Mykola Azarov

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Mykola Azarov
Микола Азаров
Mykola Azarov 2012.jpg
14th Prime Minister of Ukraine
In office
11 March 2010 – 28 January 2014
President Viktor Yanukovych
Deputy Andriy Klyuyev
Valeriy Khoroshkovskyi
Serhiy Arbuzov
Preceded by Oleksandr Turchynov (Acting)
Succeeded by Serhiy Arbuzov (Acting)
In office
5 January 2005 – 24 January 2005
Acting
President Leonid Kuchma
Preceded by Viktor Yanukovych
Succeeded by Yulia Tymoshenko
In office
7 December 2004 – 28 December 2004
Acting
President Leonid Kuchma
Preceded by Viktor Yanukovych
Succeeded by Viktor Yanukovych
Deputy Prime Minister of Ukraine
In office
4 August 2006 – 18 December 2007
Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych
Preceded by Stanislav Stashevsky
Succeeded by Oleksandr Turchynov
In office
26 November 2002 – 3 February 2005
Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych
Yulia Tymoshenko
Preceded by Oleh Dubyna
Succeeded by Anatoliy Kinakh
Minister of Finance
In office
4 August 2006 – 18 December 2007
Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych
Preceded by Viktor Pynzenyk
Succeeded by Viktor Pynzenyk
In office
26 November 2002 – 3 February 2005
Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych
Yulia Tymoshenko
Preceded by Ihor Yushko
Succeeded by Viktor Pynzenyk
Personal details
Born Nikolai Yanovich Pakhlo
(1947-12-17) 17 December 1947 (age 66)
Kaluga, Soviet Union
(now Russia)
Political party Civil Congress of Ukraine (1992)
Party of Labor (1992–2001)
Party of Regions (2001–2014)
Spouse(s) Lyudmyla Azarova
Children Alexei
Alma mater Moscow State University

Mykola Yanovych Azarov (Ukrainian: Мико́ла Я́нович Аза́ров, Mykola Yanovych Azarov; né Nikolai Yanovich Pakhlo; Russian: Никола́й Я́нович Пахло́; IPA: [nʲɪkɐˈlaj ˈjanəvʲɪt͡ɕ pɐxˈlo]; born 17 December 1947) is a Ukrainian politician who was the Prime Minister of Ukraine from 11 March 2010 to 27 January 2014. He was the First Vice Prime Minister and Finance Minister from 2002 to 2005 and again from 2006 to 2007. Azarov also served ex officio as an acting Prime Minister in the First Yanukovych Government when Viktor Yanukovych ran for president at first and then upon resignation of his government.

Following the victory of Viktor Yanukovych in the 2010 presidential election, Azarov succeeded Yanukovych as leader of the Party of Regions, and he was appointed as a fully fledged Prime Minister in March 2010.[1][2] After weeks of Euromaidan protests, and clashes, during which civilians were killed[nb 1], Mykola Azarov offered his letter of resignation on 28 January 2014.[4] Since 3 July 2014 Azarov is in the international wanted list for alleged abuse of power.

Early life, education and career[edit]

Azarov was born in Kaluga[5] on 17 December 1947 in the Russian SFSR, Soviet Union, to half Estonian, half Russian[6][7] Jaan Robertovich Pahlo and Yekaterina Pavlovna Kvasnikova as Nikolay Pakhlo.[8][9] When he married his wife, Lyudmila Azarova, he took her name.[8][9] Azarov attended the Moscow State University where he earned his doctorate in geology and mineralogy in 1973.[5] He worked at the Tulaugol coal enterprise until 1976.[5] Azarov moved to Donetsk on a permanent basis in 1984 to become deputy director of the Ukrainian State Geological Institute, that he went on to head.[9] In 1984–1995 he was a deputy director and director of Ukraine's State Research and Design Institute of Mining Geology and Geomechanics.[5] In 1991 he was hired as a professor at Donetsk National Technical University.

Political career[edit]

Parliamentary career[edit]

In 1994 Azarov was elected member of the Verkhovna Rada (the Ukrainian parliament) for the first time, representing the Petroskiy electoral district, located in the city of Donetsk. In 1995–1997 he served as head of the parliament's Committee on Budgets, while also sitting on the Verkhovna Rada's presidium. In parliament, he belonged to an interregional group of MPs supporting then-President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma. In 1995, while carrying on as an MP, Azarov was appointed an adviser to the currency council of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. In 1996 he became Chairman of the State Tax Administration of Ukraine.

