Rose Bowl (stadium)
Main South entrance in 2008, prior to the 2011 renovation
|Location||1001 Rose Bowl Drive, Pasadena, California, U.S. 91103|
|Owner||City of Pasadena|
|Operator||Rose Bowl Operating Company|
|Capacity||92,542 – UCLA Bruins Football
94,392 – Rose Bowl Game (2010)
|Record attendance||106,869 1973 Rose Bowl|
|Opened||October 8, 1922
Rose Bowl game – January 1, 1923
|Construction cost||$272,198 USD
($3.84 million in 2014 dollars)
Rose Bowl Game (Tournament of Roses)
Rose Bowl, The
Rose Bowl, panorama during UCLA-Arizona football game
|Location||1001 Rose Bowl Drive, Pasadena, California|
|NRHP Reference #||87000755|
|Added to NRHP||February 27, 1987|
|Designated NHL||February 27, 1987|
The Rose Bowl is an outdoor athletic stadium in Pasadena, California, U.S., in Los Angeles County. The stadium is the home field of the football team from UCLA and the site of the annual college football bowl game, the Rose Bowl, held on New Year's Day. It hosted events during the 1932 and 1984 Olympics, and was the venue for the 1994 FIFA World Cup Final and the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup Final, as well as five Super Bowl games. From 1999 until 2014, the Rose Bowl served as one of four host stadiums for the national championship game in the Bowl Championship Series. Beginning with the 2014-15 season, the stadium will serve as one of six stadiums that will serve as semi-final game sites in the College Football Playoff.
The natural grass playing field runs in a north–south configuration and sits at an elevation of 825 feet (251 m) above sea level. The stadium is a National Historic Landmark and a California Historic Civil Engineering Landmark.
- 1 History
- 2 Football at the Rose Bowl
- 3 Soccer at the Rose Bowl
- 4 Other events and usage
- 5 Present status
- 6 Seating and attendance records
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The game now known as the Rose Bowl Game was played at Tournament Park until 1922. The Pasadena Tournament of Roses Association, the game's organizer, realized that the temporary stands were inadequate for a crowd of more than 40,000, and sought to build a better, permanent stadium.
The stadium was designed by architect Myron Hunt in 1921. His design was influenced by the Yale Bowl in New Haven, Connecticut, which was built in 1913, opened in 1914. The Arroyo Seco was selected as the location for the stadium. Originally built as a horseshoe, the stadium was expanded several times over the years. The southern stands were completed in 1928, making the stadium a complete bowl.
The Rose Bowl was under construction from 1921 to 1922. The nearby Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum also was under construction during this time and would be completed in May 1923 shortly before The Rose Bowl was completed.
Dedication October 1922
The first game was a regular season contest on October 28, 1922 when Cal defeated USC 12–0. This was the only loss for USC and California finished the season undefeated. California declined the invitation to the 1923 Rose Bowl game and USC went in their place. The stadium was dedicated officially on January 1, 1923 when USC defeated Penn State 14–3.
"The Rose Bowl"
The name of the stadium was alternatively "Tournament of Roses Stadium" or "Tournament of Roses Bowl", until being settled as "Rose Bowl" before the 1923 Rose Bowl game, in reference to the unusually named (at the time) "Yale Bowl".
The stadium seating has been reconfigured several times since its original construction in 1922. The South end was filled in to complete the bowl and more seats have been added. The original wooden benches were replaced by aluminum benches in 1969. All new grandstand and loge seats had been installed since 1971. New red seat backs had been added on 22,000 seats prior to the 1980 Rose Bowl. A Rose Bowl improvement was conducted because of UCLA's 1982 move and the 1984 Summer Olympics. This resulted in new seat backs for 50,000 seats.
For many years, the Rose Bowl had the largest football stadium capacity in the United States, eventually being surpassed by Michigan Stadium (109,901). The Rose Bowl's maximum stated seating capacity was 104,091 from 1972 to 1997. Some of the seats closest to the field were never used during this time for UCLA regular season games, and were covered by tarps. Official capacity was lowered following the 1998 Rose Bowl. Slightly different figures are given for the current capacity, for the lower level seats behind the team benches are not used for some events since the spectators can not see through the standing players or others on the field. UCLA reports the capacity at 91,136. The Tournament of Roses reports the capacity at 92,542. The 2006 Rose Bowl game, which was also the BCS championship game, had a crowd of 93,986. In the 2011 contest between TCU and Wisconsin, the listed attendance is 94,118. As of 2008, the Rose Bowl is the 8th largest football stadium, and is still the largest stadium that hosts post-season bowl games. For concerts held there, the Rose Bowl holds almost 60,000 people. The 2014 remodeling of the stadium will remove the lower "lettered row" seats on each side behind the players' benches and provide access in and out of the stadium for the lower sections of the Rose Bowl, restoring to its original design.
