LGBT rights in Australia
|LGBT rights in Australia|
|Same-sex sexual activity legal?||Legal nationwide since December 1994|
|Military service||Gays and lesbians allowed to serve openly since 1992|
|Discrimination protections||Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Act 2013|
|De facto unions under federal law
Civil Unions in ACT
Domestic partnerships in NSW, VIC, TAS, QLD, SA
Unregistered de facto unions in WA, NT
|Adoption||Varies in each region|
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) rights in Australia have gradually progressed since the late-20th century, to the point where LGBT couples enjoy many of the same rights and benefits as non-LGBT couples - with the notable exception of marriage.
Australia is a federation of several states and territories, meaning many of its laws with respect to LGBT rights originate from a sub-jurisdictional level. States and territories began granting domestic partnership benefits and civil unions to same-sex couples from the mid 2000s and federal law recognises same-sex couples as de facto unions. Same-sex marriage has been proposed to the Commonwealth Parliament multiple times, but the government has rejected the bills on all occasions. Marriage, for federal law purposes, is defined as the union of a man and woman. The Australian Capital Territory legalisation of same-sex marriage was annulled by the High Court of Australia on the grounds that only the federal parliament has the constitutional and legal authority to legalise same-sex marriage. Same-sex adoption varies across each state and territory, with some allowing both joint and step adoption whilst others have not legislated same-sex adoption altogether. Discrimination protections on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity or expression also vary in each state and territory, though federal protection laws have been in place since August 1, 2013. Transgender Australians may change their legal gender in all states and territories and are recognised as their desired gender.
Australia has been referred to by publications as one of the most gay friendly countries in the world, with recent polls indicating that a majority of Australians support same-sex marriage. A 2013 poll conducted by Pew Research indicated that 79% of Australians viewed that homosexuality should be accepted by society, making it the fifth most supportive country in the world behind Czech Republic, Canada, Germany and Spain, which ranked first. Because of its long history in regard to LGBT rights and its annual three-week long Mardi Gras festival, Sydney has been named one of the most gay friendly cities in the country and in the world.
- 1 Laws regarding homosexuality
- 2 Recognition of same-sex relationships
- 3 Discrimination protections
- 4 Adoption and parenting rights
- 5 Military service
- 6 Age of consent
- 7 Blood donor ban
- 8 History of LGBT rights in Australia
- 9 LGBT rights and religion in Australia
- 10 Summary table
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Laws regarding homosexuality
During the British-colonial era in the 18th century, laws regarding same-sex sexual activity between men were influenced by British law and considered a capital crime, resulting in the execution of convicted sodomites. The death penalty for convicted sodomites was reduced to life imprisonment in 1899. During the mid to late-20th century, states and territories slowly began repealing their sodomy laws as awareness surrounding homosexuality began to flourish. The age of consent for both homosexual and heterosexual forms of sex is 16 in all jurisdictions bar South Australia and Tasmania, where it is 17, though Queensland has an unequal age of consent for anal intercourse, which is 18 years of age. Years of homosexual sex decriminalisation are as follows:
- South Australia: August 1975
- Victoria: March 1981
- Northern Territory: October 1983
- New South Wales: June 1984
- Australian Capital Territory: October 1973
- Western Australia: March 1990
- Queensland: November 1990
- Commonwealth of Australia: December 1994
- Tasmania: May 1997
Recognition of same-sex relationships
Federal (Commonwealth) laws do not allow same-sex couples to legally marry under the Marriage Act 1961. The High Court ruled in December 2013 that the Australian Capital Territory's same-sex marriage law was invalid, as s51(xxi) grants the Commonwealth Parliament the power to legislate with regard to marriage, and the federal definition of marriage overrides any state or territory definition under s109. The court did find, however, that "marriage" for the purposes of s51(xxi) includes same-sex marriage, thus clarifying that there is no constitutional impediment to the Commonwealth legislating for same-sex marriage in the future.