Head of State Tax Administration[edit]

Azarov was a long-term (1996–2002) head of the State Tax Administration.[5][9] During this period tax inspections were used to limit the freedom of the press in Ukraine.[10][11][12][13] On tapes made during the Cassette Scandal Azarov is heard speaking on recordings, secretly recorded in Kuchma's office by Kuchma's bodyguard Mykola Melnychenko, about using his position as the head of the tax authority to pressure officials to ensure Kuchma's reelection in 1999.[9][14] Critics also stated that the recordings implicated Azirov in other corrupt schemes, including allegedly covering up graft at the state natural gas company Naftogaz,[9] aiding the demise of the Slaviansk Bank (which was connected to Yulia Tymoshenko's natural gas company United Energy Systems of Ukraine)[9] and illegal funding of Kuchma's 1999 election campaign.[15] Azirov has vehemently refuted all these allegations.[9] In 2002, he accused Slavyansk Bank president Borys Feldman of being behind the Cassette Scandal recordings.[9]

First Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister[edit]

In 2001 he became the head of the Party of Regions but resigned from the post in less than a year. In 2003 Azarov was elected chairman of the Party of Regions political council.[5] In 2002, the European Choice parliamentary group nominated him for the Prime Minister's post, but he declined, standing aside for Viktor Yanukovych, who assumed both the leadership of the Party of Regions and the Prime Minister's job.[9] Azarov was appointed First Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister in late November 2002, when the first Yanukovych Government took office.[5][16] During the first Yanukovych Government governing the set of economic reforms was implemented including fiscal, tax, pensionary, regulatory reforms. During Azarov's first term as Finance Minister, the annual GDP growth was 9.6% in 2003 and 12.1% in 2004 (cf. 2.7% in 2005) in Ukraine,[17] with capital investments of 31.3% and 28.0%[18] (cf. 1.9% in 2005[19]).[20]

Azarov first served as acting Prime Minister from 7 December 2004 to 28 December 2004, after Yanukovych was put on vacation leave by President Kuchma in the midst of the Orange Revolution.[5][21] After the runoff, Yanukovych attempted to resume his duties as prime minister, but effectively unable to do so, announced his resignation on 31 December 2004,[22][23] and Azarov was named acting Prime Minister again.[5][21] The Yanukovych Cabinet was officially dismissed on 5 January 2005.[24] Azarov continued as acting Prime Minister until shortly after the inauguration of Viktor Yushchenko, when Yulia Tymoshenko was appointed Prime Minister on 24 January 2005.[21][24] Azarov remained a strong political ally of Yanukovych, and again became a member of parliament for the Party of Regions after the 2006 Parliamentary elections.[5] When Yanukovych became Prime Minister again on 4 August 2006, Azarov was elected the First Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister in the second Yanukovych Government.[5]

Prime Minister[edit]

Polish President Bronisław Komorowski and Azarov (30 September 2010)
Main article: Azarov Government

Following his election as President of Ukraine,[25][26] Viktor Yanukovych offered three candidates for Prime Minister on 21 February 2010: Sergei Tigipko, Our Ukraine faction member Arseniy Yatsenyuk and Azarov.[25] Azarov had headed Yanukovych's election campaign during the 2010 Presidential elections.[9] The Verkhovna Rada appointed Azarov Prime Minister of Ukraine on 11 March 2010.[27][28] Of the 343 lawmakers registered in the session hall, 242 voted in favor of the appointment.[27] The next month he was elected head of the Party of Regions.[29] In 28 October 2012 parliamentary election he was (re)-elected into parliament heading the party list of Party of Regions.[30][31] Following Azarov's resignation as Prime Minister on 3 December 2012 (after several cabinet members including Azirov were elected to parliament in the previous election, something which obliged them to give up their ministerial mandates[32]) his cabinet stayed on as caretaker government from 3 December 2012.[33] On 5 December President Yanukovych stated "Azarov has good chances of remaining prime minister, (but) a lot will depend on whom he brings to his team".[34] On 9 December Yanukovych nominated him for a new term as Prime Minister.[35] This nomination was approved by parliament on 13 December 2012.[36] On 24 December 2012 the second Azarov Government was appointed by President Yanukovych.[37]

