Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark
|Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark|
OMD performing at Berlin Fashion Week, July 2010
|Also known as||OMD, Orchestral Manoeuvres, OMITD, Orch Man|
|Origin||Wirral Peninsula, England|
|Genres||New wave, synthpop, experimental, post-punk, dance-pop|
|Years active||1978–1996, 2006–present|
|Labels||100% Records, Virgin, Dindisc, Factory, Bright Antenna|
|Associated acts||The Id, Dalek I Love You, Godot, The Listening Pool, Atomic Kitten, Onetwo|
|Past members||Dave Hughes
Sequential Circuits Prophet-5
Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark (OMD) are a British electronic music group formed in 1978, whose founding members, Andy McCluskey (vocals, bass guitar) and Paul Humphreys (keyboards, vocals), are originally from Wirral, England. While steadily eschewing pop star status, the band cultivated a fanbase in the United Kingdom from 1978–1980. They gained popularity throughout Europe with 1980 hit single "Enola Gay", and achieved broader recognition via seminal album Architecture & Morality (1981)[a] and its singles. OMD's output was marked by its experimentalism, incorporating shrewd synthesizer hooks and an intellectual depth beyond that of the group's peers.
Although retrospectively lauded, the sonically challenging Dazzle Ships (1983) eroded European consumer interest during the mid 1980s and prompted a shift toward more pop-oriented, but still adventurous, songwriting. Concurrently, OMD reached their peak in the United States and had a major hit with 1986's "If You Leave", written for the film Pretty in Pink. Humphreys departed in 1989 with Martin Cooper (various instruments) and Malcolm Holmes (drums) to form The Listening Pool, leaving McCluskey to lead the outfit; Sugar Tax (1991) and its initial singles were sizeable hits in Europe. By the mid 1990s, however, synthpop had become unfashionable amid the guitar oriented musical climate, and McCluskey dissolved the band in 1996, months after their last successful single, "Walking on the Milky Way". He founded girl group Atomic Kitten in 1998.
The ensemble reformed in 2006 and began releasing new material in 2009: History of Modern (2010) became their biggest hit on the German chart; English Electric (2013) their largest in the UK since Sugar Tax. The band sold 15 million records between 1979 and 1986, with more than 40 million sold to date. Despite their success, OMD have generally existed outwith the realm of mainstream media acceptance, rendering them as something of a cult act. The group have nonetheless carved a unique legacy as a pioneering and influential act within popular music, and have been hailed by several critics as the synthpop counterpart of the Beatles. The Quietus magazine editor John Doran once remarked: "Orchestral Manouevres in the Dark are not one of the best synth bands ever: they are one of the best bands ever."
- 1 Early roots (1975–1978)
- 2 Formation and first releases (1978–1979)
- 3 Classic line-up (1980–1989)
- 4 Split and McCluskey-led OMD (1989–1996)
- 5 Reformation (2006–present)
- 6 Legacy
- 7 Personnel
- 8 Discography
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Early roots (1975–1978)
Founders Andy McCluskey and Paul Humphreys met at primary school in Meols on the Wirral Peninsula, in the early 1960s, and in the mid-1970s, as teenagers, they were involved in different local groups but shared a distaste for guitar driven rock with a macho attitude popular among their friends at the time.
By 1975 McCluskey had formed Equinox, as bassist and vocalist, alongside schoolmate Malcolm Holmes on drums, while Humphreys was their roadie. During that time McCluskey and Humphreys discovered their electronic style influenced by Kraftwerk. After Equinox, McCluskey joined Pegasus, and, later, the short-lived Hitlerz Underpantz, alongside Humphreys. McCluskey would usually sing and play bass guitar, whilst electronics enthusiast Humphreys initially began as a roadie, graduating to keyboards. The pair shared a love of electronic music, particularly Brian Eno and Kraftwerk.
In September 1977, McCluskey and Humphreys put together the seven-piece (three singers, two guitarists, bassist, drummer, and keyboard player) Wirral 'supergroup' The Id, whose line-up included drummer Malcolm Holmes and McCluskey's girlfriend Julia Kneale on vocals. The group began to gig regularly in the Merseyside area, performing original material (largely written by McCluskey and Humphreys). They had quite a following on the scene, and one of their tracks ("Julia's Song") was included on a compilation record of local bands called Street to Street. Meanwhile, Humphreys & McCluskey collaborated on a side-project called VCL XI (named after a misreading of a valve from the diagram on the back cover of Kraftwerk's Radio-Activity album; the name of valve is actually written with Arabic numbers, VCL 11, and not Roman numerals). This side-project allowed them to pursue their more bizarre electronic experiments, often working with tape collages, home-made kit-built synthesizers, and circuit-bent radios.
