
  7. ^ a b White, William. "From History, Gazetteer and Directory of Staffordshire, William White, Sheffield, 1851". GENUKI:Burton Upon Trent. GENUKI. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  8. ^ "Gazeteer of Markets and Fairs to 1516; Staffordshire". The Institute of Historical Research. Centre for Metropolitan History. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  9. ^ Letter from the abbot of Burton describing Burton Bridge in C.H. Underhill, A History of Burton on Trent (Burton, 1941), p. 168.
  10. ^ Gallagher, Kevin. "Sir William Paget – 1st Baron Paget of Beaudesert". Burton on Trent Local History. Kevin Gallagher. Retrieved 30 March 2012. 
  11. ^ "Paget, William (1572–1628) 4th Baron Paget". National Archives. The National Archives. Retrieved 31 March 2012. 
  12. ^ History of Burton from 'British History Online'
  13. ^ Burton-upon-Trent: Economic history, A History of the County of Stafford: Volume 9: Burton-upon-Trent (2003), pp. 53–84 Date accessed: 30 May 2009
  14. ^ BBC News http://news.bbc.co.uk/nol/shared/election2010/results/constituency/a81.stm |url= missing title (help). 
  15. ^ Communities and Local Government
  16. ^ "Measuring the Distance Between London Great Britain & Burton On Trent Great Britain". Distance Calculator. distance-calculator.co.uk. Retrieved 1 April 2012. 
  17. ^ "Measuring the Distance Between Birmingham Great Britain & Burton-on-trent Great Britain". Retrieved 1 April 2012. 
  18. ^ "Stafford Distance to Burton On Trent in Great Britain". Distance Calculator. distance-calculator.co.uk. Retrieved 1 April 2012. 
  19. ^ "Location of the National Forest". nationalforest.org. The National Forest Company. Retrieved 1 April 2012. 
  20. ^ Stott, Johnathan. "Elevation/Heights above sea level for Burton on Trent". Earthtools. Earth Tools, Johnathan Stott. Retrieved 1 April 2012. 
  21. ^ "table KS01 (Key Statistics 2001) Usual resident population". ONS. Retrieved 13 March 2012. 
  22. ^ http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/census/census-2001-key-statistics/urban-areas-in-england-and-wales/urban-areas-in-england-and-wales-ks07--religion.xls
  23. ^ Marmite | Food brands | Unilever
  24. ^ Bovril | Food brands | Unilever
  25. ^ "Contact details". Burton Town Centre Management website. Burton Town Centre Management. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  26. ^ a b "Burton Town Centre Statistics". Burton Town Centre Management. Burton Town Centre Management. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  27. ^ "Burton Market Stallholders Given Ownership Opportunity". In Burton April 30th, 2009. In Burton. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  28. ^ "Burton upon Trent Market". Quarterbridge website. quarterbridge. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  29. ^ Fletcher, Tim (2011-06-29). "Optimistic outlook after indoor market showdown". Burton Mail. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  30. ^ a b "Burton upon Trent Market". ESBC-East Staffordshire Markets. East Staffordshire Borough Council. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  31. ^ Gallagher, Kevin. "Market Hall– General History". The local history of Burton on Trent. Kevin Gallagher. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  32. ^ "Farmers markets staffordshire". A taste of staffordshire. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  33. ^ Hill, Ed (2005-10-13). "Market Brings OOH-LA-LA". Burton Mail. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  34. ^ The Brewhouse
  35. ^ East Staffordshire Borough Council
  36. ^ Alistair Kennedy
  37. ^ Soar, Daryl (19 August 2011). "Heavy weekend can get into your blood". Burton Mail. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  38. ^ Thomson, Jamie (11 August 2011). "Bloodstock runs thicker than water". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  39. ^ Online Journey Planner
  40. ^ "Burton-on-Trent Local area - Onward travel - Bus stops". National Rail enquiries website. Intrasol Ltd, and Transport for London © Crown Copyright. Retrieved 4 April 2012. 
  41. ^ "Burton Town Centre Bus Stop Guide". Arrivabus. Arriva. Retrieved 4 April 2012. 
  42. ^ The Golden Age of Tramways. Published by Taylor and Francis.
  43. ^ The Golden Age of Tramways, Taylor & Francis
  44. ^ "Mosques in Burton On Trent, Staffordshire (5)". UK Mosques directory. Retrieved 30 March 2012. 
  45. ^ "Minority Ethnic Organisations and groups in Staffordshire". education.staffordshire.gov.uk. Staffordshire.gov.uk. Retrieved 30 March 2012. 
  46. ^ "Burton-on-Trent Jewish Community". Jewsih Communities and Records. JCR-UK. Retrieved 30 March 2012. 
  47. ^ Dave Twyell (2001) Denied F.C.: The Football League election struggles , Yore Publications, p7, ISBN 1874427984
  48. ^ Twyell, p54
  49. ^ Twyell, p55
  50. ^ "The Vision". The FA. 6 May 2011. Retrieved 2010-04-27. 
  51. ^ "Burton and District Cricket League". Burton and District Cricket League official website. bdcl. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
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  53. ^ http://powerhousegym.org.uk/index.html
  54. ^ "2007 IAWA championships". IAWA.org.uk. IAWA. Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  55. ^ www.burtonhockeyclub.org.uk
  56. ^ The Naval Chronicle 04. Bunney & Gold. 1805. pp. 2–3. 

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Burton-on-Trent, Its History, Its Waters and Its Breweries by W Molyneux. Published by Trubner, 1869.
  • History of Burton upon Trent by CH Underhill. Published by Tresises, Burton, 1941.
  • County Borough, the History of Burton upon Trent 1901–1974. Part 1, Edwardian Burton by Denis Stuart. Published by The Charter Trustees of Burton upon Trent, 1975.
  • County Borough, the History of Burton upon Trent 1901–1974. Part 2, 1914–1974 by Denis Stuart. Published by The Charter Trustees of Burton upon Trent, 1977.
  • Deus Nobiscum, A History of Burton Grammar School by GE Radford. Published by GE Radford, 1973.
  • A Brief History of St Modwen's, the Parish Church of Burton-upon-Trent by Ernest Aldington Hunt. Published by British Publishing Co, Gloucester, 1973.
  • The Development of Industry in Burton-upon-Trent by CC Owen. Published by Phillimore, Chichester, 1978.
  • Charters of Burton Abbey by PH Sawyer. Published by Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1979.

External links[edit]