Australia recognises same-sex relationships - including same-sex couples married in foreign jurisdictions or sub-jurisdictions - as de facto unions. Following the Australian Human Rights Commission's report Same-Sex: Same Entitlements and an audit of Commonwealth legislation, in 2009 the Australian Government introduced several reforms designed to equalise treatment for same-sex couples and same-sex couple families. The reforms amended 85 Commonwealth laws to eliminate discrimination against same-sex couples and their children in a wide range of areas. The reforms came in the form of two pieces of legislation, the Same-Sex Relationships (Equal Treatment in Commonwealth Laws-General Law Reform) Act 2008 and the Same-Sex Relationships (Equal Treatment in Commonwealth Laws-Superannuation) Act 2008. These laws amended several other existing Commonwealth Acts to equalise treatment for same-sex couples and any children such couples may be raising with respect to the following areas:
*Aged care and child support
For instance, with relation to social security and general family law, same-sex couples were not previously recognised as a couple for social security or family assistance purposes. A person who had a same-sex de facto partner was treated as a single person. The reforms ensured that same-sex couples were (for the first time under Australian law) recognised as a couple akin to opposite-sex partners. Consequently, a same-sex couple receives the same rate of social security and family assistance payments as an opposite-sex couple. Such reforms however, do not completely equalise treatment for same-sex couples, who for instance, do not have the same rights and entitlements as married heterosexual couples do with respect to workers' compensation death benefits, pensions for the partners of Defence Force veterans and access to carer's leave. Despite large equality of rights, Australia does not have a national registered partnership, civil union or same-sex relationship scheme.
Same-sex marriage (federal law)
As a result of the Howard Government's amendment to the Marriage Act in 2004, federal law in Australia officially bans same-sex marriage. Recent attempts to legalise same-sex marriage nationwide have failed in the Australian Parliament. The current Abbott Government opposes same-sex marriage, though could potentially alter policy to support a conscience vote for Liberal/National party members when same-sex marriage legislation next comes before the Parliament. The opposition Australian Labor Party supports same-sex marriage in its party platform, though it allows its parliamentary members to exercise their consciences.
Same-sex marriage (states and territories)
The Australian Capital Territory same-sex marriage laws was rejected by the High Court of Australia. The High Court ruled against the law on 12 December 2013 contending that only federal parliament has the constitutional authority to legislate on the subject.
Domestic partnerships in states and territories
All remaining states and territories in Australia have domestic partnership laws, aside from Western Australia and the Northern Territory. Of the States that do have domestic partnerships, South Australia is the only one that lacks legislation for domestic partnership registries. Same-sex couples may enter into civil unions in the ACT, domestic registered partnerships in New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania and Victoria. This provides conclusive proof of the existence of the relationship, thereby gaining the same rights afforded to de facto couples under state and federal law without having to prove any further factual evidence of the relationship. In this way, a registered relationship is similar to a registered partnership or civil union in other parts of the world. In South Australia same-sex couples can prove their relationship through an agreement, known as the Domestic Partnership Agreement. In Western Australia, Norfolk Island and the Northern Territory, same-sex couples often must often seek juridical approval to prove a de facto relationship exists.
|Official relationship status||Anti-discrimination legislation||Pending legislation|
|New South Wales||Domestic Partnership (Registry)||Same-Sex Marriage Bill 2013
Failed in upper house by 21 votes to 19
|Northern Territory||Defined as 'De facto', no registry||-|
|Queensland||Domestic Partnership (Registry)||-|
|South Australia||Domestic Partnership (Agreement - No Registry)||Same-Sex Marriage Bill 2013
Failed in lower house
|Tasmania||Domestic Partnership (Registry)||Same-Sex Marriage Bill 2012
Failed in the upper house by 8 votes to 6, for the second time in two years
|Victoria||Domestic Partnership (Registry)||Marriage Equality Bill 2012|
|Western Australia||Defined as 'De facto', no registry||Same-Sex Marriage Bill 2013|
Prior to August 1, 2013 Australia did not comprehensively outlaw discrimination based on sexual orientation at the federal level. However, in response to Australia's agreement to implement the principle of non-discrimination in employment and occupation pursuant to the International Labour Organisation Convention No.111 (ILO 111), the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) Act established the HREOC in 1986, and empowers it to investigate complaints of discrimination in employment and occupation on various grounds, including sexual orientation, and to resolve such complaints by conciliation. If it cannot be conciliated, the Commission prepares a report to the federal Attorney-General who then tables the report in Parliament. Employment discrimination on the ground of "sexual preference" is also rendered unlawful in the Fair Work Act 2009, allowing complaints to be made to the Fair Work Ombudsman.
The Human Rights (Sexual Conduct) Act 1994 provided that sexual conduct involving only consenting adults (18 years or over) acting in private would not be subject to arbitrary interference by law enforcement. This applies to any law of the Commonwealth, State or Territory.