Formation and first releases (1978–1979)
In September 1978, the same month he left Dalek I Love You, McCluskey rejoined Humphreys and their VCL XI project was renamed Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark. The name was gleaned from a list of song lyrics and ideas that were written on McCluskey's bedroom wall. They began to gig regularly as a duo, performing to backing tracks played from a Teac 4 track tape-recorder christened "Winston" (after the antihero of George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-four). Their debut performance was in October 1978 at Eric's Club in Liverpool. Finding themselves on the cusp of an electronic new wave in British pop-music, they released a one-off single, "Electricity", with celebrated independent label Factory Records. The track was supposed to be produced by the legendary Factory Records producer Martin Hannett. In fact, the A-side was the band's original demo produced by their friend, owner of Winston and soon to be manager, Paul Collister under the pseudonym Chester Valentino (taken from a nightclub called Valentino's in the nearby city of Chester). The single's sleeve was designed by Peter Saville, whose distinctive graphics provided OMD's public image well into the mid-1980s. The unusual graphics that feature on the sleeve were partially inspired by Andy and Paul's original musical notation style. Unable to read or write music, they adapted a series of symbols, each one representing different instruments.
In 1979 they were asked to support Gary Numan on his first major British tour. They were always grateful to Numan for his help and support. He let them travel on his bus and use his trucks to transport their gear. They returned the favour some 13 years later when they asked Numan to support them on their arena tour in the mid-1990s.
Classic line-up (1980–1989)
The eponymous first album (1980) showcased the band's live set at the time, and was basically recorded by the Humphreys/McCluskey duo, although included some guest drums from Id drummer Malcolm Holmes, and saxophone from Wirral musician Martin Cooper. It had a simple, raw, poppy, melodic synthpop sound. Dindisc arranged for the song "Messages" to be re-recorded (produced by Gong bassist Mike Howlett) and released as a single (right) – this gave the band their first hit. Dave Hughes, a founder member of Dalek I Love You who joined OMD in early 1980, is featured in the "Messages" video.
A tour followed, Winston the tape recorder was augmented with live drums from Malcolm Holmes, and Dalek I Love You's Dave Hughes on synths. Hughes then left OMD in November 1980, replaced by Martin Cooper.
The second album Organisation (perhaps a reference to the band which preceded Kraftwerk, founded by Kraftwerk's original members Florian Schneider-Esleben and Ralf Hütter) followed later that year, recorded as a three-piece with Humphreys, McCluskey and Holmes. It was again produced by Howlett, and had a rather moodier, dark feel. The album spawned the hit single "Enola Gay", named after the plane that dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima. The song was intended to be included on the debut album, but was left out at the final selection, which may explain why the song is somewhat at odds with the darker feel of the second album. The tour for this album had a 4-piece band line-up, with saxophonist Martin Cooper (another Dalek I Love You alumnus) recruited for keyboard duties. In early 1981, Record Mirror named OMD as the fourth best band of 1980; NME and Sounds both named the group as one of the 10 best new acts of that year.
Howlett then presided over the recording of a further hit single, "Souvenir", co-written by Cooper & Humphreys. It ushered in a lush choral electronic sound. The song also became OMD's biggest hit to date. In November 1981, their most commercially successful album was released in the UK and Europe – Architecture & Morality (which was also a success in Canada). The group went into the studio with Richard Mainwaring producing. Cooper then temporarily dropped out and was replaced by Mike Douglas, but this change was reversed by the time the album was released and a tour embarked upon. The album's sound saw OMD's original synth-pop sound augmented by the Mellotron, an instrument previously associated with prog rock bands. They used it to add very atmospheric swatches of string, choir and other sounds to their palette. Two more hit singles "Joan of Arc" and "Maid of Orleans" (which became the most successful single of 1982 in Germany) were taken from the album, which eventually sold more than 4 million copies. "Joan of Arc" and "Maid of Orleans" were originally both titled "Joan of Arc"; the name of the latter single was changed at the insistence of the publishers and to avoid confusion. It became "Joan of Arc (Maid of Orleans)" and later simply "Maid of Orleans".
In 1983 the band lost commercial momentum somewhat, with the release of their more experimental Dazzle Ships album, which mixed melancholy synth ballads and uptempo synthpop with musique concrète and short wave radio tape collages. It was recorded by the 4-piece Humphreys/Holmes/Cooper/McCluskey line-up, and produced by Rhett Davies. Its relative commercial failure caused a crisis of confidence for Humphreys and McCluskey and brought about a deliberate move towards the mainstream.
