Chemotherapy regimen

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A chemotherapy regimen is a regimen for chemotherapy defining the drugs to be used, their dosage, the frequency and duration of treatments and other considerations. In modern oncology almost all regimens in use combine several chemotherapy drugs in combination chemotherapy. The majority of drugs used in cancer chemotherapy are cytostatic.

A fundamental philosophy of medical oncology, including combination chemotherapy, is that different drugs work through different mechanisms, and that the results of using multiple drugs will be synergistic to some extent. Because they have different dose-limiting adverse effects, they can be given together at full doses in chemotherapy regimens.[1]

The first successful combination chemotherapy was MOPP introduced in 1963 for lymphomas.

The term "induction regimen" refers to a chemotherapy regimen used for the initial treatment of a disease. A "maintenance regimen" refers to the ongoing use of chemotherapy to reduce the chances of a cancer recurring or to prevent an existing cancer from continuing to grow.[2]

Chemotherapy regimens are often identified by acronyms, identifying the agents used in the drug combination. However, the letters used are not consistent across regimens, and in some cases - for example, "BEACOPP" - the same letter combination is used to represent two different treatments.[3]

There is no widely accepted naming convention or standard for the nomenclature of chemotherapy regimens. For example, either generic or brand names may be used for acronyms. This page merely lists commonly used conventions.

List of chemotherapy regimen acronyms[edit]

