Lebanon, New Hampshire

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Lebanon, New Hampshire
City
Buildings along Park Street in downtown Lebanon
Buildings along Park Street in downtown Lebanon
Official seal of Lebanon, New Hampshire
Seal
Location in Grafton County, New Hampshire
Location in Grafton County, New Hampshire
Coordinates: 43°38′32″N 72°15′06″W / 43.64222°N 72.25167°W / 43.64222; -72.25167Coordinates: 43°38′32″N 72°15′06″W / 43.64222°N 72.25167°W / 43.64222; -72.25167
Country United States
State New Hampshire
County Grafton
Incorporated 1761
Government
 • Mayor Georgia A. Tuttle
 • Assistant Mayor Steve Wood
 • City council Suzanne M. Prentiss
Bruce Bronner
Heather Vogel
Carol Dustin
Karen Liot Hill
Nicole Cormen
Erling Heistad
 • City Manager Gregory D. Lewis
Area
 • Total 41.4 sq mi (107.1 km2)
 • Land 40.4 sq mi (104.5 km2)
 • Water 1.0 sq mi (2.6 km2)  2.39%
Elevation 581 ft (177 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total 13,151
 • Density 320/sq mi (120/km2)
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 03766, 03784, 03756
Area code(s) 603
FIPS code 33-41300
GNIS feature ID 0867976
Website www.lebcity.com

Lebanon local /ˈlɛbənən/ is a city in Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 13,151 at the 2010 census.[1] Lebanon is located in western New Hampshire, south of Hanover, near the Connecticut River. It is the home to Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center and Dartmouth Medical School, together comprising the largest medical facility between Boston, Massachusetts and Burlington, Vermont.

Together with Hanover and White River Junction, Lebanon today is center of a Micropolitan Statistical Area, encompassing nearly 30 towns along the upper Connecticut River valley.

History[edit]

Lebanon was chartered as a town by Colonial Governor Benning Wentworth on July 4, 1761, one of 16 along the Connecticut River. It was named for Lebanon, Connecticut, from where many early settlers had come or would come, including the Rev. Eleazar Wheelock, who arrived in 1770 and founded Dartmouth College. Lebanon, Connecticut was the original home of Moor's Indian Charity School, the antecedent of Dartmouth College.

Early settlement concentrated along the Connecticut River in what is now West Lebanon, and along the Mascoma Lake region near Enfield. In the mid-19th century, a mill district developed at falls on the Mascoma River. Industries included, at various times, furniture mills, a tannery, several machine shops, a woolen textile mill and a clothing factory. In the mid-19th century, this district attracted many French workers from Canada's Quebec province. This became the center of town, although West Lebanon grew into a railroad hub with a separate identity after lines entered from Boston. This rail center would become known as Westboro after two trains collided when West Lebanon was mistaken for Lebanon.

The mill district, like the railroad, declined into the 1950s and 1960s. The town suffered two major fires; the second, in 1964, destroyed a large portion of the old mill district. Reconstruction resulted in a controversial urban renewal project featuring a closed-off district, called The Mall, built to replace the destroyed Hanover Street area. Partly in defiance of economic decline, and partly to counter a movement by West Lebanon to declare itself an independent town, Lebanon re-incorporated as a city in 1958.[citation needed]

The routing of Interstates 89 and 91 through Lebanon and nearby White River Junction, Vermont, in addition to the growth of Dartmouth College, led to the area's economic revival. The former mill town now has a mixed economy based on education, medical services, high-technology and retail. Just south of the village of West Lebanon, a major shopping district has sprung up at the intersection of Route 12A and I-89. Lebanon has undertaken improvements to its recreational facilities, including miles of hiking trails, a municipal ski area, a swimming pool and several sports fields.

In 1991, the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, along with most departments of Dartmouth Medical School, moved from Hanover to a new campus just south of the Lebanon-Hanover town line. A number of medical and high-tech firms have located facilities near the medical center campus. Tele Atlas, a leading worldwide developer of mapping databases, has its North American headquarters in Lebanon. Novell and Microsoft also have major facilities here, as does Merck, a result of their purchasing the Lebanon-based biotechnology company Glycofi.