Pop-oriented recordings (1984–1988)
1984's Junk Culture represented a shift to a poppier sound and the band used digital sampling keyboards such as the Fairlight CMI and the E-mu Emulator. The album was a success, reassuring the group about their new direction. The "Locomotion" single returned the band to the top five in the UK and was a good indicator of their new sound, notably the adoption of a classic verse–chorus form, which is something the group had often previously avoided. Despite this more commercially friendly direction, OMD retained much of their musically adventurous spirit; the new sound provoked a mixed critical reaction.
In 1985, the band expanded to a sextet, featuring new band members Graham Weir (guitar, keyboards, trombone) and Neil Weir (trumpet, bass guitar), and released Crush, produced by Stephen Hague in Paris and New York. The success of the single "So in Love" in the US Hot 100 also led to some success for the LP which entered the American Top 40, establishing the group in the US and making Stephen Hague a sought-after producer.
Later in 1985 the band was asked to write a song for the John Hughes film Pretty in Pink. They selected "Goddess of Love". The ending of the flick was re shot. After the song received a negative reaction from test groups OMD wrote "If You Leave" in less than 24 hours and it became a huge hit in Australia, the US and Canada where it reached the Top 5. The same six piece line-up also released The Pacific Age in 1986, but the band began to see their critical and public popularity wane in the UK while they failed to capitalise upon their breakthrough in the US market. The Pacific Age contained the UK No. 11 hit single, "(Forever) Live and Die" and other notable single releases, "Shame" and "We Love You". The success of "If You Leave" has concealed the group's history of making innovative music. OMD scored a top 20 US hit with "Dreaming", taken from 1988 compilation album The Best of OMD.
Split and McCluskey-led OMD (1989–1996)
During 1988 the band appeared poised to consolidate their US success, with a support slot for Depeche Mode's 101 tour at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California on 18 June 1988, and recent US successes with "Dreaming" and their best of album. However, it was at this point when OMD broke in two. Graham and Neil Weir left at the end of the 1989 US tour and co-founder Paul Humphreys subsequently called it a day, unhappy with the band's commercial orientation. Finally, Cooper, and Holmes left OMD by 1990 to join Humphreys in founding a new band called The Listening Pool.
This left only McCluskey to carry on, essentially becoming a solo artist working under the OMD banner. He began recording music in the dance-pop genre: the first album from the new OMD was the Sugar Tax LP in 1991, which charted at No. 3 in the UK. McCluskey recruited Liverpool musicians Lloyd Massett and Stuart Kershaw as collaborators on Sugar Tax, though not as full-fledged group members — writing credits carefully distinguished between songs written by OMD (i.e., McCluskey) and songs written by OMD/Kershaw/Massett. This iteration of the group was initially successful with hits like "Sailing on the Seven Seas" and "Pandora's Box", with lesser success on fellow chart entries, "Call My Name" and "Then You Turn Away".
McCluskey worked with keyboardists Nigel Ipinson and Phil Coxon for the album Liberator (1993). Liberator's 5th track "Dream Of Me" was built around a sample from "Love's Theme" by Love Unlimited Orchestra, a track which was written and produced by Barry White. In order to release the "Dream of Me" track as an OMD single, however, McCluskey had to agree that the single release of the track would remove the actual "Love's Theme" sample, but still be officially titled "Dream of Me (Based on Love's Theme)", and furthermore would still give sole writing credit to White.
McCluskey returned with a rotating cast of musicians for the 1996 album Universal. As with Liberator, Humphreys made songwriting contributions to the record.
Though both Liberator and Universal produced minor hits and the latter also spawned their first Top 20 hit in five years with "Walking On The Milky Way", McCluskey retired the OMD name in late 1996, due to waning public interest. A second singles album was released in 1998, and an EP of remixed material by such acts as Sash! and Moby.
Post-1996, McCluskey decided to focus on songwriting for such Liverpool based acts as Atomic Kitten and The Genie Queen, and trying to develop new Merseyside artists from his Motor Museum recording studio. With McCluskey focusing his talents elsewhere, Humphreys decided to work with his new musical partner Claudia Brücken, of the ZTT bands Propaganda and Act, as Onetwo. He also undertook a US live tour under the banner Paul Humphreys from OMD.
An unexpected request to perform from a German Television show and McCluskey's divorce led the group to reform. On 1 January 2006, Andy McCluskey announced plans to reform OMD with the McCluskey, Humphreys, Holmes and Cooper line-up. The original plan was to tour the album Architecture & Morality and other pre-1983 material, then record a new album set for release in 2007.
