Education in Iran

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Iran's population reached 70 million in 2006. More than two-thirds of the Iranians are under the age of 30, and the literacy rate stands above 82%.[1]

Education in Iran is highly centralized and is divided into K-12 education and higher education. K-12 education is supervised by the Ministry of Education and higher education is under supervision of Ministry of Science and Technology. 85% of the Iranian adult population is now literate, well ahead of the regional average of 62%. This rate increases to 97% among young adults (aged between 15 and 24) without any gender discrepancy.[1] By 2007, Iran had a student to workforce population ratio of 10.2%, standing among the countries with highest ratio in the world.[2]

Primary school (Dabestân دبستان) starts at the age of 6 for a duration of 5 years. Middle school, also known as orientation cycle (Râhnamâyi راهنمایی), goes from the sixth to the eighth grade. High school (Dabirestân دبیرستان), for which the last three years is not mandatory, is divided between theoretical, vocational/technical and manual, each program with its own specialties.[3] The requirement to enter into higher education is to have a High school diploma, and finally pass the national university entrance examination, Iranian University Entrance Exam (Konkur), which is the equivalent of the US SAT exams. Many students do a one (or two-year) pre-university course known as Peeshdaneshgahe, which is the equivalent of GCE A-levels and International Baccalaureate. The completion of the pre-university course earns students the Pre-University Certificate.[4]

Universities, institutes of technology, medical schools and community colleges, provide the higher education. Higher education is sanctioned by different levels of diplomas: Fogh-e-Diplom or Kārdāni after 2 years of higher education, Kārshenāsi (also known under the name “licence”) is delivered after 4 years of higher education (Bachelor's degree). Kārshenāsi-ye Arshad is delivered after 2 more years of study (Master's degree). After which, another exam allows the candidate to pursue a doctoral program (PhD).[3]

History of education in Iran[edit]

See also: Madrasah

Modern education[edit]

The first Western-style public schools were established by Haji-Mirza Hassan Roshdieh.

There are both free public schools and private schools in Iran at all levels, from elementary school through university. Education in Iran is highly centralized. The Ministry of Education is in charge of educational planning, financing, administration, curriculum, and textbook development. Teacher training, grading, and examinations are also the responsibility of the Ministry. At the university level, however, every student attending public schools is required to commit to serve the government for a number of years typically equivalent to those spent at the university, or pay it off for a very low price (typically a few hundred dollars). During the early 1970s, efforts were made to improve the educational system by updating school curriculation, introducing modern textbooks, and training more efficient teachers.[5]

The 1979 revolution continued the country's emphasis on education with the new government putting its own stamp on the process. The most important change was the Islamization of the education system. All students were segregated by sex. In 1980, the Cultural Revolution Committee was formed to oversee the institution of Islamic values in education. An arm of the committee, the Center for Textbooks (composed mainly of clerics), produced 3,000 new college-level textbooks reflecting Islamic views by 1983.[6] Teaching materials based on Islam were introduced into the primary grades within six months of the revolution.

Curriculum[edit]