Resignation as Prime Minister[edit]

Azarov resigned 28 January 2014, amid heavy riots and the Euromaidan protests.[4] According to his cabinet, Azarov was quoted saying that "In order to create additional opportunities for socio-political compromise, for the sake of the peaceful settlement of the conflict, I have made a personal decision to ask the Ukrainian president to accept my resignation from the post of Ukrainian prime minister".[38] Azarov flew to Austria to join family members in a private jet hours after quitting.[39] As of 23 February 2014 he is in Russia.[40] On 29 March 2014, during a party congress, Azarov was expelled from the Party of Regions.[41]

Since 3 July 2014 Azarov is in the international wanted list for abuse of power.[42]

Family[edit]

Azarov's son Oleksiy Azarov was a constituency candidate in Sloviansk for Party of Regions during the 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary election.[43] He was elected into parliament.[31][44]

Cultural and political image[edit]

His Russian origin often leads to accusations[specify] by Ukrainian nationalists and Western media.[45] Azarov speaks Ukrainian poorly.[21][45][46][47] Nevertheless he assured his constituents in early March 2010 that his government will be speaking Ukrainian.[46] In April 2011 he also stated: "I feel one hundred percent Ukrainian".[48] In an 11 March 2010 article the UK daily The Guardian labelled him the most Russophile member of the new cabinet. In the same article an anonymous Ukrainian official noted "He's extremely boring and anti-populist".[49] Former Party of Regions member Taras Chornovil has stated that influential Party of Regions member Rinat Akhmetov and the business wing of the Party of Regions are not positive about Azarov.[8] Chornovil claims he heard Akhmetov's associates say about Azarov: "It is better to deal with Tymoshenko; cheaper cost".[8] A November 2010 Razumkov Centre nationwide survey showed that only 13.2 percent of respondents fully support his government while 45 percent stated they didn't.[50]

On 13 December 2012, during the parliamentary discussion of Azarov's candidacy to the Prime Minister of Ukraine, People's Deputy of Ukraine Iryna Farion publicly asked for clarification on the reason of Azarov's inability to master the state language. On that the candidate to the Prime Minister of Ukraine replied that he agrees to improve his Ukrainian.[51]

Views on society[edit]