In May 2007, the Architecture & Morality remastered CD was re-released together with a DVD featuring the Drury Lane concert from 1981 that had previously been available on VHS. Through May and June, the band toured with the "classic" line up of McCluskey, Humphreys, Holmes and Cooper. They began their set with a re-ordered but otherwise complete re-staging of the Architecture & Morality album. The second half of each concert featured a selection of their best known hits.
In Spring 2008, a live CD and DVD of the 2007 tour, OMD Live: Architecture & Morality & More, recorded at the London Hammersmith Apollo, was released as was a 25th anniversary re-release of Dazzle Ships, including six bonus tracks. At the same time, a brief October 2008 tour was announced, partly to tie-in with the Dazzle Ships album's 25th anniversary. China Crisis supported OMD on this tour.
In June 2009, an orchestral concert with the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic was given in Liverpool. A recording of this concert was released on DVD in December 2009. In November and December, the band returned to arena touring as support for Simple Minds. OMD performed with Night of the Proms in December 2006 in Germany and later again in Belgium and the Netherlands in October and November 2009.
OMD were also the headline act at Britain's first Vintage Computer Festival at The National Museum of Computing, Bletchley Park, in June 2010. On 9 July 2010, OMD were invited by the German designer Michael Michalsky to perform at his Stylenite event during Berlin Fashion Week.
In March 2011, OMD played their first North American tour as the original line up since 1988. In September 2011, the band appeared at the Electric Picnic 2011 festival in Stradbally, Co Laois, Ireland. In November 2011, OMD announced they were getting back to the studio to start work on their latest album, English Electric.
On 11 February 2013, OMD announced "Metroland" would be the first single from the forthcoming album English Electric. The single was released on 25 March, and includes the B-side "The Great White Silence."
The album English Electric was released in the UK on 8 April and entered the UK album chart at No. 12 and the German chart at No. 10. Reviews for both the album and their concerts have generally been positive.
For Record Store Day 2013, on 20 April, a 500-copy limited edition 10-inch picture disc EP "The Future Will Be Silent" from English Electric was made available, which includes an exclusive non-album track titled "Time Burns".
Popularity and perception
In recent years, several music critics have written about OMD's standing within popular music history, with the group being routinely described as the synthpop counterpart of the Beatles. In February 2007 a Scotsman journalist said: "If Kraftwerk were the Elvis Presley of synthpop, then Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark were its Beatles. The Merseyside duo were successful before the Human League, Depeche Mode, Yazoo, Soft Cell and Associates. They even beat Gary Numan, the Cliff Richard of the piece: his first hit, 'Are 'Friends' Electric?', was released a month after OMD's debut single, 'Electricity'." The Quietus magazine editor John Doran in September 2008 wrote: "OMD are the only Liverpool band to come near to living up to the monolithic standards of productivity and creativity set in place by the Beatles...if you want to chose one Merseyside band who combined an industrious ethic, a combination of the pop and the avant-garde and an undeniable gift for melody and emotional evocation, then OMD are your band." Doran asserted: "Orchestral Manouevres in the Dark are not one of the best synth bands ever: they are one of the best bands ever." Veteran BBC DJ Simon Mayo in September 2013 described OMD as "the fathers of electronic music in this country [the UK]."
Although OMD have enjoyed chart success throughout their career, the group reject celebrity status and present no outward image; their experimental and intellectual brand of synthpop has also been known to garner little mainstream airplay. The group often eschew choruses, replacing them with synthesizer lines, and opt for "lyrical subjects that are not the usual pop music fodder." Bob Stanley of Saint Etienne, in an article for The Guardian remarked: "It wasn't as though OMD wrote conventional love songs...'Enola Gay' was famously about Hiroshima, 'Stanlow' about a power station." Even after a shift to more pop-oriented songwriting following the disappointing sales of the sonically challenging – but retrospectively lauded – Dazzle Ships (1983), OMD continued to innovate in their most commercially friendly form. As such, they are not a household name; McCluskey in 2010 opined that OMD had become "the forgotten band" (he had predicted in 1981, at the peak of the group's popularity, that they would soon be forgotten). The ensemble have nonetheless maintained a loyal cult following, and their latter studio output, tours and music festival appearances have resulted in renewed commercial attention; they have been booked to headline various festivals in the 2010s. Throughout their career, the band have been supported by such popular acts as Gary Numan, Joy Division, Howard Jones, Cocteau Twins, China Crisis, and former Ultravox frontman John Foxx with his group the Maths; and have themselves supported the likes of Numan, Joy Division, Depeche Mode and Talking Heads (with a young U2 playing before OMD).
