|Administrative region:||East Macedonia and Thrace|
|Population statistics (as of 2011)|
|- Area:||350.61 km2 (135 sq mi)|
|- Density:||201 /km2 (521 /sq mi)|
|- Area:||112.6 km2 (43 sq mi)|
|- Density:||522 /km2 (1,352 /sq mi)|
|Time zone:||EET/EEST (UTC+2/3)|
|Elevation (min-max):||0–53 m (0–174 ft)|
|Postal code:||65x xx|
Kavala (Greek: Καβάλα) is a city in northern Greece, the principal seaport of eastern Macedonia and the capital of Kavala regional unit. It is situated on the Bay of Kavala, across from the island of Thasos. Kavala is located on the Egnatia motorway and is a one and a half-hour drive to Thessaloniki (160 kilometres (99 miles) west) and a forty minute drive to Drama (37 km (23 miles) north) and Xanthi (56 km (35 miles) east). Its nickname is The cyan city (Η γαλάζια πόλη).
- 1 History
- 2 Etymology
- 3 Sightseeing
- 4 Climate
- 5 Education/Research
- 6 Culture
- 7 Municipality
- 8 Province
- 9 Transport
- 10 Sports
- 11 International relations
- 12 Postage stamps
- 13 Historical population
- 14 Notable figures
- 15 Gallery
- 16 See also
- 17 References
- 18 External links
The city was founded at about the end of the 7th century BC by settlers from Thassos, who called it Neapolis (Νεάπολις; "new city" in Greek). It was one of the colonies that the Thassians founded along the coastline in order to take advantage of the rich gold and silver mines of the territory, especially those located in the nearby Pangaion mountain (which were eventually exploited by Phillip the Second of Macedonia).
The worship of "Parthenos", a female deity of Greek–Ionian origin, is archaeologically attested in the archaic period. At the end of the 6th century BC Neapolis claimed its independence from Thassos and cut its own silver coins with the head of Gorgo (γοργὀνειο) on the one side. At the beginning of the 5th century BC a large Ionic temple made from thassian marble replaced the archaic one. Parts of it can now be seen in the archaeological museum of Kavala.
In 411 BC, during the Peloponnesian War, Neapolis was besieged by the allied armies of the Spartans and the Thassians but remained faithful to Athens. Two Athenian honorary decrees in 410 and 407 BC rewarded Neapolis for its loyalty.
Neapolis was a town of Macedonia, located 14 km (9 mi) from the harbor of Philippi. Neapolis was a member of the Athenian League; a pillar found in Athens mentions the contribution of Neapolis to the alliance.
The military Roman road Via Egnatia passed through the city helped commerce to flourish. It became a Roman civitas in 168 BC, and was a base for Brutus and Cassius in 42 BC, before their defeat in the Battle of Philippi. (Appian, B.C. iv. 106; Dion Cass. xlvii. 35.). The Apostle Paul landed at Kavala on his first voyage to Europe (Acts, xvi. 11).
In the 6th century, Byzantine emperor Justinian I fortified the city in an effort to protect it from barbaric raids. In later Byzantine times the city was called Christoupolis (Χριστούπολις, "city of Christ") and belonged to the theme of Macedonia. The first mention of the new name is recorded in a taktikon of the early 9th century. The city is also mentioned in the "Life of St. Gregory of Dekapolis". In the 8th and 9th century, Bulgarian attacks forced the Byzantines to reorganize the defense of the area, giving great care to Christoupolis with fortifications and a notable garrison. In 926 the Byzantine general (strategos) Basil Klaudon reconstructed the fallen walls of the city, ("τα πριν φθαρέντα και πεπτωκότα τείχη") according to an inscription that is now in the archaeological museum of Kavala. Due to the location of Christoupolis, the city experienced an economic resurgence, securing the contact between Constantinople and Thessaloniki. During the Norman raid of Macedonia in 1185, the city was captured and burned. In 1302, the Catalans failed to capture the city. In order to prevent them from coming back, the Byzantine emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos built a new long defensive wall ("το παρά την Χριστούπολιν τείχισμα"). In 1357 it is mentioned that the Byzantine officers and brothers Alexios and John controlled the city and its territory. Recent excavations have revealed the ruins of an early Byzantine basilica under an old Ottoman mosque in the old part of the city (Panagia peninsula). This Christian temple was used until the late Byzantine era, as the also recently revealed small cemetery around it shows. The Ottoman Turks first captured the city in 1387 and completely destroyed it in 1391, as a Mount Athos chronicle testifies.
