Kaluga

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For other uses, see Kaluga (disambiguation).
Kaluga (English)
Калуга (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Kaluga.JPG
View of Kaluga
Map of Russia - Kaluga Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Kaluga Oblast in Russia
Kaluga is located in Kaluga Oblast
Kaluga
Kaluga
Location of Kaluga in Kaluga Oblast
Coordinates: 54°33′N 36°17′E / 54.550°N 36.283°E / 54.550; 36.283Coordinates: 54°33′N 36°17′E / 54.550°N 36.283°E / 54.550; 36.283
Coat of Arms of Kaluga.svg
Flag of Kaluga.svg
Coat of arms
Flag
City Day Second Saturday of September[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of October 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Kaluga Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated to City of Kaluga[1]
Administrative center of Kaluga Oblast,[1] City of Kaluga[1]
Municipal status (as of October 2011)
Urban okrug Kaluga Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Kaluga Urban Okrug[2]
City Head[citation needed] Nikolay Polezhayev[citation needed]
Representative body City Duma[citation needed]
Statistics
Area 170.5 km2 (65.8 sq mi)[3]
Population (2010 Census) 324,698 inhabitants[4]
Rank in 2010 55th
Density 1,904/km2 (4,930/sq mi)[5]
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[6]
First mentioned 1371[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[7] 248xxx
Dialing code(s) +7 4842[citation needed]
Official website
Kaluga on WikiCommons
Aerial view of Kaluga

Kaluga (Russian: Калуга; IPA: [kɐˈlugə]) is a city and the administrative center of Kaluga Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River 150 kilometers (93 mi) southwest of Moscow. Population: 324,698 (2010 Census);[4] 334,751 (2002 Census);[8] 311,319 (1989 Census).[9]

History[edit]

Kaluga was founded in the mid-14th century as a border fortress on the southwestern borders of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. It was first mentioned in chronicles in the 14th century as Koluga; the name is from Old Russian kaluga 'bog, quagmire.'[10] In the Middle Ages, Kaluga was a minor settlement owned by the Princes Vorotynsky. The ancestral home of these princes is located southwest from the modern city.

Kaluga is connected to Moscow by a railway line and the ancient roadway, the Kaluga Road (now partly within Moscow (as Starokaluzhskoye Shosse), partly the A101 road). This road was the favored escape route from the Moscow trap for Napoleon in the fall of 1812. But General Kutuzov repelled Napoleon's advances in this direction and forced the retreating French army onto the old Smolensk road, previously devastated by the French during their invasion of Russia.

On several occasions during the Russian Empire Kaluga was the residence of political exiles and prisoners such as the last Crimean khan Şahin Giray (1786), the Kyrgyz sultan Arigazi-Abdul-Aziz (1828), the Georgian princess Thecla (1834–1835), and the Avar leader Imam Shamil (1859–1868).

Kaluga was briefly occupied by the German army in Operation Barbarossa during the climactic Battle of Moscow. It was occupied from October 12, 1941 to January 4, 1942.

In 1944, the Soviet Government used its local military buildings to intern hundreds of Polish POWs—soldiers of the Polish Underground Home Army—who were arrested by advancing Soviet front in the Vilno area.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Kaluga is the administrative center of the oblast.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with seventy-two rural localities, incorporated as the City of Kaluga—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the City of Kaluga, together with one settlement of urban type in Dzerzhinsky District and one rural locality in Ferzikovsky District, is incorporated as Kaluga Urban Okrug.[2]

Economy[edit]

In Kaluga, Kaluga Turbine Plant is located, is part of the company Power Machines ;Kaluga Machine Works (manufactures track machines for railways), plant a foreign company MACO Door & Window.

In recent years Kaluga has become one of the centers of the Russian automotive industry, with a number of foreign companies opening assembly plants in the area.

On November 28, 2007, Volkswagen Group opened a new assembly plant in Kaluga, with further expansion plans planned to be completed by, or during, 2009. The investment has reached more than 500 million Euro. The plant currently assembles the Volkswagen Passat and Škoda Octavia. Planned annual capacity from 2009: up to 150,000 vehicles.[11]

On October 15, 2007, the Volvo Group broke ground on a new truck assembly plant, that was inaugurated on January 19, 2009.[12] The plant has a yearly capacity of 10,000 Volvo and 5,000 Renault trucks.[13]

On December 12, 2007, PSA Peugeot Citroën announced its decision to build a new assembly plant in Kaluga.[14] By March 2010 the plant was operational, building Peugeot 308s for the Russian market and would also produce Citroën and Mitsubishi models.[15]

To ensure the production cars were built factories companies Continental AG, Magna International, Benteler International, Visteon.

Transportation[edit]

The city is served by the Grabtsevo Airport. Since 1899, there is a railway connection between Kaluga and Moscow.[16]

Public transportation is represented by the trolleybuses, buses, and marshrutkas (routed taxis).

Climate[edit]

Kaluga has a humid temperate continental (Köppen climate classification: Dfb), with warm and humid summers; and long, cold and snowy winters. Winter extreme records can be as low as −45 °C (−49 °F), while summer heat may reach up +40 °C (104 °F), but usually it's about −10 °C (14 °F) during winter and +20 °C (68 °F) during summer in Kaluga.