OMD have come to be regarded as one of the great Liverpool acts of the 1980s, and pioneers of the synthpop genre. Their albums Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark (1980), Architecture & Morality (1981) and Dazzle Ships (1983) have been hailed as seminal records within popular music, with Architecture & Morality selling more than 4 million copies by early 2007; Sugar Tax (1991) had sold more than 3 million by the same time period. The group regularly features on 1980s compilation albums and box sets; multiple OMD tracks feature on each of the three volumes of Ministry of Sound's Anthems: Electronic 80s series.
There were several fanzines about the band, including Winston and the successful Telegraph, (which McCluskey was involved in) that were active during the post-split period. Telegraph designed by Paul Browne in partnership with Phillip Marsh folded in 1994 after 5 issues. Browne went on to run OMD's website and an official magazine called Messages.
Reaction to pop-oriented era
In response to the commercially underwhelming Dazzle Ships, the group moved toward a more radio-friendly sound in the mid 1980s – while continuing to incorporate experimentalism – which polarised critics. Retrospective opinions are also mixed, with some journalists dismissing the band's recordings during that time, and others expressing an appreciation for the new direction. In 2006, Sean O'Neal in The A.V. Club quoted a line from Dazzle Ships track "Silent Running", wherein the narrator feels "like a man who's about to give up for good". O'Neal wrote: "judging by OMD's output post-Dazzle Ships, he [McCluskey] did." The Quietus writer Julian Marszalek in 2010 suggested that the group would have been "more fondly remembered and respected" had they split up after releasing that album, rather than in 1996. Conversely, Marszalek's colleague John Doran argued that it had become fashionable to criticise the band's later 20th century music. In 2008 he said: "It's quite popular to see OMD as nose-diving into the effluence after Dazzle Ships but the truth is there is still much to recommend". Ian Peel, in a piece written for Record Collector that same year, unashamedly praised the group's poppier efforts. He opined that OMD's legacy consisted of "two brilliant, but very different, bands. Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, the early 80s Factory descendents who sampled blast furnaces and the Stanlow oil refinery; and OMD, the late 80s stadium pop act who defied expectations by updating their sound and becoming, if only briefly, relevant in the 90s." Their recent work – particularly English Electric (2013) – has been seen as more akin to their early output.
Influence on other artists
OMD have influenced many recording artists. Vince Clarke of Erasure (formerly chief songwriter of Depeche Mode, Yazoo and The Assembly) has cited the band as one of his primary inspirations, with their song "Electricity" being the track that moved him to pursue a career in electronic music. Howard Jones has noted that he has "a lot of affection for OMD", and would perform a cover of "Enola Gay" – which he has described as "one of my favourite tracks" – during early shows. Other 1980s groups who were OMD followers include: the Pet Shop Boys, A-ha, Berlin, Nine Inch Nails, Naked Eyes, Talk Talk, and Freur, who were led by future Underworld members Karl Hyde and Rick Smith. In recent years, the band have been cited as an influence by modern artists such as: The Killers, Moby, La Roux, Robyn, Bob Stanley and Pete Wiggs of Saint Etienne, Glasvegas, Chris Walla of Death Cab for Cutie, The xx, Hurts, LCD Soundsystem, Steven Wilson of Porcupine Tree, Owen Pallett, Gravenhurst and Telekinesis, who has named Dazzle Ships as his all-time favourite album. Dazzle Ships was described by Ian Wade in The Quietus as "deeply influential"; it has also been championed by performers like Mark Ronson and Terre Thaemlitz. Critics in prominent music publications have written that OMD influenced acts such as U2, Depeche Mode, Blake Lewis and Mirrors, as well as Radiohead, whose albums OK Computer (1997) and Kid A (2000) are seen to have been heavily impacted by Dazzle Ships. Rock group ZZ Top, who shared a studio with OMD on a 1980 edition of BBC2 show The Old Grey Whistle Test, became loyal fans of the band, playing OMD's self-titled debut album over the PA prior to concerts and adopting McCluskey's distinctive on-stage routine – dubbed by the BBC's Stuart Maconie as the "Trainee Teacher Dance".
The band's work has been covered or remixed by chart musicians including: David Guetta, Sash!, Moby, Steve "Silk" Hurley, Good Charlotte, Scooter, White Town, Nada Surf, NOFX, 3rd Bass and John Foxx. The 2001 album, Messages: Modern Synthpop Artists Cover OMD, comprises interpretations by various artists, such as The Faint, Color Theory and Ganymede. Pretending to See the Future: A Tribute to OMD, also a 2001 release, features covers by Mahogany, the Acid House Kings and Majestic, among others.
