Political parties in Russia

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This article lists political parties in Russia. Russia has a multi-party system. Currently there are four parties that make up the federal parliament, the State Duma, with one dominant party (United Russia).

After Perestroika, in the 1990s there were over 100 registered parties in Russia, but people elected in State Duma only a small number of parties. Since 2000, during Vladimir Putin's presidency, the number of parties very quickly decreased. Last years from 2008 to 2012 there were only 7 parties in Russia, and every new attempt to register new independent parties was blocked. The last registered party was government-organized Right Cause. Before 2011 parliamentary elections, about 10 opposition parties were refused in registration. But after a series of mass protests and thanks to a 2011 European Court decision on Case of the Republican Party of Russia, the law was changed and the number of registered parties quickly increased to more than 48 in December 2012. About 200 parties are in creation stage (as 2012) according to the Justice Ministry website.

History[edit]

Party of power[edit]

Main article: Party of power

In Russian politics, the party of power is the specially established party which unconditionally supports current president or prime minister in the parliament.

These parties were considered as parties of power:

Legislation[edit]

Main article: Elections in Russia
Certificate of state registration of political parties in Russia, issued by the Ministry of Justice of Russia

Social composition of voters[edit]

According to studies, United Russia voters in 2007 were younger and more market-oriented than the average voter. The party's electorate includes a substantial share of government employees, pensioners and military personnel, who are dependent on the state for their livelihood.[1] Sixty-four percent of United Russia supporters are female. According to researchers[who?], this could be because women place a great value on stability. In the run-up to the 2011 Duma elections, it was reported that support for United Russia was growing among young people.[2]

Registered parties[edit]

All parties registered by the Ministry of Justice have the right to participate in any elections all over the country. The list is placed on the Justice Ministry website. On December 2012 there are 48 registered parties in Russia, 4 of them are currently represented in the State Duma.

Currently represented in the State Duma[edit]

Name Abbr. Ideology Leader MPs
United Russia
Единая Россия
ER
ЕР
Conservatism, Statism, Pragmatism, Centrism, Neoconservatism Dmitry Medvedev 238
Communist Party of the Russian Federation
Коммунистическая партия Российской Федерации
KPRF
КПРФ
Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Patriotism, Left-wing Nationalism Gennady Zyuganov 92
Political party LDPR
Политическая партия ЛДПР
LDPR
ЛДПР
Russian nationalism, Pan-Slavism, Neo–Imperialism, Mixed economy Vladimir Zhirinovsky 56
A Just Russia
Справедливая Россия
SR
СР
Social democracy, Democratic socialism Sergei Mironov 64

Currently represented in regional parliaments[edit]

Municipal (local self-government) parliaments[edit]

All currently registered parties[edit]