Kavala was part of the Ottoman Empire from 1387 to 1912. In the middle of the 16th century, Ibrahim Pasha, Grand Vizier of Suleiman the Magnificent, contributed to the prosperity and growth of Kavala by the construction of an aqueduct. The Ottomans also extended the Byzantine fortress on the hill of Panagia. Both landmarks are among the most recognizable symbols of the city today.
Kavala was briefly occupied by the Bulgarians during the first Balkan War in 1912, but was finally captured by Greece in 1913 during a successful landing operation by the Greek Navy that was commanded by the famous admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis. During World War I Kavala suffered from the Bulgarian military occupation with many victims among its Greek population. After the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922, the city entered a new era of prosperity because of the labour offered by the thousands of refugees that moved to the area from Asia Minor. The development was both industrial and agricultural. Kavala became greatly involved in the processing and trading of tobacco. Many buildings related to the storage and processing of tobacco from that era are preserved in the city.
During World War II and after the fall of Athens, the Nazis awarded Kavala to their Bulgarian allies in 1941, causing the city to suffer once again, but finally was liberated in 1944.
In the late 1950s Kavala expanded towards the sea by reclaiming land from the area west of the port.
In antiquity the name of the city was Neapolis. During the Middle Ages it was Christoupolis. The etymology of the modern name of the city is disputed. There are some explanations, either from the Italian cavallo(=horse), or from the Hebrew Kabbalah due to the large Jewish population of the city.
Monuments and landmarks
- Kamares (the old aqueduct), constructed in the Roman/Byzantine period, underwent extensive repairs during the Ottoman rule, particularly during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent and Legislator (c. 1530 AD). This double arch structure was designed to bridge the peninsula of Panagia with the foot of the mountain of Lekani. It was used to carry water from mountain sources ((6 km (4 miles)) north from the "Mother of Water", Soumpasi, or The Three Elms) in today's "Old Town" – Panagia, with the main water source situated at an altitude of 400 m and other lower sources of supply. 280 metres (920 ft) long and with a maximum height of 25 metres (82 ft), this grand monument consists of 60 arches of four different sizes. The most recent restoration work began in September 1997 with a mild technical assistance[clarification needed] Source: «Medieval Aqueduct of Kavala – Arcs», Publication of 12th Service of Byzantine and Ancient Antiquities, Kavala, 2008
- The Castle of Kavala dominates the top of the peninsula, where the old city is built. During the Byzantine period and later, repeated reconstruction works and fortification repairs were made by the Byzantines, Venetians and Turks. Each period in modern history has left traces on its walls. The castle (citadel) in its current form was built in the first quarter of the 15th century on a foundation from the Byzantine period. Cultural events are held in the outdoor theater.
- The Imaret, a big edifice of the late Ottoman period, is a classic example of Islamic architecture located on the west side of the peninsula of Panagia (old town). It is one of the last built in this particular period and the only one that has survived almost intact. Its largest part was built between 1817–21 by the founder of the last Egyptian dynasty, Mehmet Ali. For sentimental reasons, the Wali of Egypt wanted to benefit his hometown with this religious, educational and charitable institution. It operated as a Muslim seminary, including a "workhouse" providing occupational training for all the poor of the city regardless of religion. Since 1922, the Imaret was used to house refugees. In 1931, in order for the adjacent street to be widened, a part of the Imaret was demolished. In 1967 the residents of the Imaret (mostly refugees) were ordered to leave, and the monument was sealed. Until the question of ownership was settled, the Imaret remained completely deserted. After property issues were resolved, a part of it operated as a bar and restaurant while other parts were used as warehouses. In 2001 it was leased for fifty years to an entrepreneur from Kavala, who restored and converted it into a luxurious and elegant hotel, which maintains something of the ambience of its era.