The press box was updated before the 1962 Rose Bowl with an elevator and two rows. The cost was $356,000. The Press Box was refurbished for UCLA's move in 1982 and the 1984 Summer Olympics. In 2011 and 2012, the press box was undergoing renovation as part of the larger renovation originally budgeted at $152 million in 2010. Costs had increased to $170 million during construction. Work proceeded during the 2011 football season, and was expected to be completed before the UCLA Bruins' first home game in 2012. Some unforeseen problems had been encountered due to the stadium's age and some renovations done in the early 1990s. Most of the planned renovations were completed in 2013. Because of the increased construction cost, items deferred for the future are additional new restrooms, the historic field hedge, new entry gate structures, and additional new concession stands. The stadium has started "The Brick Campaign" to help pay for some of the cost of the renovations. The Brick Campaign, when completed in 2014, will feature a large logo of the Pasadena Tournament of Roses and the donor bricks arranged by universities in front of the south main entrance to the stadium.
Court of Champions
The Court of Champions is located at the south end of the stadium. Rose Bowl Game records along with the names of the coaches and the MVP players, are shown on the plaques attached to the exterior wall. The Hall of Fame statue is also located at the Court of Champions. The 2014 renovation will allow more plaques to be placed on the wall for future games.
Terry Donahue Pavilion
The seven-story Terry Donahue Pavilion is named for former UCLA football head coach, who is the most successful coach in UCLA and Pac-12 history. It houses the press boxes, broadcast booths, premium seating, boxes and suites.
Sports Illustrated venue rankings
In 1999, Sports Illustrated listed the Rose Bowl at number 20 in the Top 20 Venues of the Twentieth Century. In 2007, Sports Illustrated named the Rose Bowl the number one venue in college sports.
Football at the Rose Bowl
Rose Bowl Game
The Rose Bowl stadium is best known in the U.S. for its hosting of the Rose Bowl, traditionally being the first postseason college football game of the new year. The game is played after the Tournament of Roses Parade on New Year's Day, or, if January 1 is a Sunday, on the following Monday January 2. The stadium's name has given rise to the term "bowl game" for all postseason games, regardless of whether they are played in a bowl-shaped or "Bowl"-named stadium. The Rose Bowl Game is commonly referred to as "The Granddaddy of Them All" because of its stature as the oldest of all the bowl games. Since its opening, the Rose Bowl stadium has hosted the bowl game every year except the 1942 Rose Bowl, when the game was moved to Durham, North Carolina, at the campus of Duke University. Duke, which played in the game on January 1, volunteered to host the contest because of security concerns on the West Coast in the weeks following the attack on Pearl Harbor. Since 1945, the Rose Bowl has been the highest attended college football bowl game.
BCS National Championship
In 1998, the Rose Bowl Game became part of the Bowl Championship Series. The 2002 Rose Bowl and the 2006 Rose Bowl games also were the BCS Championship games, matching the #1 and #2 Bowl Championship Series teams in the nation. The 2010 BCS National Championship Game was played 6 days after the 2010 Rose Bowl Game as a completely separate event from the Tournament of Roses. The Tournament of Roses managed the event. The stadium hosted the 2014 BCS National Championship Game when it celebrated its 100th anniversary of the Rose Bowl game.
|Date||Team (Visitor)||Points||Team (Home)||Points||Spectators|
|January 3, 2002||Nebraska||14||Miami||37||93,781|
|January 4, 2006||Texas||41||USC*||38||93,986|
|January 7, 2010||Texas||21||Alabama||37||94,906|
|January 6, 2014||Auburn||31||Florida State||34||94,208|
Note: *USC later vacated all wins during the season.
College Football Championship semi-finals
The first semifinal game for the College Football Playoff (CFP), will match two of the top four teams selected by the system's selection committee to compete for a spot at the College Football Playoff Championship game to be played on January 12, 2015 at AT&T Stadium.
|Date||Team (Visitor)||Points||Team (Home)||Points||Spectators|
|January 1, 2015||TBD||TBD|
|January 1, 2018||TBD||TBD|
UCLA Bruins Football home stadium
The Rose Bowl stadium has been the home football field for UCLA since 1982. The UCLA Bruins had played their home games at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum since 1928. There was an attempt to build a 44,000 seat stadium on campus, at the site where Drake Stadium eventually was built. However, the proposal was blocked by influential area residents, as well as other politicians.