[3] Name (Russian name) Abbr. Ideology Affiliations Position Leader(s) Created Registration
1 United Russia
(Единая Россия)
ER (ЕР) Russian Conservatism, Social conservatism, Pragmatism, Centrism Centrist Democrat International (observer),
European People's Party[4][5] (unofficially),
All-Russia People's Front
Centre, sincretic Dmitry Medvedev,
Vladimir Putin,
Sergey Neverov
2001 2003
2 Communist Party of the Russian Federation
(Коммунистическая партия Российской Федерации)
CPRF, KPRF (КПРФ) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Socialist patriotism, Neo-Stalinism Union of Communist Parties – Communist Party of the Soviet Union Far-left Gennady Zyuganov 1990 2002
3 Political party LDPR
(Политическая партия ЛДПР)
LDPR (ЛДПР) Russian nationalism, Pan-Slavism, Neo–Imperialism, Mixed economy Liberal Democratic Party (Belarus),
Liberal Democratic Party of Pridnestrovie,
National Front (France)[6]
Far-right, sincretic Vladimir Zhirinovsky 1992 2002
4 Patriots of Russia
(Патриоты России)
Social democracy, Left-wing nationalism All-Russia People's Front Left Gennady Semigin 2005 2003
5 Russian United Democratic Party "Yabloko"
(Российская объединенная демократическая партия «Яблоко»)
Social liberalism, Environmentalism Liberal International,
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party
Centre-left Sergey Mitrokhin,
Grigory Yavlinsky
1995 2003
6 A Just Russia
(Справедливая Россия)
СР Social democracy, Democratic socialism Socialist International Centre-left Nikolai Levichev,
Sergey Mironov
2006 2002
7 Right Cause
(Правое дело)
ПД Conservatism/Liberal conservatism, Russian nationalism and patriotism elements International Democrat Union (suspended) Right Andrei Dunaev 2008 2009
8 Republican Party of Russia – People's Freedom Party
(Республиканская партия России — Партия народной свободы)
RPR-PARNAS (РПР-ПАРНАС) Liberalism, Liberal democratic, Federalism, Human rights Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party (partly) Centre-right Vladimir Ryzhkov,
Mikhail Kasyanov,
Boris Nemtsov
1990 2002
9 Democratic Party of Russia
(Демократическая партия России)
ДПР Conservatism Centre-right Andrei Bogdanov 1990 2012
10 People's Party for the Women of Russia
(Народная партия «За женщин России»)
Neoconservatism Galina Khavrayeva 2012
11 Alliance of Greens – The People's Party
(Альянс зелёных — Народная партия)
Green politics, Liberalism European Green Party Gleb Fetisov
Oleg Mitvol
2012
12 Union Towns People
(Союз Горожан)
СГ Dmitry Popkov 2012
13 People's Party of Russia
(Народная партия России)
НПР Centrism Stanislav Aranovich 2012
14 Social Democratic Party of Russia
(Социал-демократическая партия России)
СДПР Social democracy Viktor Militaryov 2012 2012
15 Communist Party of Social Justice
(Коммунистическая партия социальной справедливости)
КПСС Socialism Yury Morozov 2012
16 Party of Pensioners' of Russia
(Партия пенсионеров России)
ППР Nikolay Chebotaryov 2012
17 Cities of Russia
(Города России)
ГРОСС Yury Babak 2012
18 Young Russia
(Молодая Россия)
МОЛРОСС Nikolay Stolyarchuk 2012
19 New Russia
(Новая Россия)
Social liberalism Vyacheslav Grishin 2012
20 Party of Free Citizens
(Партия свободных граждан)
ПСГ Constitutionalism Pavel Sklyanchuk 2012
21 Russian Ecological Party "The Greens"
(Российская экологическая партия «Зелёные»)
РЭП Зелёные Environmentalism, Centrism, Green politics Anatoly Panfilov 1993 2012
22 Communists of Russia
(Коммунисты России)
КОМРОС Marxism−Leninism Maksim Suraykin 2009 2012
23 Agrarian Party of Russia
(Аграрная партия России)
АПР Agrarian socialism, Social conservatism Olga Bashmachnikova
Vladimir Plotnikov
1993 2012
24 Russian All-People's Union
(Российский общенародный союз)
РОС Russian nationalism, Patriotism, Conservatism, partly socialism Sergey Baburin 1991 2012
25 Party for Justice
(Партия за справедливость)
ПАРЗАС 2012
26 Political Party of Social Protection
(Политическая партия социальной защиты)
2012
27 Civilian Power
(Гражданская сила)
Liberalism, Green politics Alexandr Ryavkin 2007 2012
28 Russian Party of Pensioners for Justice
(Российская партия пенсионеров за справедливость)
РППС Social conservatism Igor Zotov 1997 2012
29 Clever Russia
(Умная Россия)
РОСУМ Civil nationalism Nikita Borovikov,
Vasily Yakemenko
2012
30 Home Country
(Родная страна)
РС Patriotism 2012
31 Monarchist Party
(Монархическая партия)
Monarchism Anton Bakov 2012
32 Party of Peace and Unity
(Российская политическая Партия Мира и Единства)