In late 2010, the Gillard Labor Government announced that it is undertaking a review of federal anti-discrimination laws, with the aim of introducing a single equality act that would include sexual orientation and gender identity. This was abandoned and instead the Gillard Labor Government introduced another bill - which is mentioned below.
On 25 June 2013, the Australian Federal Parliament passed the Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Bill 2013 with overwhelming support in both houses and became law from Royal Assent three days later by the Governor-General. The amendment then became effective from 1 August 2013, making discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered and for the first time in the world, Intersex people illegal at a national level. Aged care providers who are owned by religious groups will no longer be able to exclude people from aged care services based on their LGBTI or same-sex relationship status. However, religious owned private schools and religious owned hospitals are exempt from gender identity and sexual orientation provisions in the Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Bill 2013. No religious exemptions exist on the basis of intersex status.
Aside from Commonwealth anti-discrimination laws, each of the states and territories have their own laws which protect LGBTI people from discrimination.
Adoption and parenting rights
States and territories make laws with respect to adoption and child-rearing. The laws with respect to same-sex parenting and adoption rights vary in each state and territory. Same-sex couples can jointly adopt in New South Wales, the ACT, Western Australia and Tasmania, whilst Victoria, Queensland, the Northern Territory and South Australia bar same-sex couples from adopting jointly. The 2011 Australian census counted 6,300 children living in same-sex couple families, up from 3,400 in 2001, make up only one in a thousand of all children in couple families (0.1%). Altruistic surrogacy is legal in all Australian states and territories except Western Australia and South Australia, though commercial surrogacy is banned nationwide. In recent years, a dramatic increase in the use of overseas surrogacy programs has occurred amongst both same-sex and opposite-sex couples, creating some unique legal concerns with respect to citizenship and parenting rights. It is believed that only 1 in 20 surrogacy arrangements occur in Australia, with almost all involving foreign surrogates mainly from South-East Asia and the United States.
|Same-sex couple joint petition||LGBT individual adoption||Same-sex stepparent adoption|
|New South Wales||Yes (since 2010)||Yes (since 2000)||Yes (since 2010)|
|ACT||Yes (since 2004)||Yes (since 1993)||Yes (since 2004)|
|Western Australia||Yes (since 2002)||Yes||Yes (since 2002)|
|Tasmania||Yes (since 2013)||Yes||Yes (since 2004)|
|Queensland||No (under review since 2008)||Yes (since 2009)||No|
|Victoria||No (under review since 2007)||Yes||No (recommendations under consideration since 2007)|
|Northern Territory||No||Only in exceptional circumstances||No|
|South Australia||No||No singles, must only be an opposite-sex couple (married or cohabitating)||No|
In 1992, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) ended its prohibition on openly gay or lesbian members serving in the military. The ADF also recognises "interdependent relationships", which include same-sex relationships, regarding benefits available to active duty members. This means equal benefits in housing, moving stipends, education assistance and leave entitlements. To be recognised as interdependent, same-sex partners will have to show they have a "close personal relationship" that involves domestic and financial support. The ADF also gives equal access to superannuation and death benefits for same-sex partnerships. Under the Human Rights Commission Act 1986, discrimination or harassment on the grounds of sexual orientation, be it heterosexuality, homosexuality or bisexuality, is prohibited. ADF members or APS employees are not to be asked about their sexual orientation, nor is sexual orientation, or alleged sexual orientation, to be adversely taken into consideration in promotion, posting or career development decisions.
The DEFGLIS (Defence Force Gay and Lesbian Information Service) is an unofficial organisation of Regular, Reserve and Civilian members of the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) who are gay, lesbian, bisexual, intersex and transgender (GLBIT) and allies.
Age of consent
All states and territories of Australia (except for Queensland), have age of consent legislation that applies equally regardless whether the participants are male or female, same-sex or opposite-sex. All states, territories and on the federal level are at the age of 16, except for Tasmania and South Australia, where it is 17. Queensland's age of consent is 16, however it still has a "sodomy law" in their statutes dating back to 1990, punishing anal sex involving any person under 18 with up to 14 years in prison.
Blood donor ban
The Australian Red Cross Blood Service bans blood donations from men who have had sex with men (MSM) in the previous twelve months. Several other countries also have MSM bans ranging from one year to lifetime or permanent deferral. The policy was challenged in 2005 with the Tasmanian Anti-Discrimination Tribunal. Four years later in May 2009, the tribunal dismissed the complaint saying that it was "unsubstantiated".