At the start of the 1982 NFL season, with the Oakland Raiders scheduled to move in, UCLA decided to relocate its home games to the Rose Bowl Stadium. The Bruins went on to play two straight Rose Bowl games in their new home stadium, the 1983 Rose Bowl and the 1984 Rose Bowl. UCLA has participated in five Rose Bowl games since moving to the stadium. The stadium is the host of the UCLA–USC rivalry football game on even numbered years, alternating with the Coliseum. In the first rivalry game at the stadium between UCLA and USC in 1982, USC fans sat on the west side of the stadium and UCLA fans sat on the east side of the stadium, mirroring an arrangement that existed when the teams shared the Coliseum. Both teams also wore their home uniforms. In 1984, USC fans were moved to the end zone seats, which ended the tradition of shared stadium. Because of the shared arrangement, and the participation of USC in a number of Rose Bowl games, both schools have winning records in each other's home stadium. The Bruins travel 26 miles from campus to Pasadena to play home games, but only 14 miles to their biggest road game at USC every other year.
Caltech Beavers football home stadium
Caltech, a university located in Pasadena, played most home games in the Rose Bowl from the time of its construction until the school dropped football in 1993. Caltech jovially claimed to play before the greatest number of empty seats in the nation.
Junior Rose Bowl
The stadium hosted the Junior Rose Bowl from 1946–71 and 1976–77. Between 1946–66 and 1976–77, the game pitted the California Junior College football champions against the NJCAA football champions for the National Championship. It was organized by the Pasadena Junior Chamber of Commerce. The Junior Rose Bowl became the Pasadena Bowl football game from 1967–71; it was billed as the Junior Rose Bowl the first two years, but instead two teams from the NCAA College Division competed (then later the University Division, usually featuring teams that were not invited to other major bowls).
The stadium has hosted the Super Bowl five times. The first being in 1977, Super Bowl XI when the Oakland Raiders beat the Minnesota Vikings 32–14. The game was also played there in 1980 (Super Bowl XIV), 1983 (Super Bowl XVII), 1987 (Super Bowl XXI) and 1993 (Super Bowl XXVII). The Rose Bowl is one of two venues (Stanford Stadium being the other) to host a Super Bowl though having never served as the full-time home stadium for an NFL or AFL team (Stanford Stadium hosted one San Francisco 49ers game after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake).
|Date||Super Bowl||Team (Visitor)||Points||Team (Home)||Points||Spectators|
|January 9, 1977||XI||Oakland Raiders||32||Minnesota Vikings||14||103,438|
|January 20, 1980||XIV||Los Angeles Rams||19||Pittsburgh Steelers||31||103,985|
|January 30, 1983||XVII||Miami Dolphins||17||Washington Redskins||21||103,667|
|January 25, 1987||XXI||Denver Broncos||20||New York Giants||39||101,063|
|January 31, 1993||XXVII||Buffalo Bills||17||Dallas Cowboys||52||98,374|
Because the NFL has a policy limiting the hosting of a Super Bowl to metropolitan areas with NFL teams, the Super Bowl has not been played at the Rose Bowl since the Rams and Raiders departed the L.A. area in the mid-1990s.
Soccer at the Rose Bowl
The Rose Bowl has hosted matches for several high profile soccer tournaments, most notably the 1994 FIFA World Cup, the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup, and the 1984 Summer Olympics. The Rose Bowl was also the home venue of the Los Angeles Galaxy from 1996 to 2002.
The Rose Bowl is the largest stadium in the United States that hosts soccer matches from time to time. The Rose Bowl has drawn soccer crowds exceeding 92,000 fans eleven times since 1984. The United States national soccer team plays games in the Rose Bowl occasionally. The Mexican national football team, which has a large following in Los Angeles, has hosted several friendly matches at the Rose Bowl. On March 3, 2010, Mexico hosted New Zealand in a tune-up match for the 2010 FIFA World Cup before a crowd of 90,500. On June 25, 2011 the Rose Bowl hosted the 2011 CONCACAF Gold Cup Championship match before 93,420 fans. It is the only stadium in the world to have hosted an Olympic gold medal match and both the Men's and Women's FIFA World Cup Final. Additionally, the Los Angeles Galaxy occasionally still plays games there, such as their August 1, 2009 match against FC Barcelona in front of 93,137 fans.