Age Level of education (Persian) Duration US degree equivalent Remarks
5-6 Pre-primary/Kindergarten 1 year (K-12) Optional. 50% of children at that age are enrolled in pre-primary education.
7-11 Elementary education/Dabestan 5 years (K-12) Although elementary education is free and compulsory, full enrollment in elementary education has not yet been achieved (2004).
11-14 Lower-secondary/Rahnamayi 3 years (K-12) Middle school/orientation cycle Mandatory (6-8th grade). The aim of this level of education is to figure out the capabilities and skills of a child so that the education system could guide her or him to the most appropriate track after the end of compulsory education.
14-17 (or older) Upper-secondary/Dabirestan 3 years (K-12) High school diploma (Diplom-Metevaseth) In Iran, upper-secondary education is NOT compulsory. By 2010, 80% of children aged between 14 and 17 were enrolled. Approximately 6% of upper secondary institutions are private.[3] These schools must conform to the regulations of the Ministry of Education, though they are financed primarily through tuition fees received from students. There are three school types: the theoretical branch, the technical-vocational/professional branch, and the manual skills branch (Kar-Danesh). The latter two prepare students to directly enter the job market in the trading, agricultural, industrial professions. The Kar-Danesh track develops semi-skilled and skilled workers, foremen, and supervisors. Besides, each path has its own specialties (e.g. 'math/physics'; 'experimental sciences' or 'literature/humanities' in the case of the theoretical path).
17-19 (or older) Technical/Vocational School OR (see below) 2 years Associate Degree (Fogh-e-Diplom or Kārdāni) Students are able to study two more years in tertiary education, which provides them with the skills to become a highly skilled technician and receive an “integrated associate degree”
17-18 (or older) Pre-University course/Peeshdaneshgahe 1 year SAT exam/Pre-university certificate The successful completion of this year earns students the Pre-University Certificate and the right to take the Konkur, i.e. the competitive National Entrance Examination. In 2009: ~11% were admitted (1,278,433 entrants), 60% of which were female[7] Students passing the Konkur obtain the degree equivalent of a GCE A-levels and/or International Baccalaureate.
18-22 (or older) University (undergraduate) 4 years Bachelor degree (Kārshenāsi or Licence) Academic year: September through June. Students attend classes Saturday through Thursday. Academic term divided in 2 'semesters' and 'course credits'. Universities receive their budget money from the state, and students normally do not pay for tuition and boarding at these institutions (except for Islamic Azad University).
22-24 (or older) University (graduate) 2 years Master degree (Kārshenāsi-ye Arshad or Fogh Licence) Iran hosts some of the most prestigious universities in the Middle East such as Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran University, Sharif University, and Tarbiat Modares University (all three rank among the top 1,000 universities of the world according to SCImago international rankings). Shiraz University, Isfahan University of Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Tehran, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, and Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran) are other prominent higher education institutes in the country. See also: List of Universities in Iran
24-27 (or older) Doctoral program 3 years PhD. (Karshenasi-arshad-napayvasteh or Doctora) Students are admitted following an entrance exam. See also: Higher education in Iran. In 2012, Iran had 120,000 PhD students.[8]
Grading scale
Numeric Alfa Remarks
16-20 A
14-15 B
12-13 C
10-11 D Pass: GPA above 10
0-9 F or 'Fail' 7 may be considered a passing grade in some individual subjects, while a grade above 10 is required for Persian language.
ORIENTATION CYCLE PROGRAM Weekly hours
6th grade 7th grade 8th grade
Persian Language and Literature 5 5 5
Maths 5 4 4
Natural Sciences 4 4 4
Religious Education 2 2 2
History 1 1 1
Geography 1 1 1
Arabic 2 2 2
Social sciences 1 1 1
Arts 2 1 1
Technical/Vocational Education 3 3 3
Foreign language - 4 4
Military service preparation (for boys only) - - 1
The Koran 2 2 2
Total: 28 30 31
Source : World Education Services, 2004[3]

Budget[edit]

Each year, 20% of government spending and 5% of GDP goes to education, a higher rate than most other developing countries. 50% of education spending is devoted to secondary education and 21% of the annual state education budget is devoted to the provision of tertiary education.[9]

Education reform[edit]

The Fourth Five-Year Development Plan (2005-2010) has envisaged upgrading the quality of the educational system at all levels, as well as reforming education curricula, and developing appropriate programs of vocational training, a continuation of the trend towards labor market oriented education and training.[10]

With the new education reform plan in 2012, the Pre-university year will be replaced with an additional year in elementary school.[11] Students will have the same teacher for the first 3 years of primary school. Emphasis will be made on research, knowledge production and questioning instead of math and memorizing alone. In the new system the teacher will no longer be the only instructor but a facilitator and guide.[12]

Other more general goals of the education reform are:

  1. Making the education more global in terms of knowledge.
  2. Nurturing children who believe in the one God.
  3. Providing a socially just education system.
  4. Increasing the role of the family in the education system.
  5. Increasing the efficiency of the education system.
  6. Achieving the highest standard of education in the region.

Teacher education[edit]

Teacher Training Centers in Iran are responsible for training teachers for primary, orientation cycle, and gifted children’s schools. These centers offer two-year programs leading to a Fogh-Diploma (associate degree). Students that enter Teacher Training Centers, have at minimum, completed the orientation cycle of education; most have a High school diploma. A national entrance examination is required for admission.

In order to teach 9-12 grades, in theory, a bachelor’s degree is required; however due to a shortage of teachers in Iran, schools have been compelled to use teaching staff with other educational backgrounds. Teachers are trained in universities and higher institutes. There are seven teacher-training colleges in Iran.