History of LGBT rights in Australia
Immigration and sponsorship
In 1985, changes were made to the Migration Act 1958 (Cth) due to pressure from the Gay and Lesbian Immigration Task Force (GLITF). An interdependency visa was specifically created for same-sex couples, allowing Australian Citizens and Permanent Residents to sponsor their same-sex partners to Australia. Unlike married couples, de facto and interdependent partners must be able to prove a twelve month committed relationship. The temporary and permanent visas (Subclasses 310 and 110) allow the applicant to live, work, study and receive Medicare benefits in Australia.
Social Security Act 1991
From 1 July 2009 changes to legislation will mean that customers who are in a same-sex de facto relationship will be recognised as partnered for Centrelink and Family Assistance Office purposes. All customers who are assessed as being a member of a couple will have their rate of payment calculated in the same way.
Inheritance and property rights
Without the automatic legal protections that married couples receive under the law with regard to inheriting assets from their partners, same sex couples have had to take specific legal actions. Individuals are not entitled to a partial pension if their same-sex partner dies. Gay and de facto couples who separate did not have the same property rights as married couples under federal law and were required to use more expensive state courts, rather than the Family Court, to resolve disputes. The plan to grant equivalent rights to gays and de factos had been up for discussion since 2002, and all states eventually agreed, but the change was blocked because the Howard government insisted on excluding same-sex couples.
In June 2008, the Rudd Government introduced the Family Law Amendment (De Facto Financial Matters and Other Measures) Bill 2008 to allow same-sex and de facto couples access to the federal Family Court on property and maintenance matters, rather than the state Supreme Court. This reform was not part of the 100 equality measures promised by the Government but stem from a 2002 agreement between the states and territories that the previous Howard Government did not fulfill. Coalition amendments to the bill failed and it was passed in November 2008.
Trans and intersex people in Australia are attempting to improve government recognition of sex and gender. Federal guidelines govern Commonwealth recognition of sex and gender, including passports. Guidelines issued in May 2013, and taking effect from 1 July 2013, enable any adult to choose to identify as male, female or X. Documentary evidence must be witnessed by a doctor or psychologist, but medical intervention is not required.
Alex MacFarlane was reported as receiving a passport with an 'X' sex descriptor in early 2003. This was stated by the West Australian to be on the basis of a challenge by MacFarlane, using an indeterminate birth certificate issued by the State of Victoria. Councillor Tony Briffa JP, of the City of Hobsons Bay, Victoria, previously acknowledged as the world's first openly intersex mayor, states on Tony's website that "my birth certificate is silent as to my sex". Norrie May-Welby is a Scottish-Australian who became the first transsexual person in Australia to publicly pursue a legal status of neither a man nor a woman. That status is currently subject to an appeal by the State of New South Wales.
In 2011, the Australian Passport Office introduced new guidelines for issuing of passports with a new gender, and broadened availability of an X descriptor to all individuals with documented "indeterminate" sex. The revised policy stated that "sex reassignment surgery is not a prerequisite to issue a passport in a new gender. Birth or citizenship certificates do not need to be amended."
Birth certificates are issued by States and Territories. In many States, sterilisation is (or has been) required for trans people to obtain recognition of their preferred gender in cardinal identification documents. For example, New South Wales Registry of Births Deaths & Marriages requires that trans people must have "undergone a sex affirmation procedure"
In 2012, AB v Western Australia, the High Court ruled that two transsexual men who had undergone mastectomies and hormone treatment did not need to undergo sterilisation to obtain a gender recognition certificate.
Organisation Intersex International Australia asserts that identification changes are managed differently for intersex people who wish to change documentation. They describe this as an administrative correction.
Medical treatment of intersex people
In October 2013, the Australian Senate published a report entitled 'Involuntary or coerced sterilisation of intersex people in Australia'. The Senate found that "normalising" surgeries are taking place in Australia, often on infants and young children. They commented, "normalisation surgery is more than physical reconstruction. The surgery is intended to deconstruct an intersex physiology and, in turn, construct an identity that conforms with stereotypical male and female gender categories" and, "Enormous effort has gone into assigning and ‘normalising’ sex: none has gone into asking whether this is necessary or beneficial. Given the extremely complex and risky medical treatments that are sometimes involved, this appears extremely unfortunate". The report makes 15 recommendations, including ending cosmetic genital surgeries on infants and children and providing for legal oversight of individual cases. The president of Organisation Intersex International Australia states that "The Senate Committee has changed the debate on the correct treatment of intersex differences. If adopted, its recommendations will effectively protect the rights of intersex children and future adults."