- Current members
- Andy McCluskey – vocals, bass guitar, keyboards (1978–1996; 2005–present)
- Paul Humphreys – vocals, keyboards (1978–1989; 2005–present)
- Malcolm Holmes – drums and percussion (1978–1989; 2005–present)
- Martin Cooper – keyboards, saxophone (1980–1989; 2005–present)
- Former members
- Dave Hughes – keyboards (1979–1980)
- Michael Douglas – keyboards (1980–1981)
- Neil Weir – brass, keyboards, bass guitar (1984–1989)
- Graham Weir – guitar, brass, keyboards, writer (1984–1989)
- Abe Juckes – drums (1991–1992)
- Nigel Ipinson – keyboards (1991–1993)
- Phil Coxon – keyboards (1991–1993)
- Stuart Kershaw – drums (1993), piano (2010)
- Studio albums
- Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark (1980)
- Organisation (1980)
- Architecture & Morality (1981)
- Dazzle Ships (1983)
- Junk Culture (1984)
- Crush (1985)
- The Pacific Age (1986)
- Sugar Tax (1991)
- Liberator (1993)
- Universal (1996)
- History of Modern (2010)
- English Electric (2013)
- "The Future, the Past and Forever After". Athens Voice. 24 November 2010.
- "OMD, Diamond Rings". Salt Lake City Weekly. Copperfield Publishing. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- Turner, Andy (6 April 2013). "Reinvigorated OMD go back to the future". Coventry Telegraph. Trinity Mirror. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- "This tour is part of an evil master plan". Cambridge News. Local World. 21 June 2007. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Liberator review". AllMusic. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
- DeGagne, Mike. "The Best of OMD review". AllMusic. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- "OMG it's OMD!". BBC News. 20 September 2010. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- Bergstrom, John (17 April 2008"Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark: Dazzle Ships Review". PopMatters. Retrieved 3 October 2009. "[S]tarting with 1984's Junk Culture, OMD morphed from a risk-taking art-pop band to the still-inventive but commercially calculating act that found American success.").
- Raggett, Ned. Junk Culture review. AllMusic. Retrieved 12 November 2013. "Junk Culture was no sacrifice of ideals in pursuit of cash...[at] points the more adventurous side of the band steps up."
- Waller; Humphreys, p. 164
- Macleod, Ewan (18 August 1996). "Bite Back; How Handy Andy Beat a £1m Debt". Sunday Mail. TheFreeLibrary.com. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
- "Interview: Andy McCluskey, OMD". PRS for Music Online Magazine. 19 March 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- Lester, Paul (7 April 2013). "OMD's return to the lighter side". The Express. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "252-281: The '80s". 501 Lost Songs (NME): 53. 2011.
- Hoong, Yong Shu (3 March 2012). "Duran Duran and OMD revive disco fever". AsiaOne. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Cubarrubia, RJ (15 April 2013). "OMD Marvel Over Synthpop's Growing Fanbase". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- See: Legacy.
- Doran, John (25 September 2008). "Messages - Greatest Hits". The Quietus. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
- Taylor, Paul. Popular Music Since 1955. Mansell Pub., 1985. ISBN 0-7201-1727-5, ISBN 978-0-7201-1727-1
- Lindgren, Hugo (10 May 2013). "The Plot Against Rock". The New York Times Magazine. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
- "Page Title". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
- Link2Wales: PQ.
- "Liverpool: H". link2wales.co.uk. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
- "OMD | Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark | home". Omd.uk.com. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
- Pete Frame's Rock Family Tree
- [dead link]
- "OMD | Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark | discography". Omd.uk.com. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
- "Q&A: OMD's Paul Humphreys Talks Reformation, The Return of Intelligent Music and Being in Hitler's Underpants". Retrieved 2011-03-24.
- West, p. 26
- Waller; Humphreys, p. 132
- Dream of me vs. Love's Theme.
- "OMD News: November 2009". 25 November 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2009.
- "Trevor Horn • The Buggles – The Lost Gig – 28.09.10". Trevorhorn.com. 28 September 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
- "Trevor Horn • OMD to support The Buggles on 28.09.10". Trevorhorn.com. 28 September 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
- "OMD News: August 2009". Retrieved 21 August 2009.
