Cortodoxone

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Cortodoxone
Cortodoxone.png
Cortodoxone molecule
Names
IUPAC name
(8R,9S,10R,13S,14S,17R)-17-hydroxy-17-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-10,13-dimethyl-2,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16-decahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-one
Other names
11-Deoxycortisol; Cortoxelone; 17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione; 17,21-Dihydroxyprogesterone; 11-Desoxycortisol; 11-Deoxyhydrocortisone; 11-Desoxyhydrocortisone; Reichstein's Substance S; Compound S
Identifiers
152-58-9 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:28324 N
ChEMBL ChEMBL253144 N
ChemSpider 389582 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image
KEGG D03595 N
PubChem 440707
UNII WDT5SLP0HQ YesY
Properties
C21H30O4
Molar mass 346.46 g·mol−1
Melting point 215 °C (419 °F; 488 K)
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 N verify (what isYesY/N?)
Infobox references

Cortodoxone (INN, USAN, BAN), also known as 11-deoxycortisol, 17-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone, and 17α,21-dihydroxyprogesterone, as well as cortexolone,[1] is a glucocorticoid steroid hormone that can be oxygenated to cortisol (hydrocortisone). It was first synthesized by Tadeusz Reichstein, and has also been referred to as Reichstein's Substance.[1]

On April 5, 1952, biochemist Durey Peterson and microbiologist Herbert Murray at Upjohn published the first report of a breakthrough fermentation process for the microbial 11α-oxygenation of steroids (e.g. progesterone) in a single step by common molds of the order Mucorales.[2]

11α-oxygenation of cortodoxone produces 11α-hydrocortisone, which can be chemically oxidized to cortisone, or converted by further chemical steps to cortisol.

Subsequent fermentation processes for the microbial 11β-oxygenation of steroids in a single step were developed that could convert cortodoxone directly to cortisol.

Cortodoxone functions as a glucocorticoid, though is less potent than cortisol. It can be synthesized from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. In 11β-hydroxylase deficiency, cortodoxone levels increase dramatically, causing hypertension (as opposed to 21α-hydroxylase deficiency, in which patients have low blood pressure from a lack of mineralocorticoids).

Cortodoxone can also be converted to androstenedione.[3] This could explain, at least in part, the marked increase in androstenedione levels in 11β-hydroxylase deficiency.[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b R.A. Hill; H.L.J. Makin; D.N. Kirk; G.M. Murphy (23 May 1991). Dictionary of Steroids. CRC Press. pp. 338–. ISBN 978-0-412-27060-4. 
  2. ^ Peterson DH, Murray, HC (1952). "Microbiological oxygenation of steroids at carbon 11". J Am Chem Soc 74 (7): 1871–2. doi:10.1021/ja01127a531. 
  3. ^ a b Auzéby A, Bogdan A, Touitou Y (January 1991). "Evidence for a new biologic pathway of androstenedione synthesis from 11-deoxycortisol". Steroids 56 (1): 33–6. doi:10.1016/0039-128X(91)90112-9. PMID 2028480.