Severodvinsk

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This article is about the city. For the submarine class, see Yasen class submarine.
Severodvinsk (English)
Северодвинск (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Lomonosova st..jpg
Lomonosova Street in Severodvinsk
Map of Russia - Arkhangelsk Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Arkhangelsk Oblast in Russia
Severodvinsk is located in Arkhangelsk Oblast
Severodvinsk
Severodvinsk
Magnify-clip.png
Location of Severodvinsk in Arkhangelsk Oblast
Coordinates: 64°34′05″N 39°49′54″E / 64.56806°N 39.83167°E / 64.56806; 39.83167Coordinates: 64°34′05″N 39°49′54″E / 64.56806°N 39.83167°E / 64.56806; 39.83167
Coat of Arms of Severodvinsk.svg
Coat of arms
Anthem Anthem of Severodvinsk[2]
City Day Last Sunday of July[3]
Administrative status (as of May 2010)
Country Russia
Federal subject Arkhangelsk Oblast[4]
Administratively subordinated to city of oblast significance of Severodvinsk[5]
Administrative center of city of oblast significance of Severodvinsk[5]
Municipal status (as of July 2011)
Urban okrug Severodvinsk Urban Okrug[6]
Administrative center of Severodvinsk Urban Okrug[6]
Mayor[8] Mikhail Gmyrin[7]
Representative body City Council of Deputies[9]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 192,353 inhabitants[10]
Rank in 2010 95th
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[11]
Founded 1936[12]
Previous names Sudostroy (until 1938),[12]
Molotovsk (until 1957)[12]
Postal code(s)[13] 164500, 164525-164528
Dialing code(s) +7 8184, 81842[14]
Official website
Severodvinsk on WikiCommons

Severodvinsk (Russian: Северодвинск; IPA: [sʲɪvʲɪrɐdˈvʲinsk]) is a city in the north of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located in the delta of the Northern Dvina River, 35 kilometers (22 mi) west of Arkhangelsk. The city was founded as Sudostroy (Судостро́й). The population is on the decline in recent years: 192,353 (2010 Census);[10] 201,551 (2002 Census);[15] 248,670 (1989 Census).[16].

History[edit]

View of the Nikolo-Korelsky Monastery in the early 20th century

The territories around the North Dvina were discovered at the start of the first millennium by Vikings. British and Norman[12] ships came to these places for mining, fur and fishing before the 13th century, but later the climate became colder and access to the northern seas became closed.

The settlement on the site of modern Severodvinsk was first mentioned in 1419, when the Swedes sailed into the bay and burnt down the Nikolo-Korelsky Monastery that stood by the shore. This monastery is believed to have been founded by St. Euphemius, an Orthodox missionary in Karelia. The abbey stood in ruins until 1471, when two sons of Marfa Boretskaya died in a vicious storm; their bodies were recovered on the beach near the monastery twelve days later. At the urging of Boretskaya, the monastery was restored and her sons were buried there.

On August 24, 1553, a ship of Richard Chancellor reached the salt-mining settlement of Nyonoksa, which is still famous for its traditional wooden architecture. The British sailors visited the Nikolo-Korelsky Monastery, where they were surprised to find a community of "sailors in soutanes (cassocks)" and a pier large enough to accommodate several ships. The main church of this extraordinary establishment was dedicated to Saint Nicholas, the holy patron of sailors; hence, the whole White Sea became known in 16th-century English maps as "St. Nicholas Bay". In late 1613, during the Time of Troubles, Severodvinsk with the monastery was captured and looted by Polish-Lithuanian vagabonds, the Lisowczycy.

The Nikolo-Korelsky Monastery flourished after the establishment of the Muscovy Company, as the bulk of their trade passed through the local harbor. In August 1618, the harbour was visited by John Tradescant the elder, who conducted a survey of an island situated opposite the monastery. This island became known to the British as "Rose Island", because it was there that Tradescant found an exceedingly rare plant which he named "Rosa moscovita" and brought back to London.[17]

The surviving buildings of the monastery were constructed at the close of the Muscovite period. The five-domed cathedral of St. Nicholas was built in 1670-74, preceded by the Assumption church (1664–1667), to which it is joined by a gallery. Several decades later, the walls and towers were built of timber; the best preserved of these towers was transported by the Soviets to Kolomenskoye, Moscow, where it still remains.

Severodvinsk is the second largest city in Arkhangelsk Oblast. Its main industry remains defense related — the construction and repair of submarines at the huge Northern Machinebuilding Enterprise-SEVMASH (Северное Машиностроительное Предприятие-СЕВМАШ). The Soviet Union's first nuclear submarine Leninsky Komsomol was built here in 1957 and at the beginning of the 1980s, the world's largest submarine, Typhoon class submarine, was also built here, later recorded in the Guinness Book of World Records.

Modern city[edit]

The modern city of Severodvinsk was developed in the Soviet period. As it began to be built it was called Sudostroy (Судострой).[12] It received town status in 1938 and until 1957 was named Molotovsk (Молотовск), after Vyacheslav Molotov.[12] On September 12, 1957 it was renamed Severodvinsk.

