Outdoor education usually refers to organized learning that takes place in the outdoors. Outdoor education programs sometimes involve residential or journey-based experiences in which students participate in a variety of adventurous challenges is outdoor activities such as hiking, climbing, canoeing, ropes courses and group games. Forest Schools and the John Muir Award are amongst organizations which encourage and provide opportunities for outdoor learning. Outdoor education draws upon the philosophy, theory, and practices of experiential education and environmental education.
- 1 Scope
- 2 History
- 3 Philosophy and theory
- 4 Around the world
- 5 Research and critical views
- 6 Trends
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Outdoor education can be simply defined as experiential learning in, for, or about the outdoors. The term ‘outdoor education’, however, is used broadly to refer to a range of organized activities that take place in a variety of ways in predominantly outdoor environments. Common definitions of outdoor education are difficult to achieve because interpretations vary according to culture, philosophy, and local conditions.
Outdoor education is often referred to as synonymous with adventure education, adventure programming, and outdoor learning, outdoor school, adventure therapy, adventure recreation, adventure tourism, expeditionary learning, challenge education, experiential education, environmental education, forest schools and wilderness education. Consensus about the meaning of these terms is also difficult to achieve. However, outdoor education often uses or draws upon these related elements and/or informs these areas. The hallmark of outdoor education is its focus on the "outdoor" side of this education; whereas adventure education would focus on the adventure side and environmental education would focus on environmental. Wilderness education involves expeditions into wilderness "where man is but a visitor." For more information, see Outdoor education definitions (Wikibooks).
Education outside the classroom
"Education outside the classroom" describes school curriculum learning, other than with a class of students sitting in a room with a teacher and books. It encompasses biology field trips and searching for insects in the school garden, as well as indoor activities like observing stock control in a local shop, or visiting a museum. It is a concept currently enjoying a revival because of the recognition of benefits from the more active style. The Education and Skills Committee of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom has reported that it brings history and art to life, develops social skills, and clearly enhances geography and science., while DfES has prepared practical guidelines for outdoor activities.
Despite the evidence supporting an extension of outdoor learning for children, there are a number of obstacles in the way. One of these obstacles is risk aversion amongst teachers, parents and others, raising reluctance to such diverse and physical tasks. The journalist Tim Gill has written about parental and institutional risk aversion affecting many activities with children in his book "No Fear". Another obstacle is the perceived high cost of facilitating outdoor learning. Creating an outdoor learning environment needn't cost a great deal, however. The UK Early Years Framework Stage, which outlines best practice in Early Years teaching, asserts that: "Outdoor learning is more effective when adults focus on what children need to be able to do rather than what children need to have. An approach that considers experiences rather than equipment places children at the centre of learning and ensures that individual children's learning and developmental needs are taken account of and met effectively"
Linda Tallent, a UK-based educational consultant who has worked extensively with schools to develop their outdoor spaces into learning environments, agrees. She believes that by focussing on activities and skill development, it is possible to develop an outdoor learning curriculum on a 'shoe string'. She cites a comment by Will Nixon, who reminds readers that 'Using the real world is the way learning has happened for 99.9% of human existence. Only in the last hundred years have we put it into a little box called a classroom.'. Tallent also refers to evidence from a number of studies that the most effective way of learning is through participation, and calls on educators to make a special effort to create opportunities for children to participate in their learning.
Some typical aims of outdoor education are to:
- learn how to overcome adversity
- enhance personal and social development
- develop a deeper relationship with nature.
Outdoor education spans the three domains of self, others, and the natural world. The relative emphasis of these three domains varies from one program to another. An outdoor education program can, for example, emphasize one (or more) of these aims to:
- teach outdoor survival skills
- improve problem solving skills
- reduce recidivism
- enhance teamwork
- develop leadership skills
- understand natural environments
- promote spirituality
Modern outdoor education owes its beginnings to a number of separate initiatives. Organized camping was evident in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century in Europe, the UK, the USA, Australia, and New Zealand. The Scouting movement, established in 1907 by Robert Baden-Powell, employs non-formal education with an emphasis on practical outdoor activities. The first Outward Bound centre at Aberdovey in Wales was established during the Second World War. The Forest schools of Denmark are examples of European programs with similar aims and objectives.
A key outdoor education pioneer was Kurt Hahn, a German educator who founded schools such as the Schule Schloss Salem in Germany, Gordonstoun School in Scotland, Atlantic College in Wales, the United World Colleges movement, the Duke of Edinburgh Award scheme (which emphasizes community service, craftsmanship skills, physical skill, and outdoor expeditions), and the Outward Bound movement.