- The House of Mehmet Ali in the Old Town Square was the birthplace of Mehmet Ali, Ottoman Albanian ruler and founder of the last Egyptian dynasty. This beautiful building, an example of Macedonian architecture, is considered to be the property of Egypt. The "konaki" of Mehmet Ali has two floors. A bronze equestrian statue was built in the centre of the square in 1934 in honor of the Sultan of Egypt, a work of Greek sculptor Dimitriadis. Nowadays, the building is used for the purposes of the Mohammed Ali Institute.[not in citation given]
- The Town Hall, a Hungarian miniature tower, was built around 1895 by the Hungarian tobacco trader Pierre Herzog. After his death the building passed into the possession of the "Limited Liability Company of Tobacco and Overseas". In 1937, under the administration of Mayor Athanasios Balanos, it was purchased by the Municipality of Kavala and has since housed the town hall.
- Adolf Wix Mansion was built in 1899 by the German Baron Adolf Wix to serve as a centre of commercial activity and as a house. Architecturally speaking, it is very similar to the adjacent building of the current town hall. Today, after several changes in ownership, it belongs to the municipality of Kavala.
- The Lazarists (Vincentians) Convent is located on Kipros Street and was built between 1888–92. The building has architectural elements mixed with neoclassical influence and was used as the French Embassy. Today it houses the only Catholic church in the city.
- The building of the Megali Leschi (Great Greek Community Club) of Kavala was built in 1909 by the Ladies Philoptochos (Friends of the Poor) Sisterhood. It is a typical example of eclectic architectural style with a lot of embedded neoclassical motifs, e.g. columns, pediments, etc. Located next to the town hall, it is used for secular organizations and other social events. While generally of neoclassical form, it has some traditional architectural elements. Today, only part of the building is used for cultural events due to the restoration work that has already started.
- Tokos Mansion was built in 1879 by Dimitrios Tokos, a tobacco trader, and its architectural style is influenced by romantic eclecticism. During the first years of the 20th century the Mansion was used as the Italian Subconsulate, and in 1911 it was purchased on behalf of the Ladies Philoptochos Society of Kavala (Friends of the Poor). From 1913 to 1937, it housed the town hall, and from its terrace in 1929 Eleftherios Venizelos made his speech. After the Second World War it housed the Private School Papassideri. Today it houses the Revenue Department of Byzantine Antiquities.
- The Municipal Conservatory (along with the adjacent building once owned by Kleon Krantonellis) is the oldest among the houses[clarification needed], having been built before 1864. It belonged to the N. and E. Grigoriadis brothers, two of the first tobacco traders. After World War I it served as a bank, and since 1987 (it was inaugurated in its present form in 1990) it has belonged to the Municipality of Kavala and houses the Municipal Conservatory. Its strong neoclassical design, its impressive frontons, the columns, and the sculptures indicate the architect's attempt to emphasize the city's power, wealth and national pride rooted in ancient tradition.
- The Municipal Tobacco Warehouse was built during the two first decades of the 20th century as a tobacco warehouse for the Turkish tobacco trader Kizi Mimin. The building is characterized by architectural and morphological elements of Ottoman-Turkish and Neo-Classical architecture. Today it belongs to the Municipality of Kavala and will host exhibits of the Folk Museum of Kavala, the Tobacco Museum and series of temporary exhibitions.
- The bronze statue of Nike (Victory) is in the public garden in front of the Town Hall. The relief image was created by sculptor Dionysios Gerolymatos and refers to the struggles of Greeks from ancient times up until 1940-41. The bronze statue is by sculptor John Parmakelis.
- Archaeological Museum of Kavala: The history of the Museum of Kavala, together with that of the region's archaeological service, started in 1934 with the appointment in Kavala of the first curator of Antiquities G. Bakalakis, who later became a professor at Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. During the occupation of Kavala by the Germans and the Bulgarians, the museum was looted and many antiquities were smuggled out or destroyed. In recent years the museum has assumed its most complete form. It is built next to Faliro Park on the left side of the port. Among the finds included in its collections are objects made of stone and clay from the Neolithic period and the Bronze Age, as well as artifacts found at the Dikili Tas settlement and ancient Amphipolis. There is also a special room with the artifacts of Neapolis, such as remnants of the temple of Athena Parthenos (Athena the Virgin) and archaic and classical black-figure vases and figurines.