Name Components Example of uses, and other notes
7+3, also known as DA or DAC in case of daunorubicin, or IA or IAC in case of idarubicin use 7 days of Ara-C (cytarabine) plus 3 days of an anthracycline antibiotic, either daunorubicin (DA or DAC variant) or idarubicin (IA or IAC variant) Acute myelogenous leukemia, excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia
ABVD doxorubicin (Adriamycin), bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine Hodgkin's lymphoma
AC doxorubicin (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide breast cancer
BACOD bleomycin, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide, vincristine (Oncovin), dexamethasone
BEACOPP bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide, vincristine (Oncovin), procarbazine, prednisone Hodgkin's lymphoma
BEP bleomycin, etoposide, platinum agent testicular cancer, germ cell tumors
CA cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin) (same as AC) breast cancer
CAF cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), fluorouracil (5-FU) breast cancer
CAPOX or XELOX capecitabine and oxaliplatin colorectal cancer
CAV cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), vincristine lung cancer
CBV cyclophosphamide, BCNU (carmustine), VP-16 (etoposide) lymphoma
CHOEP cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin (doxorubicin), etoposide, vincristine (Oncovin), prednisone Non-Hodgkin lymphomas
CEPP cyclophosphamide, etoposide, procarbazine, prednisone Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas
ChlVPP/EVA chlorambucil, vincristine (Oncovin), procarbazine, prednisone, etoposide, vinblastine, doxorubicin (Adriamycin) Hodgkin's lymphoma
CHOP cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin (doxorubicin), vincristine (Oncovin), prednisone non-Hodgkin lymphoma
CHOP-R or R-CHOP CHOP + rituximab B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma
ClaPD clarithromycin, pomalidomide, dexamethasone
CMF cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, fluorouracil (5-FU) breast cancer
CMV cisplatin, methotrexate, vinblastine
COP or CVP cyclophosphamide, Oncovin (vincristine), prednisone non-Hodgkin lymphoma in patients with history of cardiovascular disease
COPP cyclophosphamide, Oncovin (vincristine), procarbazine, prednisone Hodgkin's lymphoma
CT or TC docetaxel (Taxotere), cyclophosphamide breast cancer
CTD cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, dexamethasone AL amyloidosis
CVAD and Hyper-CVAD cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), dexamethasone aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma, some forms of leukemia
CYBORD cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, dexamethasone
DA or DAC daunorubicin x 3 days plus Ara-C (cytarabine) x 7 days, a variant of 7+3 regimen Acute myelogenous leukemia, excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia
DCEP dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, platinum agent
DHAP dexamethasone (a steroid hormone), cytarabine (ara-C), platinum agent Non-Hodgkin lymphomas
DHAP-R or R-DHAP dexamethasone (a steroid hormone), cytarabine (ara-C), platinum agent plus rituximab Non-Hodgkin lymphomas
DICE dexamethasone, ifosfamide, cisplatin, etoposide (VP-16) aggressive relapsed lymphomas, progressive neuroblastoma
DT-PACE dexamethasone, thalidomide, platinum agent, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide, etoposide multiple myeloma
EC epirubicin, cyclophosphamide breast cancer
ECF epirubicin, cisplatin, fluorouracil (5-FU) gastric cancer and esophageal cancer
EOX epirubicin, oxaliplatin, capecitabine
EP etoposide, platinum agent testicular cancer, germ cell tumors
EPOCH etoposide, prednisone, vincristine (Oncovin), cyclophosphamide, and hydroxydaunorubicin Non-Hodgkin lymphomas
EPOCH-R or R-EPOCH etoposide, prednisone, vincristine (Oncovin), cyclophosphamide, and hydroxydaunorubicin plus rituximab B cell Non-Hodgkin lymphomas
ESHAP etoposide, methylprednisolone (a steroid hormone), cytarabine (ara-C), platinum agent Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
ESHAP-R or R-ESHAP etoposide, methylprednisolone (a steroid hormone), cytarabine (ara-C), platinum agent plus rituximab Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
FAM fluorouracil, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), mitomycin
FCM or FMC fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, mitoxantrone B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma
FCM-R or R-FCM or R-FMC or FMC-R fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, mitoxantrone plus rituximab B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma
FM fludarabine, mitoxantrone B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma
FM-R or R-FM or RFM or FMR fludarabine, mitoxantrone, and rituximab B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma
FEC fluorouracil (5-FU), epirubicin, cyclophosphamide breast cancer
FL (also known as Mayo) fluorouracil (5-FU), leucovorin (folinic acid) colorectal cancer
FLAG fludarabine, cytarabine, G-CSF relapsed or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia
FLAG-Ida or FLAG-IDA or IDA-FLAG or Ida-FLAG fludarabine, cytarabine, idarubicin, G-CSF relapsed or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia
FLAG-Mito or FLAG-MITO or Mito-FLAG or MITO-FLAG or FLANG mitoxantrone, fludarabine, cytarabine, G-CSF relapsed or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia
FLAMSA fludarabine, cytarabine, amsacrine myelodysplastic syndrome, acute myeloid leukemia
FLAMSA-BU or FLAMSA-Bu fludarabine, cytarabine, amsacrine, busulfan myelodysplastic syndrome, acute myeloid leukemia