The second half of the twentieth century saw rapid growth of outdoor education in all sectors (state, voluntary, and commercial) with an ever-widening range of client groups and applications. In this period Outward Bound spread to over 40 countries around the world, including the USA in the 1960s. Other US based outdoor education programs include Project Adventure and the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS). Project Adventure focuses on day use of ropes courses. NOLS uses the outdoor setting to train leaders for outdoor programs and for other settings including training every new US astronaut and 10% of the US Naval Academy. The Association for Experiential Education is a professional association for "experiential" educators. The Wilderness Education Association (WEA) is a consortium of college outdoor education programs with a standard curriculum based on an academic model. (See also North America in the Around the World section.)
A history of outdoor education in the UK has been documented by Lyn Cook (1999) . and a history of outdoor education in New Zealand has been published in Pip Lynch's 'Camping in the Curriculum' (2007). Also see History of outdoor education.
Philosophy and theory
One view is that participants are at their "rawest" level when outdoors because they are "stripped" of many of the conveniences of modern life. Participants can become more aware that they are part of a greater ecosystem and are not as bound by social customs and norms. In essence participants can be true to themselves and more able to see others as people regardless of race, class, religion etc. Outdoor education also helps instill the basic elements of teamwork because participants often need to work together and rely on others. For many people a high ropes course or an outdoor activity may stretch their comfort zone and cause them to challenge themselves physically which in turn can lead to challenging oneself mentally.
The roots of modern outdoor education can be found in the philosophical work of:
- John Dewey
- William James
- Aldo Leopold
- John Locke
- John Muir
- Jean-Jacques Rousseau
- Henry David Thoreau
- Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
Foundational work on the philosophy of outdoor education includes work by:
A wide range of social science and specific outdoor education theories and models have been applied in an effort to better understand outdoor education. Amongst the key theoretical models or concepts are:
- Experiential education theories
- Group development theories
- the Outward Bound Process Model
- Stress, optimal arousal, comfort zone, and psychological flow theories
- Psychoevolutionary theory and the Biophilia hypothesis
Around the world
Outdoor education occurs, in one form or another, in most if not all countries of the world. However, it can be implemented very differently, depending on the cultural context. Some countries, for example, view outdoor education as synonymous with environmental education, whilst other countries treat outdoor education and environmental education as distinct. Modern forms of outdoor education are most prevalent in UK, USA, Australia, New Zealand, Europe and to some extent Asia and Africa. For more information, see Outdoor education around the world (Wikibooks).
The UK: The UK has established an English Outdoor Council where they have defined outdoor education as a way for students and teachers to be fully engaged in a lesson, all the while embracing the outdoors. The UK deems outdoor education as "providing depth to the curriculum and makes an important contribution to students’ physical, personal and social education." The English Outdoor Council has developed 11 outcomes of outdoor education for educators to look towards when developing curriculum documents. They are as follows: enjoyment, confidence, social awareness, environmental awareness, activity skills, personal qualities, key skills, health & fitness, increased motivation & appetite for learning and broadened horizons. They seek to encourage all schools in The UK to participate in outdoor education, as the council believes it is a way for students to expand their minds and ability to grow with nature.
The USA: The USA's founding fathers of outdoor education are two mountaineers who have a passion for teaching others about the environment. Paul Petzoldt and Willi Unsoeld believed in educating students and adults through nature, and incorporated outdoor education in The USA over the years. There are many ways that outdoor education is present in The USA, due largely in part to the national parks, shorelines, and tight-knit communities who are proud to call their backyard a wilderness oasis. Within The USA, outdoor educators teach such things as being 'one with nature', scientific excursions, and team building courses.
Australia & New Zealand: Australia & New Zealand are home to several outdoor education certificate programs. Once teachers have completed their schooling, many have opportunities to work at various outdoor education centres in either country. The Australian outdoor council has developed curriculum documents to ensure schools are partaking in outdoor education throughout the country.
Canada: Environmental education, most notably outdoor education in Canada is seen through outdoor camp and residential programs, school-based programs and commercial travel operations. Outdoor education in Canada is based around "“hard” technical skills—often travel and camping skills - and the “soft” - group skills and personal growth qualities—are blended with, one might say, the ”green” and ”warm” skills of a complementary eco-adventure focus." Adventures are found whether one is partaking in environmental awareness or team-building workshops throughout Canada. Many schools and after-school programs such as The YMCA camps lean towards outdoor education, especially during the summer months.