Climate data for Kaluga, Russia (period 1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −6.6
(20.1)
−5.0
(23)
0.4
(32.7)
10.3
(50.5)
18.7
(65.7)
21.5
(70.7)
23.0
(73.4)
21.9
(71.4)
15.7
(60.3)
9.0
(48.2)
0.7
(33.3)
−3.7
(25.3)
8.82
(47.88)
Daily mean °C (°F) −10.1
(13.8)
−9.0
(15.8)
−3.5
(25.7)
5.7
(42.3)
12.7
(54.9)
15.8
(60.4)
17.5
(63.5)
16.3
(61.3)
10.9
(51.6)
5.4
(41.7)
−1.9
(28.6)
−6.6
(20.1)
4.43
(39.98)
Average low °C (°F) −13.5
(7.7)
−12.9
(8.8)
−7.4
(18.7)
1.0
(33.8)
6.7
(44.1)
10.1
(50.2)
12.0
(53.6)
10.7
(51.3)
6.1
(43)
1.8
(35.2)
−4.5
(23.9)
−9.5
(14.9)
0.05
(32.1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 39
(1.54)
33
(1.3)
35
(1.38)
39
(1.54)
43
(1.69)
77
(3.03)
80
(3.15)
71
(2.8)
55
(2.17)
50
(1.97)
53
(2.09)
55
(2.17)
630
(24.83)
Source: www.meteoinfo.ru

"www.meteoinfo.ru". Retrieved 3 September 2012. 

Central Kaluga
Moscow State Technical University in Kaluga
Kaluga Oblast Administration Building
Space Museum in Kaluga

Notable people[edit]

Kaluga is known for its most famous resident, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, a rocket science pioneer who worked here as a school teacher. The Tsiolkovsky State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics in Kaluga is dedicated to his theoretical achievements and their practical implementations for modern space research, hence the motto on the city's coat of arms: "The Cradle of Space Exploration".

Other notable people include:

International relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Kaluga is twinned with:

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Charter of Kaluga Oblast
  2. ^ a b c Law #7-OZ
  3. ^ Калуги стало больше Калужский перекрёсток, 14 апреля 2011
  4. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  5. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  8. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  9. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  10. ^ E.M. Pospelov, Geograficheskie nazvaniya mira (Moscow: Russkie slovari, 1998), p. 181.
  11. ^ [1][dead link]
  12. ^ Volvo Truck starts production at Kaluga plant, Just-auto.com, January 19, 2009
  13. ^ New Volvo Group assembly plant in Kaluga, Volvo Group corporate news, October 15, 2007
  14. ^ PSA Peugeot Citroën to Build Plant in Kaluga, Russia, PSA Peugeot Citroën press release, December 12, 2007
  15. ^ "RIA Novosti 26 March 2010". En.rian.ru. 2010-03-26. Retrieved 2014-02-24. 
  16. ^ "Train Station in Kaluga" (in Russian). Nnov-airport.ru. Retrieved 2014-02-24. 
  17. ^ "Ими гордится Калуга ("They Bring Pride to Kaluga")" (in Russian). Kaluga: Office of the Affairs of the Mayor of Kaluga. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  18. ^ "Patengemeinden". Binningen.ch. 2014-02-09. Retrieved 2014-02-24. 

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное Собрание Калужской области. №473 27 марта 1996 г. «Устав Калужской области», в ред. Закона №465-ОЗ от 30 сентября 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав Калужской области». Опубликован: "Весть", №79, 9 апреля 1996 г. (Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast. #473 March 27, 1996 Charter of Kaluga Oblast, as amended by the Law #465-OZ of September 30, 2013 On Amending the Charter of Kaluga Oblast. ).
  • Законодательное Собрание Калужской области. Закон №7-ОЗ от 28 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, расположенных на территории административно-территориальных единиц "Бабынинский район", "Боровский район", "Дзержинский район", "Жиздринский район", "Жуковский район", "Износковский район", "Козельский район", "Малоярославецкий район", "Мосальский район", "Ферзиковский район", "Хвастовичский район", "город Калуга", "город Обнинск", и наделении их статусом городского поселения, сельского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района», в ред. Закона №549-ОЗ от 27 марта 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Калужской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, расположенных на территории административно-территориальных единиц "Бабынинский район", "Боровский район", "Дзержинский район", "Жиздринский район", "Жуковский район", "Износковский район", "Козельский район", "Малоярославецкий район", "Мосальский район", "Ферзиковский район", "Хвастовичский район", "город Калуга", "город Обнинск", и наделении их статусом городского поселения, сельского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района"». Вступил в силу после официального опубликования, за исключением положений о муниципальном образовании "Город Калуга", для которых установлены иные сроки вступления в силу. Опубликован: "Весть", №402–404, 29 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast. Law #7-OZ of December 28, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Located on the Territory of the Administrative-Territorial Units of "Babyninsky District", "Borovsky District", "Dzerzhinsky District", "Zhizdrinsky District", "Zhukovsky District", "Iznoskovsky District", "Kozelsky District", "Maloyaroslavetsky District", "Mosalsky District", "Ferzikovsky District", "Khvastovichsky District", "City of Kaluga", "City of Obninsk", and on Granting Them the Status of an Urban Settlement, Rural Settlement, Urban Okrug, Municipal District, as amended by the Law #549-OZ of March 27, 2014 On Amending the Law of Kaluga Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Located on the Territory of the Administrative-Territorial Units of "Babyninsky District", "Borovsky District", "Dzerzhinsky District", "Zhizdrinsky District", "Zhukovsky District", "Iznoskovsky District", "Kozelsky District", "Maloyaroslavetsky District", "Mosalsky District", "Ferzikovsky District", "Khvastovichsky District", "City of Kaluga", "City of Obninsk", and on Granting Them the Status of an Urban Settlement, Rural Settlement, Urban Okrug, Municipal District". Effective as of after the official publication, with the exception of the clauses regarding the municipal formation of the "City of Kaluga", for which different dates of taking effect are specified.).

External links[edit]