Azarov had the Prime Ministerial office blessed by a priest from Kiev Pechersk Lavra soon after he was elected Prime Minister in 2010.[53] Azarov stated in March 2010 there were no female ministers in the Azarov Government because "Reforms do not fall into women's competence", while adding that he greatly respects women.[53][54] After criticism from female politicians at home and abroad, Azarov explained that he meant he would not wish any woman, especially if she has children, to work more than 15 hours a day as a Ukrainian minister does.[55] Ukrainian women's rights groups have filed different Court cases against him.[55] According to Azarov, corruption is one of the biggest problems of Ukraine, "We must combat not just instances of corruption, but totally corrupt systems".[56]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine claimed on 25 January 2014 that a policemen who was walking home in civilian clothing had been killed by a shot in his head.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Янукович припинив членство у Партії регіонів" [Yanukovych ceased membership in the Party of Regions]. 3 March 2010. Archived from the original on 6 March 2010. 
  2. ^ "Yanukovych suspends his membership in Party of Regions, hands over party leadership to Azarov". Kyiv Post. Interfax-Ukraine. 3 March 2010. Archived from the original on 22 January 2011. 
  3. ^ "Policeman shot dead in Kyiv, another policeman sustains knife wound – Ukrainian interior ministry". Interfax-Ukraine. 25 January 2014. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. 
  4. ^ a b "Ukraine's PM Azarov and government resign". BBC News. 28 January 2014. Archived from the original on 28 January 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Biography of new Ukrainian Prime Minister Mykola Azarov". RIA Novosti. 11 March 2010. Archived from the original on 14 March 2010. 
  6. ^ "Познер. Гость в студии – Николай Азаров". 1 канал. Archived from the original on 22 January 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2012. 
  7. ^ Азаров виявився наполовину естонцем [Azarov, as it turns out, is half Estonian] (in Ukrainian). TSN. 6 October 2010. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2012. 
  8. ^ a b c d Микола Азаров став прем’єр-міністром [Mykola Azarov became prime minister] (in Ukrainian). Gazeta.ua. 12 March 2010. Archived from the original on 9 August 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Mykola Azarov: Yanukovych's Right-Hand Man". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 12 March 2010. Archived from the original on 14 March 2010. 
  10. ^ "1999 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Ukraine". United States Department of State. 23 February 2000. 
  11. ^ "2000 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Ukraine". US Department of State. 4 March 2002. 
  12. ^ "2001 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Ukraine". 
  13. ^ "2002 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Ukraine". US Department of State. 31 March 2003. 
  14. ^ Andrew Wilson (2005). Virtual Politics – Faking Democracy in the Post-Soviet World. Yale University Press. p. 81. ISBN 0-300-09545-7. 
  15. ^ Andrew Wilson (2005). Virtual Politics – Faking Democracy in the Post-Soviet World. Yale University Press. p. 117. ISBN 0-300-09545-7. 
  16. ^ "PM promises Ukraine 'new team'". BBC News. 22 November 2002. Archived from the original on 18 December 2013. 
  17. ^ "Country Economic Reports & GDP Data Ukraine]". Global Finance. Archived from the original on 16 August 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2010. 
  18. ^ Climate in Ukraine.doc "Investment climate in Ukraine in the first half of 2005". World Bank. Retrieved 30 August 2010. [dead link]
  19. ^ Parliamentary Assembly, Working Papers: Ordinary Session, June 2006. Council of Europe. 31 March 2007. p. 98. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. 
  20. ^ "Main social and economic indicators of Ukraine 2001–2008". National Bank of Ukraine. Archived from the original on 25 August 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2010. 
  21. ^ a b c d "Newsmaker: Ukraine prime minister nominee is close ally of president". Kyiv Post. 11 March 2010. Archived from the original on 14 March 2010. 
  22. ^ "Timeline: Battle for Ukraine". BBC News. 23 January 2005. Archived from the original on 19 February 2006. 
  23. ^ "Yanukovych quits as Ukraine PM". BBC News. 31 December 2004. Archived from the original on 4 March 2006. 
  24. ^ a b "Ukrainian parliament dismisses Tymoshenko's government". Interfax-Ukraine. 10 March 2010. Archived from the original on 21 May 2012. 
  25. ^ a b "Yanukovych has yet to secure ruling majority in parliament". Kyiv Post. 25 February 2010. Archived from the original on 3 March 2010. 
  26. ^ "Ukraine: Tymoshenko vows to contest election result". BBC News. 15 February 2010. Archived from the original on 14 February 2010. 
  27. ^ a b "Azarov became Prime Minister". UNIAN. 11 March 2010. Archived from the original on 14 March 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2010. 
  28. ^ "Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych forms coalition". BBC News. 11 March 2010. Archived from the original on 12 March 2010. 
  29. ^ "Azarov elected Regions Party head". Kyiv Post. 23 April 2010. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. 
  30. ^ "Party of Regions releases party list". Kyiv Post. 30 July 2012. Archived from the original on 18 November 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012. 
  31. ^ a b Список депутатів нової Верховної Ради [List of MPs in the new parliament]. Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 11 November 2012. Archived from the original on 22 November 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012. 
  32. ^ "Ukraine cabinet quits, prime minister's future uncertain". Reuters. 3 December 2012. Archived from the original on 6 December 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2012. 
  33. ^ "Yanukovych dismisses Azarov and Cabinet of Ministers". Kyiv Post. Interfax-Ukraine. 3 December 2012. Archived from the original on 4 December 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2012. 
    "Ukraine government resigns, stays on in acting role". Kyiv Post. Reuters. 3 December 2012. Archived from the original on 4 December 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2012. 
  34. ^ "Yanukovych: Azarov has good chance of remaining prime minister". Kyiv Post. Interfax-Ukraine. 5 December 2012. Archived from the original on 5 December 2012. Retrieved 5 December 2012. 
  35. ^ "Yanukovych picks Azarov for new term as prime minister (updated)". Kyiv Post. Interfax-Ukraine. 9 December 2012. Archived from the original on 11 December 2012. Retrieved 10 December 2012. 
  36. ^ "Ukraine parliament approves Azarov as prime minister". Reuters. 13 December 2012. Archived from the original on 14 December 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2012. 
  37. ^ "President of Ukraine has appointed new staff of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine". UNIAN. 24 December 2012. Archived from the original on 11 December 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2012. 
  38. ^ "Ukrainian Prime Minister Azarov resigns". Interfax-Ukraine. 28 January 2014. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. 
  39. ^ "Ukraine ex-PM Azarov jets to Austria". GlobalPost. Agence France-Presse. 31 January 2014. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. 
  40. ^ "Azarov left for Russia". Interfax-Ukraine. 23 February 2014. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. 
  41. ^ ""Party of Regions" has excluded Yanukovich, Arbuzov, Klimenko and proceeded to the form of collective management". 9 April 2014. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. 
  42. ^ "Азаров знаходиться у міждержавному розшуку – МВС" [Azarov is on the international wanted list - MIA]. Ukrayinska Pravda. 3 July 2014. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  43. ^ "Wealthy, entertainers, relatives fill party lists". Kyiv Post. 2 August 2012. Archived from the original on 11 January 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2013. 
  44. ^ "Results of the vote count". Kyiv Post. 9 November 2012. Archived from the original on 11 January 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2013. 
  45. ^ a b "Ukraine country profile". BBC News. 26 April 2012. Archived from the original on 9 June 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2012. 
  46. ^ a b "Azarov of Party of Regions swears speaking Ukrainian if appointed prime minister". Kyiv Post. 11 March 2010. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2010. 
  47. ^ Уроки куртульной речи от министра б'Азарова. on YouTube
  48. ^ "Azarov: I feel one hundred percent Ukrainian". Kyiv Post. 12 April 2011. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2011. 
  49. ^ Luke Harding (11 March 2010). "Ukraine's new government puts final nail in coffin of the Orange Revolution". The Guardian (UK). Archived from the original on 14 March 2010. Retrieved 12 March 2010. 
  50. ^ "Yanukovych to slim ranks of government". Kyiv Post. 16 December 2010. Archived from the original on 21 December 2010. 
  51. ^ Video footage of parliamentary session on December 13, 2012. YouTube. 13 December 2012.
  52. ^ "Iryna Farion presented to Azarov the book "Linguistic norm: annihilation, search, revival"" [Ірина Фаріон подарувала Азарову книгу "Мовна норма: знищення, пошук, віднова"]. Swoboda. 31 December 2012. Archived from the original on 8 January 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2013. 
  53. ^ a b "Ukrainian Prime Minister Azarov had his office blessed". Interfax-Ukraine. 19 March 2010. Archived from the original on 23 May 2010. 
  54. ^ Harding, Luke (24 March 2010). "Ukrainian women berate 'Neanderthal' PM for sexist remarks". The Guardian (UK). Archived from the original on 27 March 2010. Retrieved 25 March 2010. 
  55. ^ a b "Women accuse Ukraine's Azirov of discrimination". Kyiv Post. 1 April 2010. Archived from the original on 3 April 2010. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  56. ^ "Azarov informs scientists about social and economic situation in Ukraine". Kyiv Post. Interfax-Ukraine. 24 May 2010. Archived from the original on 17 April 2014. 

