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|Molar mass||346.46 g mol−1|
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Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
On April 5, 1952, biochemist Durey Peterson and microbiologist Herbert Murray at Upjohn published the first report of a breakthrough fermentation process for the microbial 11α-oxygenation of steroids (e.g. progesterone) in a single step by common molds of the order Mucorales.
11α-oxygenation of cortodoxone produces 11α-hydrocortisone, which can be chemically oxidized to cortisone, or converted by further chemical steps to cortisol.
Subsequent fermentation processes for the microbial 11β-oxygenation of steroids in a single step were developed that could convert cortodoxone directly to cortisol.
Cortodoxone functions as a glucocorticoid, though is less potent than cortisol. It can be synthesized from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. In 11β-hydroxylase deficiency, cortodoxone levels increase dramatically, causing hypertension (as opposed to 21α-hydroxylase deficiency, in which patients have hypotension from a lack of mineralocorticoids).
- Peterson DH, Murray, HC (1952). "Microbiological oxygenation of steroids at carbon 11". J Am Chem Soc 74 (7): 1871–2. doi:10.1021/ja01127a531.
- Auzéby A, Bogdan A, Touitou Y (January 1991). "Evidence for a new biologic pathway of androstenedione synthesis from 11-deoxycortisol". Steroids 56 (1): 33–6. PMID 2028480.