Research and critical views
There is much anecdotal evidence about benefits of outdoor education experiences; teachers, for example, often speak of the improvement they have in relationships with students following a trip. However, hard evidence showing that outdoor education has a demonstrable long-term effect on behaviour or educational achievement is harder to identify; this may be in part because of the difficulty involved in conducting studies which separate out the effects of outdoor education on meaningful outcomes.
A major meta-analysis of 97 empirical studies indicated a positive overall effect of adventure education programs on outcomes such as self-concept, leadership, and communication skills. This study also indicated that there appeared to be ongoing positive effects. The largest empirical study of the effects of outdoor education programs (mostly Outward Bound programs) found small-moderate short-term positive impacts on a diverse range of generic life skills, with the strongest outcomes for longer, expedition-based programs with motivated young adults, and partial long-term retention of these gains.
In "Adventure in a Bun", Chris Loynes has suggested that outdoor education is increasingly an entertainment park consumption experience. In a paper entitled "The Generative Paradigm", Loynes has also called for an increase in “creativity, spontaneity and vitality". These dialogues indicate a need for those working in outdoor education to examine assumptions to ensure that their work is educational (Hovelynck & Peeters, 2003).
Outdoor education has been found more beneficial to those students who find classroom learning more challenging. Maynard, Waters & Clement (2013) found that, resonating with their previous findings, the teachers in their study reported “that when engaged in child-initiated activity in the outdoor environment, over half of the children who in the classroom were perceived to be ‘underachieving’ appeared to behave differently” (p. 221). Their work aims to support the notion that the more natural outdoor spaces in which child-initiated activities take place both directly and indirectly diminish the perception of underachievement. This is important because a number of studies have shown that expectations based on perception of students is important for student learning.
When German children from forest kindergartens went to primary school, teachers observed a significant improvement in reading, writing, mathematics, social interactions and many other areas. A yearlong study was done where a group of 9th and 12th grade students learned through outdoor education. The focus was on raising the critical thinking skills of the students as a measure of improvement, where critical thinking was defined to be, “the process of purposeful self-regulatory judgment and decision making”. The problem solving capabilities included the ability of students to interpret, to analyze, to evaluate, to infer, to explain and to self-regulate. Researchers found that both 9th and 12th graders scored higher than the control groups in critical thinking by a significant amount. Using the Environment as an Integrating Context for learning (EIC) is the foundation of a substantial report which found benefits in learning outside the classroom on standardized measures of academic achievement in reading, writing, math, science, and social studies; reduced discipline problems; and increased enthusiasm for learning and pride in accomplishments.
There are several important trends and changing circumstances for outdoor education, including:
- Climate change
- Nature deficit disorder
- Physical fitness
- Rationalization (sociology)
- Standards-based education reform
Wiki sister projects
- American Camp Association
- Association for Experiential Education
- Association of Outdoor Recreation and Education (AORE)
- The Duke of Edinburgh's Award - award for personal achievement, including outdoor activities
- National Outdoor Leadership School
- Nature's Classroom - environmental education program in the USA
- Boston Schoolyard Initiative - elementary school based outdoor environmental education
- Outdoor Education Group - educational organization in Australia
- Outward Bound - international educational organization
- Inme Learning - international life skills educational organization
- Solid Rock Outdoor Ministries - Christian Outdoor Leadership and Education organization.