During World War II, a significant portion of the materials delivered to Russia by the Arctic Convoys to Murmansk and Arkhangelsk were unloaded in Severodvinsk. For example, the Empire Elgar, a British heavy lift ship that arrived in Arkhangelsk with convoy PQ16 and subsequently spent eight weeks unloading ships from the ill-fated convoy PQ17.

A Russian naval base supports the sea trials of nuclear submarines from the major submarine construction (64.5817 N, 39.8307 E) and repair facilities located in the area. In Soviet times the 17th-century buildings of the Nikolo-Korelsky monastery, located on the territory of the shipyard, were adapted and used for shipbuilding purposes.[18] In recent years the monastery buildings, specifically the main church, have been restored and re-consecrated. Church goers attending services have to be shipyard workers or able to obtain a pass to enter the church portion of the shipyard.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with eleven rural localities, incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Severodvinsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[5] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Severodvinsk is incorporated as Severodvinsk Urban Okrug.[6]

Demographics[edit]

From 1950 until 1990, high-tech industries generated demand for a considerable quantity of suitably qualified experts and workers which prompted growth in population. Since 1992, the population has declined due to economic crises and unemployment that has provoked significant migration from the city.

Year 1939 1948 1959 1962 1967 1970 1973 1976 1979 1982
Inhabitants 21,000 32,900 78,700 97,000 121,000 144,700 160,000 177,000 197,200 214,000
Year 1986 1989 1992 1996 1998 2003 2005 2007 2008
Inhabitants 234,000 248,700 249,800 238,700 233,800 201,600 197,400 193,200 191,300

Economy[edit]

Industry[edit]

The main role of the city has been, and remains, the production and repair of submarines and military ships. During the Cold War, the city prospered, but with the decline and break-up of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War the city has declined. The city's large military enterprises have survived the economic crises of the 1990s and have adjusted to new economic conditions. Severodvinsk now has the largest shipbuilding yard in Russia for large ships (tankers, cargo ships).

Large and military factories[edit]

Disassembly of a Soviet submarine in Severodvinsk, as part of the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program
  • "SevMash"(СевМаш) or Northern Machine-building Enterprise (Северное машиностроительное предприятие)
core line of business is the construction and repair of submarines and other naval ships, as well as civilian vessels and oil platforms
Repair of submarines, military and civil ships, construction of oil platforms and faceting of diamonds.
  • "Severny Reyd" (Северный рейд)
Manufacture of marine equipment.
  • "Arktika" (Арктика)
Manufacture of automated equipment
  • "SevDorMash" (СевДорМаш)
Manufacture of road-building equipment and snow-ploughs.

Transportation[edit]

Severodvinsk is the terminal station of a railway line which splits of at Isakogorka station from the line connecting Moscow and Arkhangelsk.

The Kudemskaya narrow-gauge railway in 2010 has appeared in Forbes ranking, of 10 most beautiful railway routes of the world.

Social sphere[edit]

Education[edit]

In the city there are thirty-two schools, a school for handicapped children, school for orphans, legal school.

Higher education institutions[edit]

The city hosts branches of the following institutions:

Monuments[edit]

City Gate

There are approximately twenty monuments and memorial complexes in the city, including:

  • a monument honoring the city founders on Shipbuilder Square (a 30-meter sculpture);
  • a monument to the renowned Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov, who was born in the region. One of the city's central streets is named after him;
  • the city gate, on the road from Arkhangelsk
  • a monument to the home front workers of World War II.

Cultural heritage[edit]

St. Nicholas Church on Yagry Island

Fifteen objects in Severodvinsk are protected as cultural heritage monuments[19] In particular, the Nyonokotsky Pogost in the village of Nyonoksa is protected as an architecture monument on the federal level. This is one of the few surviving triple wooden church ensembles, consisting of two churches (a bigger, not heated, church used in the summer, a smaller, heated church used in the winter) and a bell-tower. Nyonoksa was also notable for salt production.

In addition, the wooden St. Nicholas Church, currently located on Yagry Island in the northern part of Severodvinsk, was relocated there in 1990s and was the first religious building open in the city. The church was built in the end of 19th century in the village of Solza about 20 kilometers (12 mi) from Severodvinsk.

City in culture[edit]

  • K-19: The Widowmaker
  • Nuclear underwater epic, film of Discovery Channel
  • Documentary film of Alexandr Ipatov, "Severodvinsk, a bird's-eye view" (Russian "Северодвинск, вид с высоты птичьего полёта")
  • Seven Days, Season 1, Episode 13, "Last Breath"

Notable natives and residents[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Severodvinsk is twinned with:

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Severodvinsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −9.6
(14.7)
−8.3
(17.1)
−2.9
(26.8)
4.1
(39.4)
10.8
(51.4)
17.6
(63.7)
20.9
(69.6)
18.3
(64.9)
11.5
(52.7)
3.9
(39)
−2.2
(28)
−6.6
(20.1)
4.8
(40.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −14.5
(5.9)
−12.2
(10)
−6.3
(20.7)
−0.2
(31.6)
6.5
(43.7)
12.6
(54.7)
15.8
(60.4)
13.2
(55.8)
7.8
(46)
1.6
(34.9)
−4.5
(23.9)
−10.3
(13.5)
0.8
(33.4)
Average low °C (°F) −16.6
(2.1)
−15.6
(3.9)
−11.7
(10.9)
−4.6
(23.7)
1.9
(35.4)
7.9
(46.2)
11.2
(52.2)
9.8
(49.6)
5.2
(41.4)
−0.6
(30.9)
−7.2
(19)
−13.2
(8.2)
−2.7
(27.1)
Avg. precipitation days 21 19 19 16 15 15 13 16 16 21 22 24 217
Source: pogoda.ru[21]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 11 430 005», в ред. изменения №234/2013 от 1 января 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 11 430 005, as amended by the Amendment #234/2013 of January 1, 2014. ).
  2. ^ Муниципальный Совет Северодвинска. Решение №123 от 28 октября 2004 г. «Об утверждении Положения "О гимне города Северодвинска"». Вступил в силу с момента опубликования. Опубликован: "Северный рабочий" ("Вестник муниципального Совета Северодвинска"), №198–200, 14 декабря 2004 г. (Municipal Council of Severodvinsk. Decision #123 of October 28, 2004 On the Adoption of the Provision "On the Anthem of the City of Severodvinsk". Effective as of the moment of publication.).
  3. ^ Charter of Severodvinsk, Article 1.3
  4. ^ Law #65-5-OZ, Article 15.1.1
  5. ^ a b c Oblast Law #65-5-OZ
  6. ^ a b c Oblast Law #258-vneoch.-OZ
  7. ^ Official website of the Administration of Severodvinsk. Mikhail Arkadyevich Gmyrin, Mayor of Severodvinsk (Russian)
  8. ^ Charter of Severodvinsk, Article 33.1.2
  9. ^ Charter of Severodvinsk, Article 33.1.1
  10. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  11. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  12. ^ a b c d e f Severodvinsk—test of strength (Russian), "Pravda Severa" publishing house, 1998
  13. ^ "List of postal codes" (in Russian). Russian Post. Retrieved August 25, 2011. 
  14. ^ "Телефонный код города Северодвинск" (in Russian). Коды городов. Retrieved August 26, 2011. 
  15. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  16. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  17. ^ Hamel, Joseph. England and Russia: Comprising the Voyages of John Tradescant, the Elder ... Adamant Media Corporation. p. 282. ISBN 1-4021-8427-1. 
  18. ^ "XX век" (in Russian). Управление образования Северодвинска. Retrieved August 26, 2011. 
  19. ^ "Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации" (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 7 October 2011. 
  20. ^ Голубцова, Ольга Валентиновна (1993). Русская жена убийцы президента: Молотовск-Даллас (in Russian). Северодвинск. 
  21. ^ "Historical Weather for Severodvinsk". Retrieved August 25, 2011. 

Sources[edit]

  • Местный референдум. 16 июня 1996 г. «Устав муниципального образования "Северодвинск"», в ред. Решения №27 от 25 марта 2010 г «О внесении изменений и дополнений в Устав Северодвинска». Опубликован: "Северный рабочий", №196, 15 октября 1996 г. (Local referendum. June 16, 1996 Charter of the Municipal Formation of "Severodvinsk", as amended by the Decision #27 of March 25, 2010 On Amending and Supplementing the Charter of Severodvinsk. ).
  • Архангельское областное Собрание депутатов. Областной закон №65-5-ОЗ от 23 сентября 2009 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Архангельской области», в ред. Областного закона №677-40-ОЗ от 5 июня 2013 г. «О внесении дополнений и изменений в отдельные Областные Законы в связи с изменением законодательства о градостроительной деятельности». Вступил в силу через десять дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волна", №43, 6 октября 2009 г. (Arkhangelsk Oblast Council of Deputies. Oblast Law #65-5-OZ of September 23, 2009 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Arkhangelsk Oblast, as amended by the Oblast Law #677-40-OZ of June 5, 2013 On Supplementing and Amending Various Oblast Laws Due to Changes in the Urban Development Legislation. Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).
  • Архангельское областное Собрание депутатов. Областной закон №258-внеоч.-ОЗ от 23 сентября 2004 г. «О статусе и границах территорий муниципальных образований в Архангельской области (текст в ред. от 15 февраля 2010 г.)», в ред. Областного закона №121-7-ОЗ от 21 апреля 2014 г. «О преобразовании муниципальных образований "Двинское" и "Тимошинское" Верхнетоемского муниципального района Архангельской области путём их объединения». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волна", №38, 8 октября 2004 г. (Arkhangelsk Oblast Council of Deputies. Oblast Law #258-vneoch.-OZ of September 23, 2004 On the Status and Borders of the Territories of the Municipal Formations in Arkhangelsk Oblast (text of rev. of February 15, 2010), as amended by the Oblast Law #121-7-OZ of April 21, 2014 On the Transformation of the Municipal Formations of "Dvinskoye" and "Timoshinskoye" in Verkhnetoyemsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast By Merging Them Together. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).

External links[edit]