ПМЕ Democratic socialism Sazhi Umalatova 1996 2012
33 Civic Platform
(Гражданская платформа)
Liberalism Mikhail Prokhorov 2012 2012
34
(«ЧЕСТНО» /Человек. Справедливость. Ответственность/)
Sergey Zamuruev 2012
35
(Партия налогоплательщиков России)
ПНР Yevgeny Sivkov 2012
36 Democratic Choice
(Демократический выбор)
ДВ National liberalism, Liberal conservatism, Civil nationalism Vladimir Milov 2010 2012
37 Will
(Партия Воля)
Narodnik, Democratic socialism, Left conservatism Svetlana Peunova 2007 2012
38
(Трудовая партия России)
Liberalism, Social conservatism Sergey Vostretsov 2012 2012
39
(Интернет Партия Российской Федерации)
ИПРФ E-democracy, Internet culture, Technology, Centrism Kirill Fyodorov
Georgy Yefremov
2012 2012
40 Against All
(Партия ПРОТИВ ВСЕХ)
Liberal conservatism Pavel Mihalchenkov 2012
41 Russian Socialist Party
(Российская Социалистическая партия)
Sergey Cherkashin 2012 2012
42 Party of Spiritual Transfiguration of Russia
(Партия Духовного Преображения России)
ПДПР Inna Bozhko 2012 2012
43 Party of Veterans of Russia
(Партия ветеранов России)
ПВР Patriotism, Social conservatism 2012
44 Russian United Labour Front
(Российский Объединённый Трудовой Фронт)
ROT Front (РОТ Фронт) Marxism−Leninism, Socialism Viktor Tyulkin 2010 2012
45 Party Action
(Партия дела)
Konstantin Babkin 2012
46 Party of National Security of Russia
(Партия Национальной безопасности России)
ПНБР Alexandr Fedulov 2012
47 Rodina
(Родина)
All-Russia People's Front Aleksey Zhuravlyov 2012
48 Union of Labor
(Союз Труда)
Alexandr Shershukov 2012
49 Russian Party of People's Administration
(Российская партия народного управления)
Albert Mukhamedyarov 2012
50 Women's Dialogue
(Женский Диалог)
Yelena Semerikova 2012
51 Born in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(Рожденные в Союзе Советских Социалистических Республик)
Communism 2013
52 Party of Renaissance of selo
(Партия Возрождения Села)
2013
53 Defenders of the Fatherland
(Защитники Отечества)
Nikolay Sobolev 2013
54 Cossack's Party of the Russian Federation
(Казачья партия Российской Федерации)
КаПРФ Sergey Bondaryov 2013
55 Development of Russia
(Развитие России)
Aleksey Kaminskiy 2013
56 United Agro-Industrial Party of Russia
(Объединенная аграрно-промышленная партия России)
2013
57 Democratic Legal Russia
(Демократическая правовая Россия)
Igor Trunov 2013
58 Party of Social Reforms
(Партия Социальных Реформ)
Stanislav Polishchuk 2013
59 Party of Social Solidarity
(Партия Социальной Солидарности)
Alexandr Voznesenskiy 2013
60 Dignity Party
(Партия ДОСТОИНСТВО)
Stanislav Bychinskiy 2013
61 Social Progressive Party of Russia
(Социально-прогрессивная партия России)
Dmitry Okorokov 2013
62 Great Fatherland
(Великое Отечество)
ПВО Conservatism, Patriotism Nikolai Starikov,
Igor Ashmanov
2012 2013
63 Russian Party of Gardeners
(Российская партия садоводов)
Igor Kasyanov 2013
64 Civil Position, early - Party of Social Networks
(Гражданская Позиция, early - Партия социальных сетей)
Social liberalism Dmitry Chirov 2012
65 Revival of Agrarian Russia
(Возрождение аграрной России)
Vasily Krylov 2013
66 Civic Initiative
(Гражданская инициатива)
Democracy, Liberalism Andrey Nechaev 2013
67 Party of Russia's Rebirth
(Партия Возрождения России)
Socialism, Social state Gennadiy Seleznyov
Viktor Arkhipov
2013
68 All-Russian Socialist People's Party "Fatherland"
(Всероссийская социалистическая народная партия «Отчизна»)
Anatoly Chaganov, Yury Prokofiev 2013
69
(КОЛОКОЛ)
Nikolay Dizhur 2013
70
(Национальный курс)
Andrey Kovalenko 2013

Parties without official registration[edit]

Parties currently in creation[edit]

According to the Ministry of Justice, there are currently 196 parties in the creation stages.[when?]

Active unregistered parties[edit]

Historical parties[edit]

Banned parties in Russia[edit]

Soviet parties[edit]

Parties of the Russian Empire[edit]

Other historical parties[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Gel′man, Vladimir (2013). Party Politics in Russia: From Competition to Hierarchy. Politics In Russia: A Reader (CQ Press). pp. 273–289. 
  • Hale, Henry E. (2006). Why Not Parties in Russia?: Democracy, Federalism, and the State. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Smyth, Regina (2012). Political parties. Routledge Handbook of Russian Politics and Society (Routledge). pp. 115–128. 
  • White, Stephen (2013). Russia's Client Party System. Politics In Russia: A Reader (CQ Press). pp. 306–330. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]