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"Hoxhaism" as an informal term refers to a variant of anti-revisionist Marxism–Leninism that developed in the late 1970s due to a split in the Maoist movement, appearing after the ideological row between the Communist Party of China and the Party of Labour of Albania in 1978.

The Albanians rallied a new separate international tendency within Marxism-Leninism. This tendency would demarcate itself by a strict defense of the legacy of Joseph Stalin and by fierce criticism of virtually all other Communist groupings as "revisionist". Critical of the United States, the Soviet Union, China, and Yugoslavia, Enver Hoxha labeled the latter three "social-imperialist" and condemned the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 by withdrawing from the Warsaw Pact (1968) in response.

Hoxha declared Albania the world's only state legitimately adhering to Marxism–Leninism after 1978. The Albanians succeeded in winning over a large share of the Maoists, mainly in Latin America (such as the Popular Liberation Army and Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Ecuador, as well as the Communist Party of Brazil), but also had a significant international following in general. This tendency has occasionally been labeled[by whom?] as "Hoxhaism" after him.

Following the fall of the Communist government in Albania in 1991, the pro-Albanian parties grouped themselves around an international conference and the publication Unity and Struggle.

List of "Hoxhaist" parties[edit]



"Hoxhaist" Websites[edit]

See also[edit]