LGBT rights and religion in Australia
Religious groups who oppose LGBT rights
Peter Jensen, Archbishop of the Evangelical Anglican Diocese of Sydney, has vigorously opposed homosexuality, stating that accepting homosexuality is "calling holy what God called sin." Leaders of the Anglican Church of Australia have called for the removal of the proposed ACT Civil Union legislation, because they "believe this proposal actually threatens and compromises the traditional Christian view of marriage between a man and a woman."
The Catholic Archbishop of Sydney Cardinal George Pell, the Catholic Church according to George Pell believes and teaches that sexual activity should be confined to married couples, a man and a woman, and opposes all extra-marital sexual activity. The Catholic Church will continue to oppose legitimizing any extra-marital sexual activity, including homosexual activity. It will also continue to oppose homosexual propaganda especially among young people he states.
The Australian Federation of Islamic Councils, considered Australia's most important Islamic organisation, came out strongly against removing discrimination against same-sex partners in federal law. Chairman Ikebal Patel said such moves would threaten the "holy relationship" of marriage between a man and woman/a man and several women and the core values of supporting families.
The Salt Shakers is a Christian Ethics Action Group based in Melbourne, Victoria. It includes people from a number of Christian denominations and provides resources to Christians and churches. They also operate in the public arena by consulting, lobbying and presenting a Christian perspective on issues affecting society. This includes sending press releases, giving interviews for current affairs and other programs, making submissions to government, monitoring TV standards. They believe homosexuality is a sin.
The Christian organization Exclusive Brethren ran full page advertisements in various newspapers to criticise Tasmanian Greens' pro-Gay policies such as same-sex marriage, LGBTgay adoption and fostering (something already partially recognized by Tasmanian law) in the lead up to the 2006 Tasmanian State Election.
Gender Matters is a coalition of seventeen groups and organisations formed in October 2008, including the Australian Family Association, the National Alliance for Christian Leaders, Exodus, the Fatherhood Foundation and Salt Shakers, promoting traditional gender roles. Some of their demands include: That marriage be "forever preserved as the voluntary exclusive union of one man and one woman"; That adoption be restricted to heterosexual couples; That IVF and other reproductive technologies are reserved exclusively for heterosexuals; And a ban on same-sex civil unions and registers.
Religious groups who support LGBT rights
Since 2003, the Uniting Church in Australia has allowed sexually active gay and lesbian people to be ordained as ministers, with each individual presbyteries given discretion to decide the matter on a case-by-case basis.
The Progressive Jewish community in Australia broadly supports LGBT rights, whereas the Orthodox branches are less accommodating, taking a staunchly conservative approach. On 5 June 2007 the Council of Progressive Rabbis of Australia, New Zealand, and Asia overturned their ban on same-gender commitment ceremonies. Nearly 4 years later, on 19 May 2011 the Rabbinic Council of Progressive Rabbis of Australia, Asia and New Zealand announced their support for marriage equality under Australian law. This news was broadly publicised via a media release issued by Australian Marriage Equality on 25 May 2011.
|Same-sex marriage||De facto relationships status||Registered relationships status||Equal age of consent||Anti-discrimination legislation||Adoption and foster parenting||Recognition of parents on birth certificate||Access to fertility (such as ART, IVF, surrogacy, AI, etc.)||Right to change legal gender|
|ACT||(High Court asks for federal parliament review)|
|Commonwealth of Australia||(Marriage Amendment Act 2004)||(family law)||(family law)||(covered by state/territory law)||(Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Act 2013)||(family law)||(family law)||(family law)||(covered by state/territory law)|
|New South Wales||(Voted down in 2013)|
|Queensland||(18 for anal sex)||(foster parents only)|
|South Australia||(Voted down in 2013)||(domestic partnership agreement)||(under review)||(ART & surrogacy banned)|
|Tasmania||(Voted down in 2012)|
|Western Australia||(proposed)||ART and IVF legal
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to LGBT in Australia.|
- Recognition of same-sex unions in Australia
- LGBT adoption and parenting in Australia
- Category:LGBT rights activists from Australia
- Category:Intersex rights activists
LGBT rights in Australian states and territories:
- LGBT rights in the Australian Capital Territory
- LGBT rights in New South Wales
- LGBT rights in the Northern Territory
- LGBT rights in Queensland
- LGBT rights in South Australia
- LGBT rights in Tasmania
- LGBT rights in Victoria
- LGBT rights in Western Australia
- "Human Rights (Sexual Conduct) Act 1994 - Sect 4". Commonwealth Consolidated Acts. Retrieved 2007-09-03.