- Archaeological Museum of Philippi
- Folklore Museum of Kavala: The Municipal Museum of Kavala first opened in 1988 and was housed for about 20 years in a neoclassical building on Filippou Street. Recently, its exhibits were transferred to the building of the Municipal Tobacco Warehouse of Kavala, at Kapnergatis Square, where for the time, only its administrative services are in operation. However, soon the work will have finished and the Museum will start operating again fully at these new premises. The museum's departments include: Historical Archives, Ethnographic Collection, Art Collection, Natural History, Library, and Museum education.
- Tobacco Museum: The tobacco museum of Kavala is a thematic museum, which includes objects and archival material regarding the cultivation and production of tobacco, commercial and agricultural processing, industrial tobacco products, and exhibition samples. It not only includes and exhibits the commercial processing of Eastern Tobacco (not found in any other museum in the world) but it also showcases the social history of Kavala and the rest of eastern Macedonia and Thrace. Its collection is extremely rich. It includes objects used in the cultivation of tobacco, machinery, photographs, and rare documents (bank documents, association statutes, etc.). The visitor can also find books on tobacco, publications of the Greek Organization of Tobacco, archives of the Commercial Tobacco Association, private documents, tobacco maps and drawings, furniture, etc.
- Cultural House of Nea Karvali: Nea Karvali of Kavala is a continuation of the old Kapadokian Karvali (Gelveri), with a long history through the ages. Its glorious course was marked by the presence of Her Holy Child, Gregory the Theologian, one of the greatest Fathers of our Church. Since 1981, apart from agricultural and industrial development, this course was affected by the foundation of the Cultural House of Nea Karvali, which is a continuation of the first educational organisation "Nazianzinos", founded in Istanbul by traders from Kavala in 1884. Through its projects and institutions, the Cultural House has made a major contribution to the city throughout its seventy-year history.
- Maritime Museum of Kavala:
- Toska Beach: Tosca beach is 5 km (3 mi) from Kavala. It has been awarded with the “blue flag” for its clear water and its organisation. It can be reached by taking the coach to Nea Peramos (for more information please call 2510-223593). There is an entrance fee to use the facilities. On the site there is a 4 star hotel, a restaurant and a cafeteria.
- Batis Beach: A bay 4 km (2 mi) from Kavala. Organised beach awarded with the “blue flag”. There is also an organised campsite with 100 designated spots for camping. There is an entrance fee to use the facilities. The visitors will find water sports, swimming pools, a pool bar, a beach bar and a playground. During the summer months it can be reached by bus No. 8 as well as by taking the coach to Nea Peramos
- Kalamitsa Beach: Organised beach of the municipality of Kavala on the west entrance of the city, awarded with the “blue flag” and accommodating a large number of bathers during the summer months. There is no entrance fee. Accessible by buses No. 4, No. 5 and No. 8. On the beach and nearby there are taverns and bars
- Periyiali Beach: On the eastern entrance of the city, 2 km (1 mi) from the city centre. A municipal beach, partly organised and awarded with the “blue flag” every year since 2009. Buses to and from Perigiali are No. 2 and No.3. In various parts of the beach there are fish taverns.
- Rapsani Beach: For those who can’t leave the city, Rapsani is practically at the centre of it. A municipal beach, organised and awarded with the “blue flag” every year since 2009. There is no admission fee and it can be reached by buses No. 1, No. 4, No. 5, No. 8 and No. 10. A tavern and cafeterias are available.
- Navagos Beach: Is located west of Kavala. It is in Palio Village. It is well organised and referred to youth mainly .It can be reached by taking the coach to Nea Peramos. The ticket is very cheap and the connection especially in summer is very frequent (per 1/2 hour). In Palio you can also find plenty of beaches, most of them well-organised such as Korali.