Major global soccer tournaments
The Rose Bowl has hosted a plethora of major soccer tournaments.
The Rose Bowl is one of two stadiums to have hosted the FIFA World Cup finals for both men and women. The Rose Bowl hosted the men's final in the 1994 FIFA World Cup and the women's final in the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup. (The only other stadium with this honor is the Råsunda Stadium near Stockholm, Sweden, which hosted the men's final in 1958 and the women's final in 1995.) Both Rose Bowl finals were scoreless after extra time and decided on penalty shootouts; Brazil defeating Italy in the 1994 men's final, and the United States defeating China in the 1999 women's final.
The 1999 women's final was the most-attended women's sports event in history, with an official attendance of 90,185.
1984 Summer Olympics
|Dat||Time (PDT)||Team #1||Result||Team #2||Round||Spectators|
|July 29, 1984||19.30||Italy||1–3||Egypt||Group D||37,430|
|July 30, 1984||19.00||Brazil||1–3||Saudi Arabia||Group C||40,799|
|July 31, 1984||19.00||Italy||1–0||United States||Group D||63,624|
|August 1, 1984||19.00||Morocco||1–3||Saudi Arabia||Group C||36,909|
|August 2, 1984||19.00||Costa Rica||1–0||Italy||Group D||41,291|
|August 3, 1984||19.00||Morocco||0–2||Brazil||Group C||49,355|
|August 5, 1984||19.00||France||1–3||Egypt||Quarterfinals||66,228|
|August 6, 1984||19.00||Yugoslavia||1–3||West Germany||Quarterfinals||58,439|
|August 8, 1984||18.15||France||4-2 (AET)||Yugoslavia||Semifinal||97,451|
|August 10, 1984||19.00||Yugoslavia||2–1||Italy||Bronze Medal Match||100,374|
|August 11, 1984||19.00||France||2-0||Brazil||Gold Medal Final Match||101,799|
1994 FIFA World Cup
|Date||Time (PDT)||Team #1||Result||Team #2||Round||Spectators|
|June 18, 1994||16.30||Colombia||1–3||Romania||Group A||93,586|
|June 19, 1994||16.30||Cameroon||2–2||Sweden||Group B||93,194|
|June 22, 1994||16.30||United States||2–1||Colombia||Group A||93,869|
|June 26, 1994||13.00||United States||0–1||Romania||93,869|
|July 3, 1994||13.30||Romania||3–2||Argentina||Round of 16||90,469|
|July 13, 1994||16.30||Sweden||0–1||Brazil||Semifinals||91,856|
|July 16, 1994||12.30||Sweden||4–0||Bulgaria||Third Place Match||91,500|
|July 17, 1994||12.35||Brazil||0–0 (3–2 on pen.)||Italy||Final||94,194|
1999 FIFA Women's World Cup
|Date||Time (PDT)||Team #1||Result||Team #2||Round||Spectators|
|June 20, 1999||18.30||North Korea||1–2||Nigeria||Group A||17,100|
|June 24, 1999||16.00||Germany||1–1||Italy||Group B||17,100|
|July 10, 1999||10.15||Brazil||0–0 (5–4 on pen.)||Norway||Third Place Match||90,185|
|12.50||United States||0–0 (5–4 on pen.)||China PR||Final||90,185|
Major League Soccer
Los Angeles Galaxy
The Rose Bowl stadium was the home ground for the Los Angeles Galaxy of Major League Soccer from the team's inception in 1996 until it moved into the soccer-specific StubHub Center in 2003. The Rose Bowl also hosted the 1998 MLS Cup. The Galaxy continues to hold major matches at the Rose Bowl.