- "OMD Blog: Next Album". Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- "Coachella Lineup". Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- "Metroland Pre-Order". Official OMD website. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- "OMD News – Record Store Day". Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "OMD debuts new track "Night Café", announces 10-inch EP for Record Store Day". Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Orchestral leap in the dark". The Scotsman. The Scotsman Publications. 3 February 2007. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- O'Neal, Sean (29 July 2008). "Paul Humphreys of Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- "OMD's return to the lighter side". Express. Express Newspapers. 7 April 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
- "OMD". Simon Mayo Drivetime. 23 September 2013. 77 minutes in. BBC Radio 2. British Broadcasting Corporation.
- "Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark". BBC Breakfast. 13 September 2010. BBC One. British Broadcasting Corporation. "We [OMD] were trying to have no image."
- Fiddler, Michelle (2 May 2008). "Homecoming gig for OMD; Electro pop duo to take city by storm.". Liverpool Echo. The Free Library. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Stanley, Bob. How to lose 3 million fans in one easy step. The Guardian. 7 March 2008. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
- West, p. 31
- Power, Ed (21 May 2013). "Reunion sparks renewed synths of purpose". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Cheshire, Tom (17 June 2010). "OMG it's OMD! At Bletchley Park!". Wired UK. Retrieved 13 November 2013. "OMD will be headlining the Vintage Computer Festival at Bletchley Park, the first VCF in Britain, held 19 - 20 June."
- "OMD to headline Flashback Festival". OMD.uk.com. 20 December 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2013. "OMD have been confirmed as the headliner of the Flashback Festival at Clumber Park in Nottinghamshire, UK. The event takes place on Saturday 18th August 2012."
- "OMD to headline Rewind Festival in Henley". OMD.uk.com. 25 January 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2013. "We're [OMD] delighed to announce our headline set at the Rewind Festival at Henley. We will be playing on Sunday 19th August."
- "The Human League To Close Rewind Scotland 2013". Rewind Festival. 22 July 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2013. "Following the news that OMD will no longer be performing at the festival this Sunday 28th July due to illness, we have been working long and hard to find a suitable replacement for your Sunday night closing act. We are delighted to confirm that The Human League will take to the Rewind Scotland stage on Sunday evening in place of OMD, to close the festival in synth-pop style."
- Goodwin, Paul (July 2004). "Andy McCluskey interview". Gary Numan - Numanme. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- OMD with Joy Division and A Certain Ratio. The Limit Club. Sheffield. 5 July, 1979.
- "History". HowardJones.com. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- Tortorici, Frank (29 August 1998). "Cocteau Twins' Elizabeth Fraser". MTV.com. MTV Networks. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- "And Another Thing: also in the East Midlands this weekend". Metro. DMG Media. 2 October 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- Evans, Max (22 April 2013). "John Foxx & The Maths Remix OMD". The Quietus. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- Joy Division with A Certain Ratio and OMD. The Factory/Russell Club. Manchester. 11 May, 1979.
- Joy Division with A Certain Ratio and OMD. Acklam Hall. London. 17 May, 1979.
- Freeman, John (25 October 2012). "A Strange Love: Depeche Mode's Music For The Masses Revisited". The Quietus. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- Waller; Humphreys, p. 59
- Hickling, Alfred. The Electric Hills. The Guardian. 19 March 2007. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- Jeffries, David. "English Electric review". AllMusic. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Michaels, Sean (21 May 2010). "OMD announce first studio album in 14 years". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Bray, Elisa (5 April 2013). "Our friends electric: Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark". The Independent. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Gaston, Peter (16 August 2010). "EXCLUSIVE: New Song from Synth Pop Legends OMD". Spin. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- See: Reception and legacy of Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, Reception and legacy of Architecture & Morality and Reception and legacy of Dazzle Ships.
- McGuane, Kenny S. (June 19 2013). "Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark". Under the Radar. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- Various – Anthems: Electronic 80s at Discogs.
- Various – Anthems: Electronic 80s 2 at Discogs.
- Various – Anthems: Electronic 80s 3 at Discogs.
- O'Neal, Sean (26 December 2006"Permanent Records: Albums From The A.V. Club's Hall Of Fame". Wayback Machine. The A.V. Club. Retrieved 11 December 2013.).
- Marszalek, Julian (7 October 2010"OMG It's OMD! Orchestral Manoeuvres In The Dark Interviewed". The Quietus. Retrieved 5 December 2013.).
- Peel, Ian. "Messages: Greatest Hits". Record Collector. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
- Bergstrom, John (9 April 2013). "OMD: English Electric". PopMatters. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- Green, Laurence (6 April 2013). "OMD – English Electric". musicOMH. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- "Synth Britannia (Part Two: Construction Time Again)". Britannia. 16 October 2009. 4 minutes in. BBC Four. British Broadcasting Corporation. "When I first started playing synthesizers it [my inspiration] would have been people like The Human League; Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, their very first album; I was a big fan of Daniel Miller's work, as the Silicon Teens and as The Normal; and also of Fad Gadget, who was on Mute Records."