- Date of assent
- Text of the Act
- Marriage aside, what laws still discriminate against gays?
- "ACT legalises same-sex marriage". NEWS.com.au. 22 October 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
- Age of consent laws in Australia: Government source
- Gay Law Reform in Australian States and Territories
- Date of assent for Commonwealth decriminalisation law
- The Commonwealth v Australian Capital Territory [2013 HCA 55]
- Official report: Same-sex same entitlements
- Attorney General's website: same-sex law reform
- NSW bill is about marriage just not equality
- Marriage Amendment Bill 2004
- Same-sex marriage bill voted down in lower house
- Turnbull signals support for conscience vote on gay marriage
- Byrne, Elizabeth. "High Court rejects ACT same-sex marriage laws". ABC News. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Vote on gay marriage fails in first Australian state
- Discrimination, Fair Work Ombudsman
- "Human Rights (Sexual Conduct) Act 1994". Austlii. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
- Red Book plan a step towards gay marriage, The Australian, 15 December 2010
- Australian Parliament, Explanatory Memorandum to the Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Bill 2013, 2013
- Australia outlaws LGBT discrimination under national laws for first time, 25 June 2013
- Same-sex adoption VGLRL
- Same-Sex Couples Australian Bureau of Statistics
- Two dads and a surrogate create legal landmark
- Concern as Australians turn to Thailand for surrogates
- Heterosexuals use of surrogacy increases dramatically
- Surrogacy laws could leave Australian-Indian babies stateless
- "Australian state votes for adoption by same-sex couples". The Hindu (India). Deutsche Presse-Agentur. 2 September 2010. Retrieved 2 September 2010.
- "ADOPTION ACT 2000". Austlii.edu.au. 1 January 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- "ADOPTION ACT 1993". Austlii.edu.au. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- "ADOPTION ACT 1994". Austlii.edu.au. 5 March 2010. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- "Adoption Act 1988 (Tas) – Sect 20. Persons in whose favour adoption orders may be made". Austlii. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
- "ADOPTION ACT 2009 No. 29". Austlii.edu.au. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- "Adoption Act 1984 – SECT 10A". Austlii. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
- "Adoption Act 1984 – SECT 11". Austlii. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
- "Adoption of Children Act (NT)". Austlii. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
- "Adoption Act 1988 (SA)". South Australia Attorney-General's Department. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
- Navy News Volume 48 No. 21, 17 November 2005, page 06
- Age of consent laws in Australia: Government of Australia
- "Gays test Red Cross blood ban, by Erin O'Dwyer (October 9, 2005)". The Sun Herald. 9 October 2005. Retrieved 3 September 2007.
- "Kissing Qualifies as Sex". Sydney Star Observer. 23 August 2008. Retrieved 6 December 2008.
- Carter, Paul (27 May 2009). "Gay blood donor's complaint against Red Cross dismissed". News.com.au. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- "Red Cross Donation Policy". Donateblood.com.au. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- "Interdependency Visa: Offshore Temporary and Permanent (Subclasses 310 and 110)". Department of Immigration and Citizenship. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
- "Changes to Same-Sex Relationships from 1 July 2009". Immi.gov.au. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- ":Centrelink recognises same-sex relationships". Centrelink. Retrieved 30 March 2009.[dead link]
- Wallace, Rick (3 January 2008). "Push for equal gay and de facto couples' rights". The Australian. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
- Dennett, Harley (26 June 2008). "Family Court Changes Afoot". SSOnet. Retrieved 1 July 2008.[dead link]
- Nader, Carol (2 September 2008). "Same-sex parenting rights push". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved 2 September 2008.