1998 MLS Cup
|Date||Time (PDT)||Team #1||Result||Team #2||Spectators|
|October 25, 1998||14.00||D.C. United||0–2||Chicago Fire||51,350|
Other regional international soccer tournaments
1991 CONCACAF Gold Cup
|Date||Team #1||Result||Team #2||Spectators|
|June 29, 1991||Costa Rica||2-0||Guatemala||18,435|
|United States||2–1||Trinidad and Tobago|
|July 1, 1991||Trinidad and Tobago||2–1||Costa Rica||6,334|
1996 U.S. Cup
|Date||Team #1||Result||Team #2||Spectators|
|June 16, 1996||United States||2–2||Mexico||51,350|
1997 U.S. Cup
|Date||Team #1||Result||Team #2||Spectators|
|January 19, 1997||Denmark||1–4||Peru||15,000|
|January 22, 1997||United States||1–4||Denmark||17,342|
2002 CONCACAF Gold Cup
|Date||Team #1||Result||Team #2||Round||Spectators|
|January 18, 2002||El Salvador||0–1||Mexico||Group A||42,117|
|United States||2-1||South Korea||Group B|
|January 20, 2002||Mexico||1–3||Guatemala||Group A||31,244|
|Cuba||1–3||United States||Group B|
|January 22, 2002||Guatemala||1–3||El Salvador||Group A||12,906|
|South Korea||0-0||Cuba||Group B|
|January 27, 2002||Mexico||0-0 (2-4 on pen.)||South Korea||Quarterfinals||31,628|
|United States||4-0||El Salvador|
|January 30, 2002||Costa Rica||3-1||South Korea||Semifinals||7,241|
|Canada||0-0 (2-4 on pen.)||United States|
|February 2, 2002||Canada||2-1||South Korea||Third Place Match||14,432|
|United States||1–3||Costa Rica||Final|
2011 CONCACAF Gold Cup
|Date||Time (PDT)||Team #1||Result||Team #2||Round||Spectators|
|June 25, 2011||18:00||United States||2-4||Mexico||Final||93,420|
2013 CONCACAF Gold Cup
|Date||Time (PDT)||Team #1||Result||Team #2||Round||Spectators|
|July 7, 2013||17.30||Canada||0-1||Martinique||Group A||56,822|
Other events and usage
The Rose Bowl stadium is the only site west of the Mississippi River to host an Army-Navy game (1983). The city of Pasadena paid for the traveling expenses of the all students and supporters of both the U.S. Naval Academy and U.S. Military Academy. The attendance was 81,000. The game was brought to the Rose Bowl as there are a large number of military installations and servicemen and women, along with many retired military personnel, on the West coast.
The stadium hosted the 2007 Drum Corps International World Championships August 7 through August 11, 2007. The Rose Bowl is the final stadium to host the championship before DCI moved their corporate offices to Indianapolis, Indiana with the championships being held at Lucas Oil Stadium until at least 2018. This was the first time the DCI championships have ever been held west of Denver, Colorado in the 35 year history of DCI.
It hosted auditions for the top American television show, American Idol, on August 8, 2006. The stadium has also been used as part of the music video shoot for the song "The Last Song", the second single released by the American rock band The All-American Rejects, which features the band performing the song in the middle of the stadium to an empty crowd.
The annual Rose Bowl Stadium July 4 fireworks celebration titled "Americafest" is celebrating its 86th anniversary in 2012. The annual fireworks show is considered one of the top fireworks shows in the nation. The stadium hosts commencement ceremonies for John Muir High School and Pasadena High School. It also hosts the annual football homecoming game, called the Turkey Tussle, between Pasadena High School and John Muir High School, in mid-November.
Every second Sunday of each month, The Rose Bowl Flea Market takes place on the parking lots. Hosted by promoter R.G. Canning, it claims to be the largest Flea market on the West Coast. Brookside golf course also is in the Arroyo Seco. The fairways of the golf course serve as parking on Football game days.
1932 Summer Olympics
The stadium also plays host to the annual 4 July Fireworks show since 1926. Since 2008, "Americafest" has featured "Drum Corps International (DCI), Marching Music's Major League, which presents 'five of the country's best Drum and Bugle Corps", and a "world-class fireworks show that will thrill and delight families from throughout Southern California".
The stadium's Court of Champions was the site of a "Roadblock" from season 17 of the CBS reality TV show The Amazing Race where teams had to help decorate three sections of the theme float for the 2011 New Year's Day Rose Parade.
The Rose Bowl and adjacent golf course are managed by the Rose Bowl Operating Company, a non-profit organization whose board is selected by council members of the City of Pasadena. UCLA and the Pasadena Tournament of Roses also have one member on the company board. The Rose Bowl stadium itself runs on a yearly operational loss. While it generates funds with the annual lease with UCLA ($1.5m), the Tournament of Roses ($900k), and a regularly hosted flea market ($900k), it makes up the loss by relying on funds generated by the adjacent city-owned golf course ($2m). While the stadium is able to keep operating in this financial set-up, it is unable to finance many of the capital improvements it needs to be considered a modern facility, including new seats, wider aisles, additional exits, a wider concourse, a renovated press box, a state-of-the-art video scoreboard, new field lighting, additional suites and a club. The estimated cost for such improvements ranges from $250 million and $300 million.