FLAMSA-MEL or FLAMSA-Mel fludarabine, cytarabine, amsacrine, melphalan myelodysplastic syndrome, acute myeloid leukemia
FOLFIRI fluorouracil (5-FU), leucovorin (folinic acid), irinotecan colorectal cancer
FOLFIRINOX fluorouracil (5-FU), leucovorin (folinic acid), irinotecan, oxaliplatin pancreatic cancer
FOLFOX fluorouracil (5-FU), leucovorin (folinic acid), oxaliplatin colorectal cancer
GC gemcitabine, cisplatin
GVD gemcitabine, vinorelbine, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin Hodgkin lymphoma
GemOx or GEMOX gemcitabine, oxaliplatin Non-Hodgkin lymphomas
GemOx-R or GEMOX-R or R-GemOx or R-GEMOX gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, rituximab Non-Hodgkin lymphomas
IA or IAC idarubicin x 3 days plus Ara-C (cytarabine) x 7 days, a variant of classical 7+3 regimen Acute myelogenous leukemia, excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia
ICE ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide (VP-16) aggressive lymphomas, progressive neuroblastoma
ICE-R or R-ICE or RICE ICE + rituximab high-risk progressive or recurrent lymphomas
IFL irinotecan, leucovorin (folinic acid), fluorouracil colorectal cancer
m-BACOD methotrexate, bleomycin, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide, vincristine (Oncovin), dexamethasone non-Hodgkin lymphoma
MACOP-B methotrexate, leucovorin (folinic acid), doxorubicin (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide, vincristine (Oncovin), prednisone, bleomycin non-Hodgkin lymphoma
MINE mesna, ifosfamide, novantrone, etoposide Non-Hodgkin lymphomas and Hodgkin lymphoma in relapse or refractory cases
MINE-R or R-MINE mesna, ifosfamide, novantrone, etoposide plus rituximab Non-Hodgkin lymphomas and Hodgkin lymphoma in relapse or refractory cases
MMM mitomycin, methotrexate, mitoxantrone
MOPP mechlorethamine, vincristine (Oncovin), procarbazine, prednisone Hodgkin's lymphoma
MVAC methotrexate, vinblastine, adriamycin, cisplatin advanced bladder cancer[4]
MVP mitomycin, vindesine, cisplatin
NP cisplatin, vinorelbine
PACE platinum agent, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide, etoposide
PCV Procarbazine, CCNU (lomustine), vincristine brain tumors
PEB cisplatin, etoposide, bleomycin
PEI cisplatin, etoposide, ifosfamide
POMP 6-mercaptopurine (Purinethol), vincristine (Oncovin), methotrexate, and prednisone acute adult leukemia[5]
ProMACE-MOPP methotrexate, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide, etoposide + MOPP non-Hodgkin lymphoma
ProMACE-CytaBOM prednisone, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide, etoposide, cytarabine, bleomycin, vincristine (Oncovin), methotrexate, leucovorin non-Hodgkin lymphoma
RdC lenalidomide (Revlimid), dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide
R-DHAP or DHAP-R rituximab + DHAP; that is, rituximab, dexamethasone (a steroid hormone), cytarabine (ara-C), platinum agent
R-FCM or FCM-R rituximab + FCM; that is, rituximab, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, mitoxantrone B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma
R-ICE or ICE-R or RICE rituximab + ICE; that is, rituximab, ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide high-risk progressive or recurrent lymphomas
RVD lenalidomide (Revlimid), bortezomib, dexamethasone
Stanford V doxorubicin (Adriamycin), mechlorethamine, bleomycin, vinblastine, vincristine, etoposide, prednisone Hodgkin lymphoma
TAC or ACT docetaxel (Taxotere) or paclitaxel (Taxol), doxorubicin (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide breast cancer
TC or CT docetaxel (Taxotere), cyclophosphamide breast cancer
TCH paclitaxel (Taxol), carboplatin, trastuzumab (Herceptin) breast cancer with positive HER2/neu receptor
Thal/Dex thalidomide, dexamethasone multiple myeloma
TIP paclitaxel, ifosfamide, platinum agent cisplatin (Platinol) testicular cancer, germ cell tumors in salvage therapy
EE-4A vincristine, actinomycin[6] Wilms' tumor[6]
DD-4A vincristine, actinomycin, doxorubicin (Adriamycin)[6] Wilms' tumor[6]
VAC vincristine, actinomycin, cyclophosphamide rhabdomyosarcoma
VAD vincristine, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), dexamethasone multiple myeloma
VAMP one of 3 combinations of vincristine and others Hodgkin's lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma
Regimen I vincristine, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), etoposide, cyclophosphamide Wilms' tumor[6]
VAPEC-B vincristine, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), prednisone, etoposide, cyclophosphamide, bleomycin Hodgkin's lymphoma
VD-PACE bortezomib, dexamethasone plus platinum agent, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide, etoposide
VIFUP vinorelbine, cisplatin, fluorouracil
VIP vinblastine, ifosfamide, platinum agent testicular cancer, germ cell tumors
VTD-PACE bortezomib (Velcade), thalidomide, dexamethasone plus platinum agent, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide, etoposide

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mayer, RJ, Targeted therapy for advanced colorectal cancer -- more is not always better, N Engl J Med. 2009;360:623 which is a [possibly critical and not peer reviewed] comment to Chemotherapy, bevacizumab, and cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer.
  2. ^ Cancer.net - Explaining Maintenance Therapy
  3. ^ BEACOPP chemotherapy regimen
  4. ^ MVAC Still the ‘Best Treatment’ for Advanced Bladder Cancer Patients. 1999
  5. ^ POMP combination chemotherapy of adult acute leukemia.
  6. ^ a b c d e Treatment of Wilms Tumor at National Cancer Institute. Last Modified: 03/29/2012

External links[edit]