- "Family Law Amendment (De Facto Financial Matters and Other Measures) Act 2008". Comlaw.gov.au. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- Australian Government Guidelines on the Recognition of Sex and Gender, 30 May 2013
- "X marks the spot for intersex Alex", West Australian, via bodieslikeours.org. 11 January 2003
- "Ingrid Holme, "Hearing People's Own Stories", in Science as Culture, Volume 17, Issue 3, 2008"
- "Neither man nor woman", Sydney Morning Herald. 27 June 2010
- "Intersex Mayor Elected in Australia", Advocate.com, December 9, 2011
- "Tony Briffa Of Australia's City Of Hobsons Bay Becomes World's First Intersex Mayor", HuffingtonPost.com, December 10, 2011
- "About Tony ... | cr Tony Briffa", Briffa.org, 2012
- "OII VP Tony Briffa to wed partner in NZ ceremony - Gay News Network", Gay News Network, 27 September 2013
- "Norrie May-Welby's battle to regain status as the world's first legally genderless person", Daily Life Australia. 8 November 2013
- Sex Files: the legal recognition of sex in documents and government records. Concluding paper of the sex and gender diversity project (2009), Australian Human Rights Commission, March 2009.
- Ten years of ‘X’ passports, and no protection from discrimination, Organisation Intersex International (OII) Australia, 19 January 2013
- "Getting a passport made easier for sex and gender diverse people". The Hon Kevin Rudd MP. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- On Australian passports and “X” for sex, Organisation Intersex International (OII) Australia, 9 October 2011
- "Sex and Gender Diverse Passport Applicants". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Australian Government. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- Change of sex - BDM New South Wales
- Human Rights Commission, AB v Western Australia
- "On intersex birth registrations | OII Australia - Intersex Australia", OII Australia. 13 November 2009
- Senate Community Affairs Committee, Involuntary or coerced sterilisation of intersex people in Australia, October 2013
- Statement on the Senate report 'Involuntary or coerced sterilisation of intersex people in Australia' , Organisation Intersex International (OII) Australia, 29 October 2013
- Star Observer, "Senate committee wants end to intersex sterilisation", 29 October 2013
- Gay Star News, "Australian Parliament committee releases intersex rights report", 28 October 2013
- Gay News Network, "Intersex advocates address findings of Senate Committee into involuntary sterilisation", 28 October 2013
- Morgan Carpenter: It's time to defend intersex rights, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, The Drum, 15 November 2013
- Zwartz, Barney (3 February 2006). "Church imperilled by gays: archbishop". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved 22 July 2007.
- "Church call to scrap gay union". News.com.au. 3 April 2006. Retrieved 3 September 2007.[dead link]
- "Pell backs discrimination against gays". Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
- Schubert, Misha (1 May 2008). "Battle lines drawn on gay unions". Brisbane Times. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
- "The Salt Shakers And Homosexuality". The Salt Shakers. Archived from the original on 3 May 2008. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
- Paine, Michelle (16 March 2006). "Church group challenged over 'negative' ads". News.com.au. Retrieved 3 September 2007.[dead link]
- Hackney, Peter (22 October 2008). "New anti-gay threat emerges". SX News. Retrieved 23 October 2008.
- "HOMOSEXUALITY AND THE CHURCH". Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- "Rabbis Permitted to Officiate at Same-Gender Commitment Ceremonies". Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- "Rabbis Marriage Equality Statement". Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- "Rabbis give strong support to same-sex marriage". Retrieved 16 September 2011.
History and Activism
- Australian Lesbian and Gay Archives
- Living Out Loud: A History of Gay and Lesbian Activism in Australia by Graham Willett, ISBN 1-86448-949-9, 2000.
- Mapping Homophobia In Australia Study
- Queen City of the South Melbourne Queer History radio series
Adoption and Parenting
- Gay Dads Australia Surrogacy Guide
- Same Sex Couple Adoption: The Situation in Canada and Australia Parliament of Australia
- NSW Law Reform Commission Report, 1988 – Artificial Conception: In Vitro Fertilization
- Same Sex Parenting by Paul Boers, Senior Associate of Dimocks Family Lawyers. FindLaw.com (April 2005)
- Marriage aside, what laws still discriminate against gays?
- Australia National Laws
- Federal and State Anti-Discrimination Law
- Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships Briefing Paper 9/2006 New South Wales Parliament
- World conference on LGBT rights
- Interdependency Visa: Offshore Temporary and Permanent (Subclasses 310 and 110)
- Sinnes, G.R. Australia Encyclopaedia of Homosexuality. Dynes, Wayne R. (ed.), Garland Publishing, 1990. pp. 93–97