- "Erasure". The O-Zone. 29 November 1995. 8 minutes in. BBC 2. British Broadcasting Corporation. "When I was 18 or 19 I heard a single called 'Electricity' by Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark. It sounded so different from anything I'd heard; that really made me want to make electronic music, 'cause it was so unique."
- Lai, Chi Ming (11 December 2011). "Howard Jones". The Electricity Club. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark". BBC Breakfast. 16 May 2012. BBC One. British Broadcasting Corporation. "...[A]rtists like La Roux and The Killers, both of whom have cited our next guests as one of their influences."
- OMD to perform in SA. The Sunday Times (South Africa). 28 June 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- Wright, Jade. OMD: 30 years on, from Eric’s to the ECHO arena. Liverpool Echo. 24 September 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- Partridge, Kenneth (19 March 2011"Moby Rocks with O.M.D. at SXSW". Spinner. Regator. Retrieved 19 September 2013.).
- "OMD rediscover the art of 80's noise". The Herald. Newsquest. 6 April 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- Ware, Gareth (4 March 2013). "OMD: Of All The Thing We've Made: Dazzle Ships At 30". This Is Fake DIY. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
- Harward, Randy (18 August 2011). "Death Cab for Cutie: The concepts behind Codes & Keys". Salt Lake City Weekly. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Wilson, Steven (17 September 2012). "Steven Wilson: my top 5 not-so-guilty pleasures of all time". MusicRadar. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- "Owen Pallett – Live in Singapore". Power of Pop. 19 December 2010. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Doran, John (11 March 2013). "Melancholy Euphoria: A Heterotic Interview & Full Album Stream". The Quietus. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Lerner, Michael (23 April 2013). "OMD". TheTalkhouse. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- Wade, Ian (8 April 2013). "Souvenirs: Andy McCluskey Of OMD's Favourite Albums". The Quietus. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- Ryzik, Melena (1 October 2010). "An Admirer of Tight Production, But of Sludge, Too". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Johannsen, Finn (31 August 2009). "Rewind: Terre Thaemlitz on Dazzle Ships by OMD". Sounds Like Me. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Hiatt, Brian (22 January 2009). "U2 Break Down 'No Line on the Horizon'". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 23 October 2009. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Bergstrom, John (1 October 2010"Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark: History of Modern". PopMatters. Retrieved 2 July 2013.).
- "Review: American Idol top 12 party". Variety (magazine). 7 March 2008. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- Goodwin, Stuart (7 August 2010). "This week's festival news". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- Raggett, Ned. "Dazzle Ships review". AllMusic. Retrieved 3 October 2009.
- Bergstrom, John (17 April 2008"Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark: Dazzle Ships Review". PopMatters. Retrieved 3 October 2009.).
- Weber, Theon (13 March 2007"On First Listen: Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark". Stylus. Retrieved 21 June 2013.).
- Waller; Humphreys, p. 70
- Fulton, Rick (12 May 2013). "Manoeuvring back on scene". Sunday Mail. The Free Library. Retrieved 29 November 2013. "Fans love your distinctive dancing, which Stuart Maconie called the 'Trainee Teacher Dance'."
- Orchestral Manoeuvres In The Dark – The OMD Singles at Discogs.
- OMD – Brides Of Frankenstein at Discogs.
- Various – Not Another Teen Movie - Music From The Motion Picture at Discogs ("If You Leave").
- Scooter – Jumping All Over The World at Discogs ("Enola Gay").
- Messages: Modern Synthpop Artists Cover OMD. AllMusic. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- Various – Music From The OC: Mix 2 at Discogs ("If You Leave").
- NOFX – 45 Or 46 Songs That Weren't Good Enough To Go On Our Other Records at Discogs ("Electricity").
- Third Bass – Maid Of Orleans at Discogs.
- Raggett, Ned. Pretending to See the Future: A Tribute to OMD review. AllMusic. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- Waller, Johnny; Humphreys, Mike. Messages. Sidgwick & Jackson. 1987. ISBN 0-283-99234-4
- West, Mike. Orchestral Manoeuvres In The Dark. Omnibus Press. 1982. ISBN 0-7119-0149X
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Category:Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark.|
- Official website
- Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark on Twitter
- Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark on Facebook
- Theartsdesk Q&A: Andy McCluskey of OMD (23 October 2010)
- Yuzu Melodies Q&A: Andy McCluskey of OMD (May 2013)