|Native to||Benin, Togo|
|Native speakers||2.2 million (2000–2006)|
fon – Fon
mxl – Maxi
guw – Gun
gbh – Defi
wem – Weme
cib – Ci
Fon (native name Fon gbè, pronounced [fɔ̃̄ɡ͡bè]) is part of the Gbe language cluster and belongs to the Volta–Niger branch of the Niger–Congo languages. Fon is spoken mainly in Benin by approximately 1.7 million speakers, by the Fon people. Like the other Gbe languages, Fon is an analytic language with an SVO basic word order.
Capo (1988) considers Maxi and Gun to be part of the Fon dialect cluster. However, he does not include Alada or Toli (Tɔli) as part of Gun, as classified by Ethnologue, but as Phla–Pherá languages.
Fon has seven oral vowel phonemes and five nasal vowel phonemes.
|Close||i ĩ||u ũ|
|Open-mid||ɛ ɛ̃||ɔ ɔ̃|
|"Nasal"||m ~ b||n ~ ɖ|
|Approximant||l ~ ɾ||ɲ ~ j||w|
/p/ only occurs in linguistic mimesis and loanwords, though often it is replaced by /f/ in the latter, as in cɔ́fù 'shop'. Several of the voiced occlusives only occur before oral vowels, while the homorganic nasal stops only occur before nasal vowels, indicating that [b] [m] and [ɖ] [n] are allophones. [ɲ] is in free variation with [j̃]; Fongbe therefore can be argued to have no phonemic nasal consonants, a pattern rather common in West Africa. /w/ and /l/ are also nasalized before nasal vowels; /w/ may be assimilated to [ɥ] before /i/.
The only consonant clusters in Fon have /l/ or /j/ as the second consonant; after (post)alveolars, /l/ is optionally realized as [ɾ]: klɔ́ 'to wash', wlí 'to catch', jlò [d͡ʒlò] ~ [d͡ʒɾò] 'to want'.
Fon has two phonemic tones, HIGH and LOW. High is realized as rising (low–high) after a voiced consonant. Basic disyllabic words have all four possibilities: HIGH–HIGH, HIGH–LOW, LOW–HIGH, and LOW–LOW.
In longer phonological words, such as verb and noun phrases, a high tone tends to persist until the final syllable; if that syllable has a phonemic low tone, it becomes falling (high–low). Low tones disappear between high tones, but their effect remains as a downstep. Rising tones (low–high) simplify to HIGH after HIGH (without triggering downstep) and to LOW before HIGH.
/ xʷèví-sà-tɔ́ é kò xɔ̀ àsɔ̃́ wè / [ xʷèvísáꜜtɔ́ ‖ é kó ꜜxɔ̂ | àsɔ̃́ wê ‖ ] fish-sell-aɡent s/he PERF buy crab two
- Hwevísatɔ́, é ko hɔ asón we.
- "The fishmonger, she bought two crabs"
In Ouidah, a rising or falling tone is realized as a mid tone. For example, mǐ 'we, you', phonemically high-tone /bĩ́/ but phonetically rising because of the voiced consonant, is generally mid-tone [mĩ̄] in Ouidah.
X is used for /x/ in some orthographies, h in others. In many texts 〈e〉, 〈o〉 are used in nasal contexts: me [mɛ̃], Fon [fɔ̃]. Tone is generally not written except when necessary.
- Sample text
- GBETA GBƐ Ɔ BI TƆN EE ƉƆ XÓ DÓ ACƐ E GBƐTƆ ƉÓ KPODO SISI E ƉO NA ƉÓ N'I LƐ KPO WU E WEXWLE
- Ee nyi ɖɔ hɛnnu ɖokpo mɛ ɔ, mɛ ɖokpoɖokpo ka do susu tɔn, bɔ acɛ ɖokpo ɔ wɛ mɛbi ɖo bo e ma sixu kan fɛn kpon é ɖi mɛɖesusi jijɛ, hwɛjijɔzinzan, kpodo fifa ni tiin nu wɛkɛ ɔ bi e ɔ, ...
- Fon reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
Maxi reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
Gun reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
Defi reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
Weme reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
Ci reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
- Claire Lefebvre; Anne-Marie Brousseau (2002). A Grammar of Fongbe. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 15–29. ISBN 3-11-017360-3.
- This is a matter of perspective; it could also be argued that [b] and [ɖ] are denasalized allophones of /m/ and /n/ before oral vowels.
- Map of Fon (Fongbe) language from the LL-Map Project
- Fon is Fun!
- A Facebook application to use and learn the Fon language, developed by Jolome.com
- The first blog totally in Fongbe. An access to a Fongbe forum is given
- Journal of West African Languages: Articles on Fon
- Manuel dahoméen : grammaire, chrestomathie, dictionnaire français-dahoméen et dahoméen-français, 1894 by Maurice Delafosse at the Internet Archive
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