- Ammolofoi Beach: Ammolofoi (pronounced: Am all of ee which means sand-dunes) beach is one of the most popular and beautiful beaches in Northern Greece. The thin sand combined with the crystal clear and shallow waters of the sea create a magical exotic scenery. This is why thousands of people visit the beach every year, a beach that was awarded with the European Blue Flag since 2006 for its clean waters.
Kavala has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification "Cfa") that borders on an semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification "BSk" or "BSh" depending on the system used) with annual average precipitation of 460 mm (18.1 in). Snowfalls are sporadic, but happen more or less every year. The humidity is always very high
The absolute maximum temperature ever recorded was 38.0 °C (100 °F), while the absolute minimum ever recorded was −5.8 °C (22 °F).
|Climate data for Kavala|
|Average high °C (°F)||9.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||6.8
|Average low °C (°F)||3.0
|Precipitation mm (inches)||17.9
|Avg. precipitation days||5.9||7.0||8.5||10.5||9.3||8.5||5.5||4.8||4.3||7.3||10.2||9.3||91.1|
|Source: Greek National Weather Service |
- TEI of Kavala: The Technological Educational Institute of Kavala (Greek: ΤΕΙ Καβάλας) is a public institute providing education at university level in the region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace. The main campus of the institute located in St. Lukas, Kavala and is approximately 132,000 m2 with buildings covering an area of 36,000 m2.The campus is home for 2 faculties (Faculty of Engineering Sciences and Faculty of Business and Economics) with totally 9 departments.
- Fisheries Research Institute: Fisheries Research Institute (F.R.I) is one of the five specialized research institutes of N.AG.RE.F, being responsible to conduct research and to promote technological development in the fishery sector. The Institute is located 17 km (11 mi) away from Kavala, in Nea Peramos, at the centre of a marine area with rich fishery grounds and high biodiversity in the surrounding lagoons, lakes and rivers.
- Institute of Mohamed Ali for the Research of the Eastern Tradition (I.M.A.R.E.T.): I.M.A.R.E.T. is a registered NGO with the Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which was established several months ago by concerned citizens in Kavala, Greece. Its aims include the study of the Egyptian influence in Greece and vice versa. The intra-cultural exchange and dialogue, as well as the promotion of art as a means of intra-cultural understanding. The first major co-operation partner is Cultnat of Bibliotheca Alaxandrina with the aim of documenting and digitizing the architectural heritage of the Mohamed Ali era in Egypt and Greece. Most important event that take place every year at the institute is the International Roman Law Moot Court Competition.
- Historical & Literary Archives of Kavala: It is purely a non-profiteering, public utility foundation. The foundation of the Historical & Literary Archives of Kavala is not subsidized by the Greek State, neither by any other enterprise of the private sector. Its operational cost is covered only by its founders and by infrequent aids of the local self-government.
- Egnatia Aviation: It is a private training college for pilots that started training in Greece in July 2006. The facilities of Egnatia Aviation mostly located in the former passenger’s terminal of the Kavala International Airport "Alexander the Great".
Festivals and events
Kavala hosts a wide array of cultural events, which mostly take place during the summer months. The top festival is the Festival of Philippi, which lasts from July to September and includes theatrical performances and music concerts. Since 1957, it has been the city's most important cultural event and one of the most important of Greece.
Cosmopolis is an International Festival held in the Old Town of Kavala that offers an acquaintance with cultures around the world through dancing and musical groups, traditional national cuisines, cinema, and exhibits at the kiosks of the participant countries.
Giannis Papaioannou’s Festival includes concerts and music seminars.
Ilios ke Petra (Sun and Stone)(July): a Festival held in “Akontisma” of Nea Karvali. The event is of folkloric character, with the participation of traditional dancing groups from all over the world.
Wood Water Wild Festival: Wood Water Wild is an outdoor activities festival, inspired by nature. It includes live bands & DJ sets, body&mind activities, a book fair, outdoor theatre, ecology, camping, and debates.
Kavala AirSea Show: An annual air show, which takes place during the last days of June
Besides, various cultural events are held in all municipalities of Kavala during the summer months.