The stadium currently has long-term leases with its two major tenants, the Pasadena Tournament of Roses (2019) and UCLA (2023). In 2006, the Rose Bowl and the City of Pasadena launched a $16.3 million capital improvement program that will benefit both UCLA and the Tournament of Roses. New locker rooms for both UCLA and visiting teams, as well as a new media interview area were constructed.
In April 2009, The Rose Bowl Operating Company unveiled a Rose Bowl Strategic Plan, which addressed the objectives to improve public safety; enhance fan experience; maintain national historic landmark status; develop revenue sources to fund long-term improvements; and enhance facility operations. On October 11, 2010, the Pasadena City Council approved a $152 million financing plan for the major renovation of the stadium. Groundbreaking ceremonies for the first of three phases of the project was held on January 25, 2011. The newly constructed video board was used for the June 25, 2011 CONCACAF Gold Cup Final.
Since losing both its local teams in the L.A. market in 1995, the National Football League had been looking to either start or relocate a franchise to the L.A. area. One of the strong candidates was a renovated Rose Bowl. However, after many years of varying offers, no deal could be struck between the NFL owners, the stadium's owner, and the City of Pasadena, following a vote of disapproval by its residents in November 2006.
Seating and attendance records
- Rose Bowl Game records: 1973 Rose Bowl, January 1, 1973, Attendance: 106,869. Number 1 ranked and undefeated USC vs. number 3 Ohio State. This is the stadium record, as well as the NCAA bowl game record. The smallest Rose Bowl game crowd in the stadium was the 1934 Rose Bowl with 35,000 in attendance to see Columbia defeat Stanford. Three days of rain had turned the stadium into a small lake, and it rained on New Year's Day in 1934, one of the few times in the history of the tournament. The largest crowd to watch a Rose Bowl Game after the 1998 Rose Bowl and seating reconfiguration, was 95,173 in the 2014 Rose Bowl.
- NFL Super Bowl Record: Super Bowl XIV, Pittsburgh Steelers – Los Angeles Rams, January 20, 1980, Attendance: 103,985. This is an NFL post-season record. This also stood as an overall NFL record until broken by a 1994 Pre-season game played at Estadio Azteca (Aztec Stadium) in Mexico City.
- 1984 Summer Olympics (Games of the XXIII Olympiad) Football (Soccer) Tournament – France defeated Brazil 2-0 in the final to win the gold medal on August 11. The attendance was 101,799 making it the largest ever crowd for a soccer game held in the United States.
- College football regular season record: UCLA-USC, November 19, 1988, Undefeated second-ranked USC (9–0) and quarterback Rodney Peete met 9–1, sixth-ranked UCLA and quarterback Troy Aikman with a berth in the Rose Bowl Game on the line. Attendance: 100,741 The largest regular season crowd, since the 1998 renovations, is the 2002 UCLA-USC game, with an attendance of 91,084 The largest attendance for a UCLA game, with an opponent other than USC, is 88,804, for the 2000 game against the Michigan Wolverines.
- Professional soccer record: June 16, 1996: In an historic doubleheader witnessed by 92,216 fans, the U.S. National Team plays Mexico for the championship of U.S. Cup '96 followed by the conference leaders Los Angeles Galaxy vs. Tampa Bay Mutiny. The crowd was the largest ever to see a U.S. professional soccer league match.
- 1994 FIFA World Cup: The final, held on July 17 saw Brazil defeat Italy 3-2 after a penalty shootout. Attendance was 94,194.
- 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup: The final on July 10, 1999 was the most attended women's sports event in history with an official attendance of 90,185. The USA defeated China 5-4 in a penalty shootout.
- 2011 CONCACAF Gold Cup: 93,420 fans saw Mexico defeating the United States 4-2 in the 2011 Gold Cup Championship match on June 25, 2011.
- Soccer, exhibition match: On August 1, 2009, an attendance of 93,137 showed up when FC Barcelona defeated the Los Angeles Galaxy 2-1 in an exhibition match, making it the largest soccer attendance in the United States since the 1994 World Cup. The Tour 2014 game between Manchester United vs. Los Angeles Galaxy had a crowd of 86,432 on July 23,2014 after recent renovation of the stadium.