- John Muir Award
- Forest Schools
|Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell||Founder of the Scout Movement and The Scout Association.|
|Daniel Carter Beard||Outdoorsman. Founder of the Boy Pioneers. Co-founder of the Boy Scouts of America and the Camp Fire Girls.|||
|Edward Urner Goodman||Scoutmaster. Camp Director, Treasure Island Scout Reservation. National Program Director, Boy Scouts of America. Founder, Order of the Arrow.|||
|Bear Grylls / Edward Michael Grylls||Outdoor adventurer; summitted Mt. Everest. Chief Scout of The Scout Association.|
|Luther Halsey Gulick||Proponent of Playground Education. Co-founder of the Boy Scouts of America and the Camp Fire Girls.|
|Kurt Hahn / Kurt Matthias Robert Martin Hahn||Experiential educator. Founder of Schule Schloss Salem, Gordonstoun, and United World Colleges system. Founded Outward Bound with Lawrence Durning Holt and Jim Hogan. Originator of the Moray Badge, the forerunner of the County Badge|
|William Hillcourt||Boy Scout; Scoutmaster; Scouting professional. Authored many books and articles on Scouting, outdoor activities, and Scout skills, including the first Scout Fieldbook and three editions of the Boy Scout Handbook of the BSA. Endeavored to maintain the outdoor orientation of US Boy Scouting.|||
|Harold S. Keltner (1893-1986) and Joseph Friday (1888-1955)||Founders of the YMCA Indian Guides - forerunner of the YMCA Adventure Guides and YMCA Roper Guides.|||
|James Kielsmeier||Outward Bound instructor. Proponent of experiential education and service learning. Founder of the National Youth Leadership Council and the Center for Experiential Education and Service-Learning (University of Minnesota).|
|Ernst Killander||Soldier; Boy Scout leader; propagator of orienteering.|
|Richard Louv||Journalist. Proponent of nature awareness and opponent of what he termed "nature-deficit disorder."|
|John P. Milton||Conducted life transformation journeys in wilderness areas of Asia, Africa, North America, and South America. Founder of Sacred Passage and The Way of Nature Fellowship.|||
|Joshua Lewis Miner, III||Worked at Gordonstoun; took Kurt Hahn's ideas to the USA. Co-founder of Colorado Outward Bound School with Charles Froelicher. Founder of Outward Bound USA. Inspired use of outdoor education in the Peace Corps.|||
|Ohiyesa / Charles Alexander Eastman||North American Indian of the Isáŋyathi tribe of the Dakota nation; physician; author; worked closely with YMCA, Woodcraft Indians, and YMCA Indian Guides; co-founder of the Boy Scouts of America and Camp Fire Girls.|||
|Kenneth Oldham||Conducted hiking, climbing, and outdoor education activities for children. First head of Whitehough Camp school, Lancashire, 1956-1983.|||
|Tony Pammer||Canoeing instructor. Co-founder and CEO of the Outdoor Education Group.|||
|Jerry Pieh||Outward Bound instructor and school principal who pioneered the introduction of Outward Bound methods into the mainstream school system; father of Project Adventure (founded with Mary Ladd Smith, Robert Lentz, Karl Rohnke, Jim Schoel and others), which gave impetus to Adventure-Based Counseling.|||
|Edgar Munroe Robinson||YMCA summer camp director. Set up the fledgling Boy Scouts of America organization.|||
|Ernest Thompson Seton||Founded the Woodcraft Indians and the Woodcraft League. Inspiration and major source of Baden-Powell's Scouting for Boys. Co-founder of the Boy Scouts of America and the Camp Fire Girls. Chief Scout of the Boy Scouts of America.|||
- Adventure recreation
- Adventure therapy
- Adventure travel
- Deep ecology
- Educational progressivism
- Environmental psychology
- Expeditionary education
- Experiential education
- Experiential learning
- Forest schools
- Green exercise
- Minimal impact code
- Natural environment
- Outbound Management Development Programmes
- Rite of passage
- Summer camp
- Wilderness therapy
- Forest kindergarten
- Outdoor recreation. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.trunity.net/lifegermination/topics/view/23121/
- Education and Skills Committee, House of Commons
- Education Outside the Classroom. House of Commons. 2005.
- DfES's leaflet on Learning Outside the Classroom
- Gill, Tim (2007). No fear: Growing up in a Risk Averse society. Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-903080-08-5.
- Early Years Framework Stage 'Effective Practice: Outdoor Learning", 2007 http://eyfs.keymedia.info/resources/downloads/3.3b_ep.pdf
- Linda Tallent, 'Outdoor Learning', 2007
- Will Nixon, 'Letting Nature Shape Childhood', The Amicus Journal, Fall 1997, in Linda Tallent 'Outdoor Learning' 2007
- Cook L. (1999). The 1944 Education Act and outdoor education: from policy to practice. History of Education, 28(2), 157-172. ISBN 0-473-10583-7
- Lynch, P. (?). Camping in the Curriculum: A History of Outdoor Education in New Zealand Schools. PML publications, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand.
- Walsh, V., & Golins, G. L. (1976). The exploration of the Outward Bound process. Denver, CO: Colorado Outward Bound School.