Fish and sea food, as well as the products of the local livestock breeding and agricultural sectors are the prevailing elements of Kavala courses. In Kavala, the traditional local recipes have been influenced by the cuisine of the refugees from Pontos, Asia Minor and Kappadokia. Fresh fish and sea food, salted food, mackerel "gouna" (sun dried mackerel on the grill), sardine pantremeni, mussels with rice, herring saganaki, anchovies wrapped in grape leaves, Stuffed eggplant: these are some very renowned recipes in Kavala and the coastal settlements of the region. The grapes, wine and tsipouro produced in the area, as well as the kourabiedes (sugar-coated almond biscuits) from Nea Karvali are particularly famous.
The municipality of Kavala was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 2 former municipalities, that became municipal units:
The population of the new municipality is 70,501 and the area is 350,61 km2. The seat of the municipality is in Kavala. Some of the most important communities inside new municipality are:
Kavala is built amphitheatrically, with most residents enjoying superb views of the coast and sea. Some of the regions inside Kavala are:
|Agia Varvara||Agios Athanasios||Agios Ioannis||Agios Loukas||Chilia|
|Perigiali||Potamoudia||Profitis Ilias||Timios Stavros||Vyronas|
The province of Kavala (Greek: Επαρχία Καβάλας) was one of the provinces of the Kavala Prefecture. Its territory corresponded with that of the current municipality Kavala, and part of the municipal unit Eleftheroupoli. It was abolished in 2006.
European route E90 runs through the city and connects Kavala with the other cities. The Egnatia Motorway (A2) lies north of the city. One can enter the city from one of two Junctions; 'Kavala West' and 'Kavala East'.Kavala has regular connection with Interregional Bus Lines (KTEL) from and to Thessaloniki and Athens.
The Kavala International Airport "Alexander the Great" (27 km (17 mi) from Kavala) is connected with Athens by regularly scheduled flights and with many European cities by scheduled and charter flights.
Kavala is connected with all the islands of the Northern Aegean Sea with frequent itineraries of various ferry lines.
The city is connected with all of the large Greek cities such as Thessaloniki and Athens. All of the local villages are also connected via bus lines. The cost of tickets is very cheap. There is also a shuttle bus in Kavala with these lines : 1. Vironas - Kallithea 2. Dexameni 3. Cemetery 4. Kipoupoli - Technological Institute 5. Agios Loukas 6. Profitis Ilias 7. Stadium 8. Kalamitsa - Batis ( only in summer ) 9. Agios Konstantinos 10. Neapoli 11. Hospital - Perigiali
- Kavala F.C.: AO Kavala (Greek: Athlitikos Omilos Kavala, Αθλητικός Όμιλος Καβάλα), the Athletic Club Kavala, is a professional association football club based in the city of Kavala, Greece.The club plays in the Municipal Kavala Stadium "Anthi Karagianni".
- Kavala BC.: Enosi Kalathosfairisis Kavalas (Greek: Ένωση Καλαθοσφαίρισης Καβάλας - Basketball Union of Kavala) is a Greek professional basketball club that is located in Kavala, Greece. The club is also known as E.K. Kavalas. The club's full Greek name is Ένωση Καλαθοσφαίρισης Καβάλας. Which means, Kavala Basketball Union or Kavala Basketball Association in English. The club competes in the Greek League.
- Kavala Chess Club: Chess is very popular in Kavala and the local chess club ranks top in Greece, enjoying plenty of success both domestically and internationally. The highlight has to be the club's annual International Open, that takes place every August in Kavala and attracts the biggest names in chess from all over the globe
- Nautical Club of Kavala (1945, Ναυτικός Ομιλος Καβάλας, ΝΟΚ). Sports of sea (swimming, yachting,water-polo,diving e.t.c.)
- Kavala Titans (2009, Τιτάνες Καβάλας). Rugby Union
Twin towns – Sister cities
Kavala is twinned with:
Austria opened a post office in Kavala before 1864. Between 1893 and 1903, the French post office in the city issued its own postage stamps; at first stamps of France overprinted with "Cavalle" and a value in piasters, then in 1902 the French designs inscribed "CAVALLE".