- Concert: Irish Rock band U2 played to 97,014 fans on October 25, 2009 on the North American Leg of the 360° Tour. This concert was released on BD and DVD as U2 360° at the Rose Bowl.
- November 17, 2012 – The Rose Bowl press box became known as the Terry Donahue Pavilion in the fall, 2013. Donahue is the winningest coach in the Pac-10 Conference, now the Pacific-12 Conference
- June 8, 2013 – Ribbon cutting ceremony for the opening of the new pavilion with Congresswoman Judy Chu and Mayor Bill Bogaard
- July 7, 2013 – A record 566 mariachis performed at the half-time of the first round 2013 Gold Cup game between Mexico and Panama.
- UCLA Football – 2007 UCLA Football (Media Guide). UCLA Athletic Department (2007), page 165 (PDF copy available at www.uclabruins.com)
- Rose Bowl Stadium – History of the Rose Bowl Stadium
- 2002 NCAA Records book - Attendance Records page 494 (PDF)
- Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2014. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2008-04-15.
- Charleton, James H. (October 18, 1984). "The Rose Bowl" (pdf). National Register of Historic Places - Inventory Nomination Form. National Park Service. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
- National Historic Landmarks Program - Rose Bowl United States National Park Service
- Ralph D. Russo, College Football Playoff to replace BCS, AP via Yahoo! Sports, April 23, 2013
- Topographic map from USGS via Microsoft Research Maps
- HUGE FLAGSTAFF FOR PASADENA. Enormous Steel Pole 122 and ½ Feet Long Will Stand in Rose Bowl. Los Angeles Times, December 10, 1922. MONDAY afternoon at 2 o'clock the new flagstaff of the Tournament of Roses stadium, now called the Rose Bowl, will be put in place with suitable ceremony under auspices of the Pasadena Lions Club, donor of the pole.
- Dellins, Marc (1989), "The Rose Bowl", 1989 UCLA FOOTBALL MEDIA GUIDE, Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Sports Information Office, p. 254
- The Michigan Stadium Story
- University of Michigan Official Athletics site – Michigan Stadium
- Tournament of Roses Parade FAQs. The Rose Bowl Game is a contractual sellout. In 2006, attendance was 93,986.
- Historic information on the Rose Bowl Stadium
- Toby Zwikel, Noah Gold, Brian Robin, Brener Zwikel & Associates, Inc - Pasadena City Council approves $152 million renovation of iconic Rose Bowl City of Pasadena, October 12, 2010
- Piasecki, Joe - Renovation Costs at Rose Bowl now estimated at $170 million. Los Angeles Times, September 23, 2012
- Rose Bowl America's Stadium, Los Angeles Times Advertising Supplement, August 29, 2012
- SI's Top 20 Venues of the 20th Century. Sports Illustrated, June 7, 1999 "The Rose Bowl is more a postcard than a stadium, designed to seduce pasty Midwesterners with the California fantasy. How many Big Ten fans tuned in on those wintry New Year's Days to gawk at the blooming bougainvillea and started packing their station wagons at halftime? "
- Top 10 College Sports Venues: Number 1 - Rose Bowl Sports Illustrated. Text: Mallory Rubin. July 13, 2007
- "Rose Bowl Timeline". Pasadena Tournament of Roses. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
- Zimmerman, Paul - Scene of Rose Bowl Shifted to Durham, N.C. Los Angeles Times, December 16, 1941. Perpetuation of the annual Rose Bowl intersectional football, classic was assured yesterday when the Tournament of Roses officials and Oregon State College accepted the hospitality of Duke University.
- NCAA Division 1 football records book. NCAA, 2007 Edition, pages 296-302 Major Bowl Game Attendance
- Beth Harris, Vizio to be new Rose Bowl sponsor, AP via BusinessWeek, October 19, 2010
- Crowe, Jerry - There goes the neighborhood: How UCLA stadium bid was scuttled. Los Angeles Times, November 16, 2009
- Reich, Ken - Stadium for UCLA Given Support - Architect's Study Cites Project as 'Desirable' STADIUM SUPPORT. Los Angeles Times, November 18, 1965. UCLA officials--still reportedly trying to decide whether to recommend the building of a 44,000-seat football stadium on campus--have released details of an architectural feasibility study.