- EnglishOutdoor Council. (n.d.). High QualityOutdoor Education. Retrieved July 19, 2013, from English Outdoor Council:http://www.englishoutdoorcouncil.org/HQOE.pdf
- Watters, R. (1986). HistoricalPerspectives of Outdoor and Wilderness Recreation in the United States.Retrieved July 19, 2013, from Outdoor Education Papers:http://www.isu.edu/outdoor/history.htm
- Henderson, B., & Potter, G. T. (n.d.). Outdoor AdventureEducation in Canada: Seeking The Country Way Back In. 227-242.
- Hattie, J. A., Marsh, H. W., Neill, J. T. & Richards, G. E. (1997). Adventure education and Outward Bound: Out-of-class experiences that have a lasting effect. Review of Educational Research, 67, 43-87.
- Neill, J. T. (2008). Enhancing personal effectiveness: Impacts of outdoor education programs. PhD thesis. Sydney: University of Western Sydney.
- Loynes, Chris (1998). "Adventure in a Bun". Journal of Experiential Education 21 (1): 35–39.
- Loynes, Chris (2002). "The Generative Paradigm". JAEOL 2 (2).
- Retrieved from: http://www.tandfonline.com.proxy.library.brocku.ca/doi/pdf/10.1080/09575146.2013.771152
- Sax L. (2001) Reclaiming Kindergarten: Making Kindergarten Less Harmful to Boys in Psychology of Men & Masculinity (2001) 2.1 pp3-12
- Gorges R. Waldkindergartenkinder Im Ersten Schuljahr (in German)
- Ernest; Monroe (2004). "The effects of environment-based education on students’ critical thinking skills and disposition toward critical thinking". Environmental Education Research 10 (4): 522. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
- Lieberman, Gerald A.; Hoody, Linda L. (1998). Closing the Achievement Gap. State Education and Environment Round Table.
- The Scout Movement is the most widespread associated network of outdoor adventure-based education implementers.
- Aside from Scouting affiliates, there also have been organizations which sprouted out and away from the root Scout idea.
- Books by Daniel Carter Beard
- Block, Nelson, 2000, A Thing of the Spirit: the life of E. Urner Goodman, Boy Scouts of America.
- Davis, Kenneth (PhD history, U Virginia; Colonel, US Army), The Brotherhood of Cheerful Service: a history of the Order of the Arrow, Boy Scouts of America, 1990, 1995, 2000. ISBN 0839549989. ISBN 978-0839549987.
- Birth of Outward Bound
- Block, Nelson, "William Hillcourt: Scoutmaster to the World", The Journal of Scouting History.
- National Longhouse
- The Way of Nature Fellowship
- John Milton
- Miner, Joshua & Joseph Boldt, Outward Bound USA: learning through experience in adventure-based education, William Morrow & Co, 1981.
- Miner, Joshua & Joseph Boldt, Outward Bound USA: Crew, Not Passengers, Mountaineers Books, 2002. ISBN 978-0-89886-874-6
- Charles Alexander Eastman
- Martinez, David, 2009 Dakota Philosopher, St. Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society Press, ISBN 0-87351-629-X.
- Kenneth Oldham
- Outdoor Education Group
- Project Adventure Evolution
- Scouting in the United States
- Witt, David, 2010, Ernest Thompson Seton: The Life and Legacy of an Artist and Conservationist, Gibbs Smith. ISBN 1423603915. ISBN 978-1423603917.
- Seton, Julia, By a Thousand Fires, 1967.
|Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Outdoor Education|
|Wikiversity has learning materials about Outdoor education|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Outdoor education.|
- Association for Environmental and Outdoor Education
- Institute for Outdoor Learning
- Association of Outdoor Recreation & Education
- Recreation: Outdoors: Schools and Education at DMOZ
- Science: Environment: Education: Outdoor Programs at DMOZ
- Outdoors is great - argues for the benefits of the outdoors (The Guardian)
- Out of bounds - examines the 'decline' in school trips in the UK (The Guardian)
- Obituary of Kenneth Oldham - about one of the pioneers of outdoor education in the UK, who also wrote the first guide to the Pennine Way (The Guardian)
- Outdoor education: Aspects of good practice - Office of Standards in Education, 2004 (UK)
- Research into residential opportunities available for young people through schools (UK)
- What is outdoor learning? A brief guide to outdoor learning (Institute for Outdoor Learning, UK)
- Outdoor education and environmental responsibility - ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools.
- School Reform Through 'Experiential Therapy' - A Biography of Kurt Hahn