- Muhammad Ali Pasha of Kavala, the Albanian Wali (governor) of Egypt between 1805–1848 and founder of the modern state of Egypt
- Theodore Kavalliotis, Greek Orthodox priest, teacher and a figure of the Greek Enlightenment
- Vassilis Vassilikos, Greek writer and diplomat
- George Georgiadis, Greek footballer
- Giorgos Heimonas (1938–2000), writer and translator
- Nikos Karageorgiou, (born December 9, 1962) Manager of Greek football team Ergotelis, based in Heraklion, Crete
- Anthi Karagianni, silver medalist in the Athens 2004 and Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games; the city's Municipal stadium is named after her
- Vasilis Karas, Greek singer
- Nikos Kourkoulis, Greek singer
- Mitsos Partsalidis, first elected "red" (communist) mere in modern Greek history, back in 1.4.1934
- Antigone Valakou, actress
- Despina Vandi, a Top Greek singer
- Thanasis Euthimiadis, a Greek actor
- Anna Verouli, 1982 Gold Medalist, European Championship, javelin thrower
- Zisis Vryzas (born November 9, 1973), former footballer, currently vicepresident of PAOK FC
- Theodoros Zagorakis (born October 27, 1971), former footballer, captain of national team of Greece-European champion 2004, currently president of PAOK FC
- Anna Gerasimou, a Greek tennis player
- Kleon Krantonellis, Αrchitect
Ionic capital of the Goddess Parthenos Temple (6th BC, Archaeological Museum of Kavala)
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.
- Detailed census results 2011 (Greek)
- Kiel, Machiel (1971). "Observations on the History of Northern Greece during the Turkish Rule: Historical and Architectural Description of the Turkish Monuments of Komotini and Serres, their place in the Development of Ottoman Turkish Architecture and their Present Condition". Balkan Studies 12: 416.
- The castle of Kavala
- «Neapolis - Christoupolis - Kavala, Travelogue through space and time of the Old City», Publication of Kavala's Municipality, Kavala, 2009.
- "Welcome to Ammolofoi beach The most beautiful beach of the northern Greece".
- "EMY-Εθνική Μετεωρολογική Υπηρεσία". Hnms.gr. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- (Greek) Φεστιβάλ κλασικής μουσικής «Γ. Α. Παπαϊωάννου»
- Wood Water Wild Festival
- Kavala AirSea Show
- Kallikratis law Greece Ministry of Interior (Greek)
- PDF (39 MB) (Greek) (French)
- "Anthi Karagianni Stadium".
- Die Poststempel auf der Freimarken-Ausgabe 1867 von Österreich und Ungarn, Edwin Mueller, 1930, # 6814
- Handbook of Austria and Lombardy-Venetia Cancellations on the Postage Stamp Issues 1850-1864, by Edwin MUELLER, 1961, p.215
- Koukouli-Chrisanthaki Chaido, Kavala. Αrchaeological Museum of Kavala, Kavala: D.E.T.A., 2002 (in Greek).
- Stefanidou Emilia, The City-Port of Kavala during the Period of Turkish Rule. An Urban Survey (1391-1912), Kavala: Historical & Literary Archive of Kavala, 2007 (in Greek).
- Karagiannakidis Nikos - Likourinos Kyriakos, Neapolis-Christoupolis-Kavala, Kavala: Municipality of Kavala, 2009 (in Greek).
- Koutzakiotis Georges, Cavalla, une Échelle égéenne au XVIIIe siècle. Négociants européens et notables ottomans, Istanbul: The Isis Press, 2009.
- Roudometof Nikolaos (ed.), Notebooks of Bulgarian Occupation. Eastern Macedonia 1916-1918. v. 1, Kavala - Chrisoupoli - Eleutheroupoli, Kavala: Historical & Literary Archive of Kavala (in Greek).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kavala.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Kavala.|
- Official website (in Greek, English and Russian)
- The official website of the prefecture of Kavala – online since 1996
- Official Blog of students of ATEI Kavalas