- UCLA History Project - This Month in History Aug. 18, 1982 … A gridiron home – includes a photograph of the 1983 Rose Bowl game from an overhead shot
- The Discovery of Anti-Matter: The autobiography of Carl David Anderson, The Youngest Man To Win the Nobel Prize. Published 1999 by World Scientific (ISBN 981-02-3680-8)
- List of soccer stadiums in the United States
- U.S. Soccer Attendance Records, Largest Crowds in the United States, http://www.ussoccer.com/teams/us-men/records/attendance-records/largest-crowds-in-us.aspx
- "1994 FIFA World Cup Final". FIFA.com. 1994-07-17. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
- "1999 FIFA Womens World Cup Final". FIFA.com. 1999-07-10. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
- 1984 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 1. Part 1. pp. 129-31.
- Clark, N. Brooks - This Week 12.05.83. Sports Illustrated, December 5, 1983
- No. 1 Army vs. Navy Athlon Sports
- Army Navy Football 1983. Score: Navy 42 - Army 13 | Game played at the Rose Bowl. United States Naval Academy Exhibits
- 1932 Summer Olympics official report. p. 74.
- Big Brother in Concert
- Peace Sunday: We Have a Dream Concert 1982
- POP REVIEWS : A Reverence for Rock at Weekend Concerts : At Worship With Depeche Mode
- POP REVIEW : Rose Bowl Victory : An Easy Cure for Neighbors to Take
- Final Kick Means the World to Brazil
- Mancini, Roger (5 April 2000). "Pink Lands 'NSYNC Tour, Plans New Video". MTV News. MTV Networks. Archived from the original on 25 August 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2011.
- "Amusement Business - Boxscore: Top 10 Concert Grosses". Billboard (New York City, New York: Billboard Music Group, Inc.) 113 (33): 14. 18 August 2001. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
- "Billboard Boxscore (Subscriber's only)". Billboard Magazine (New York City: Nielsen Business Media, Inc.). 2009-07-18. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
- "Billboard Boxscore". Billboard (New York City, New York: Prometheus Global Media). October 2, 2013. ISSN 0006-2510. Archived from the original on October 2, 2013. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
- "Americafest 2008 at the Rose Bowl
- Greg Johnson, $300-million fixer-upper, Los Angeles Times, January 1, 2007.
- "Pasadena OKs plan that may bring NFL team to the Rose Bowl". Pasadena Sun. 2012-11-20. Retrieved 2011-11-25.
- "Temporary Use of the Rose Bowl Stadium by the National Football League". City of Pasadena. 2012-11-09. Retrieved 2011-11-25.
- Palladino, Lisa - OBITUARIES: Cliff Montgomery ’34, Rose Bowl Quarterback. Columbia College Today, July 2005
- Showdown in Motown by Gil Brant, Feb. 2, 2006
- Tom Weir – Cardinals deep-six 49ers in historic tilt in Mexico. October 3, 2005, USA Today. Total attendance for record reguklar season game in Mexico City Azteca Stadium is 103,467 breaking the record of 102,368 who saw the Rams play the 49ers on Nov. 10, 1957, at the Los Angeles Coliseum.
- Tom Weir – Mexico gets ready for football, not futbol. September 25, 2005, USA Today. quote:A 1994 Houston-Dallas exhibition drew a still-standing NFL record 112,376 to Estadio Azteca
- UCLA Football – 2007 UCLA Football (Media Guide). UCLA Athletic Department (2007), page 149 (PDF copy available at www.uclabruins.com). Note that the UCLA Bruins have played in six Rose Bowl games with larger crowds: 1956, 1976, 1983, 1984, 1986 and 1994.
- FC Barcelona tops Galaxy in front of 93,137 at Rose Bowl
- Steve Ramirez, "Manchester United routs L.A. Galaxy 7-0 at Pasadena’s Rose Bowl", Pasadena Star-News, July 23, 2014.
- Rose Bowl Stadium Renames Press Box Terry Donahue Pavilion, UCLABruins.com, November 17, 2012
- David Zahniser, Mariachi Guinness World Record broken at Rose Bowl, Los Angeles Times, July 7, 2013
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rose Bowl.|
- Rose Bowl Stadium.com
- Rose Bowl Stadium Information from the Tournament of Roses
- UCLA Bruins.com – official athletics site – Rose Bowl – stadium information
- 3D model of the stadium for use in Google Earth
- Aerial photo (& topographic map) – Rose Bowl from USGS via Microsoft Research Maps
- Rose Bowl Operating Company
- Rose Bowl Operating Company Board
- Brookside Men's golf club
- Rose Bowl Flea Market
- "The Rose Bowl" (pdf). Photographs. National Park Service. Retrieved 21 May 2012.