Geography[edit]

Lebanon is located at 43°38′38″N 72°15′19″W / 43.64389°N 72.25528°W / 43.64389; -72.25528 (43.643897, -72.255242).[2]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 41.4 square miles (107 km2), of which 40.4 sq mi (105 km2) is land and 1.0 sq mi (2.6 km2) is water, comprising 2.39% of the city. The western boundary of Lebanon is the Connecticut River, which is also the state boundary with Vermont. The village of West Lebanon occupies the western part of the city, along the Connecticut River. Downtown Lebanon is 3 miles (5 km) to the east, along the Mascoma River, a tributary of the Connecticut. The city is fully within the Connecticut River watershed.[3] The southern end of Moose Mountain is in the northeast. The highest point in Lebanon is the northern end of Shaker Mountain, at 1,657 feet (505 m) above sea level, on the eastern border of the city.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 2,127
1860 2,322 9.2%
1870 3,094 33.2%
1880 3,354 8.4%
1890 3,703 10.4%
1900 4,965 34.1%
1910 5,718 15.2%
1920 6,162 7.8%
1930 7,073 14.8%
1940 7,590 7.3%
1950 8,495 11.9%
1960 9,299 9.5%
1970 9,725 4.6%
1980 11,134 14.5%
1990 12,183 9.4%
2000 12,568 3.2%
2010 13,151 4.6%
Crafts Avenue in 1912

As of the census[4] of 2000, there were 12,568 people, 5,500 households, and 3,178 families residing in the city. The population density was 311.4 people per square mile (120.2/km²). There were 5,707 housing units at an average density of 141.4 per square mile (54.6/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 94.38% White, 0.83% African American, 0.43% Native American, 2.67% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.41% from other races, and 1.26% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.64% of the population.

There were 5,500 households out of which 28.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.6% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 42.2% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.87.

In the city the population was spread out with 22.6% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 32.4% from 25 to 44, 22.7% from 45 to 64, and 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 89.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $42,185, and the median income for a family was $52,133. Males had a median income of $32,693 versus $27,086 for females. The per capita income for the city was $25,133. About 6.3% of families and 8.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.8% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over.

Education[edit]

Lebanon has its own elementary schools, junior high school, and high school. Students from neighboring towns (Grantham and Plainfield[5]) attend high school in Lebanon. On October 15, 2010, the city broke ground on a new middle school for grades 5-8 to replace an aging junior high facility and overcrowded elementary school facilities.[6] As of April 2012, the Middle School was "nearing completion", and the project is being finalized, with minor projects left, including "adding pavement..., resurfacing, and striping to allow turning lanes for the school traffic.",[7]

Located on the downtown pedestrian mall is Lebanon College, a community college offering two-year associates degrees and certificate programs. Also downtown, the Alliance for the Visual Arts (AVA) offers classes in arts and crafts in a LEED-certified former factory building, which houses a ground floor gallery space.

Transportation[edit]

Lebanon is served by Interstate 89, which meets Interstate 91 just across the Connecticut River in White River Junction. It is 58 miles (93 km) southeast along I-89 to Concord, the state capital, and 60 miles (97 km) northwest along I-89 to Montpelier, the capital of Vermont. U.S. Route 4 passes east-west through the centers of Lebanon and West Lebanon, leading east to Enfield and eventually Concord, and west towards Rutland, Vermont. New Hampshire Route 10 leads south from Lebanon along Interstate 89, eventually diverging to go to Newport. Route 10 leads north from West Lebanon into Hanover and points north along the Connecticut River. New Hampshire Route 120 passes north-south through downtown Lebanon, leading north into Hanover and south to Claremont. New Hampshire Route 12A begins in West Lebanon and heads south along the Connecticut River to Claremont. Near the eastern border of the city, New Hampshire Route 4A leaves US 4 to travel southeast towards Wilmot and central New Hampshire.

Lebanon Airport, adjacent to West Lebanon, has passenger service to Boston and New York City provided by Cape Air. Free public bus service for the major towns in the area including Lebanon is provided by Advance Transit, with weekday service to destinations such as Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center, shopping plazas in West Lebanon, the villages of Lebanon and West Lebanon, as well as Hanover and White River Junction.

Culture[edit]

Fountain on the village green, Colburn Park

Lebanon village is a cultural hub with attractions such as the Lebanon Opera House (in City Hall), the AVA Gallery, seasonal Farmers' Market and summer concerts on the green. Lebanon Public Library serves the main village, and the newly opened Kilton Public Library branch serves West Lebanon village. The Carter Community Building Association (CCBA) operates an after-school activity center for primary school children and a fitness center for teens and adults. Salt Hill Pub frequently features live musical performances.

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ United States Census Bureau, American FactFinder, 2010 Census figures. Retrieved March 23, 2011.
  2. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  3. ^ Foster, Debra H.; Batorfalvy, Tatianna N.; and Medalie, Laura (1995). Water Use in New Hampshire: An Activities Guide for Teachers. U.S. Department of the Interior and U.S. Geological Survey. 
  4. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ "Lebanon School District Information". Lebanon School District. Retrieved September 4, 2009. 
  6. ^ "Lebanon Middle School Project". Lebanon School District. Retrieved October 25, 2010. 
  7. ^ "Lebanon Middle School Project". Lebanon School District. Retrieved May 27, 2012. 
  8. ^ "Olympic Ski Jumping Team Named". US Ski Team. 20 January 2010. Retrieved 21 January 2010. 
  9. ^ Teaching of Presidents of the Church, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 2007, Salt Lake City, Utah

External links[edit]