External links[edit]

Party political offices
Preceded by
Valentyn Landyk
Leader of the Party of Labor
1993–1994
Succeeded by
Valentyn Landyk
New office Leader of the Party of Regions
2001
Succeeded by
Volodymyr Semynozhenko
Preceded by
Viktor Yanukovych
Leader of the Party of Regions
2010
Succeeded by
Oleksandr Yefremov
Preceded by
Oleksandr Yefremov
Leader of the Party of Regions
2010–present
Incumbent
Political offices
Preceded by
Oleh Dubyna
Deputy Prime Minister of Ukraine
2002–2005
Succeeded by
Anatoliy Kinakh
Preceded by
Ihor Yushko
Minister of Finance
2002–2005
Succeeded by
Viktor Pynzenyk
Preceded by
Viktor Yanukovych
Prime Minister of Ukraine
Acting

2004
Succeeded by
Viktor Yanukovych
Prime Minister of Ukraine
Acting

2005
Succeeded by
Yulia Tymoshenko
Preceded by
Stanislav Stashevsky
Deputy Prime Minister of Ukraine
2006–2007
Succeeded by
Oleksandr Turchynov
Preceded by
Viktor Pynzenyk
Minister of Finance
2006–2007
Succeeded by
Viktor Pynzenyk
Preceded by
Oleksandr Turchynov
Acting
Prime Minister of Ukraine
2010–2014
Succeeded by
Serhiy Arbuzov
Acting