Foreign languages[edit]

Persian (Farsi) is officially the national language of Iran. In addition to English, students are interested in learning other foreign languages such as Arabic, German, French, Spanish and Chinese. Nevertheless, English continues to be the most desired language.[13]

Kanoun-e-Zabaan-e-Iran or Iran's Language Institute affiliated to Center for Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults was founded in 1979. Persian, English, French, Spanish, German and Arabic are taught to over 175,000 students during each term.[13]

English language is studied in rahnamaei (literally meaning, guidance or orientation), an equivalent for middle school in other countries. Middle school is a period of three years and it covers grades 6-8 for students aged 11 to 13 years old. The government is now considering teaching English language from primary school level. However, the quality of English education in schools is not satisfactory and most of students in order to obtain a better English fluency and proficiency have to take English courses in private institutes.[13]

Presently, there are over 5000 foreign language schools in the country, 200 of which are situated in Tehran. A few television channels air weekly English and Arabic language sessions, particularly for university candidates who are preparing for the annual entrance test.[13]

Internet and distance education[edit]

Full Internet service is available in all major cities and it is very rapidly increasing. Many small towns and even some villages now have full Internet access. The government aims to provide 10% of government and commercial services via the Internet by end-2008 and to equip every school with computers and connections by the same date.[14]

Payame Noor University (established 1987) as a provider exclusively of distance education courses is a state university under the supervision of the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology.[15]

Higher education[edit]

As of 2013, 4.5 million students are enrolled in universities, out of a total population of 75 million.[16] Iranian universities churn out almost 750,000 skilled graduates annually.[17]

The tradition of university education in Iran goes back to the early centuries of Islam. By the 20th century, however, the system had become antiquated and was remodeled along French lines. The country's 16 universities were closed after the 1979 revolution and were then reopened gradually between 1982 and 1983 under Islamic supervision.

While the universities were closed, the Cultural Revolution Committee investigated professors and teachers and dismissed those who were believers in Marxism, liberalism, and other "imperialistic" ideologies. The universities reopened with Islamic curricula. In 1997, all higher-level institutions had 40,477 teachers and enrolled 579,070 students.

The syllabus of all the universities in Iran is decided by a national council as a result the difference of the quality of education among the universities is only based on the location and the quality of the students and the faculty members. Among all top universities in the country there are three universities each notable for some reasons:

The University of Tehran (founded in 1934) has 10 faculties, including a department of Islamic theology. It is the oldest (in the modern system) and biggest university in Iran. It has been the birthplace of several social and political movements.

Tarbiat Modares University (means: professor training university) also located in Tehran is the only exclusively post-graduate institute in Iran. It only offers Master's, PhD, and Postdoc programs. It is also the most comprehensive Iranian university in the sense that it is the only university under the Iranian Ministry of Science System that has a Medical School. All other Medical Schools in Iran are a separate university and governed under the Ministry of Health; for example Tehran University of Medical Sciences (commonly known as Medical School of Tehran University) is in fact separate from Tehran University.

Sharif University of Technology also located in Tehran is nationally well known for taking in the top undergraduate Engineering and Science students; and internationally recognized for training competent under graduate students. It has probably the highest percentage of graduates who seek higher education abroad.

K.N.Toosi University of Technology and Amirkabir University of Technology are among most prestigious universities in Tehran. Other major universities are at Shiraz, Tabriz, Esfahan, Mashhad, Ahvaz, Kerman, Kermanshah, Babol Sar, Rasht, and Orumiyeh. There are about 50 colleges and 40 technological institutes.[6]

In 2009, 33.7% of all those in the 18-25 age group were enrolled in one of the 92 universities, 512 Payame Noor University branches, and 56 research and technology institutes around the country. There are currently some 3.7 million university students in Iran and 1.5 million study at the 500 branches of Islamic Azad University.[1] Iran had 1 million medical students in 2011.[citation needed][18]

Students in higher education [1]
Field of study 2010 Remarks
Engineering and construction 31% One of the highest rates in the world.
Social science, business and law 23%
Humanities and the arts 14%
Science 10%

Women in education[edit]

See also: Women in Iran
First Iranian women who attended University. circa 1935

In September 2012, women made up more than 60 percent of all universities’ student body in Iran.[19] However, the numbers were not always this promising; this high level of achievement and involvement in high education is a recent development of the past decades. The right to a respectable education has been a major demand of the Iranian women’s movement starting in the early twentieth century. Before the 1979 revolution a limited number of women went to male-dominated schools and most traditional families did not send their girls to school because the teachers were men or the school was not Islamic.[20] During the 1990s, women’s enrolment in educational institutions began to increase. The establishment and the expansion of private universities “daneshgah-e-azad-e islami” also contributed to the increasing enrollment for both women and men. Under the presidency of Rafsanjani and the High council of cultural Revolution, the Women’s social and cultural council was set up and charged with studying the legal, social,and economic problems of women. The council, with the support of Islamic feminists worked to lift all restrictions on women entering any fields of study in 1993. After the Islamic Revolution, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and his new regime prioritized the Islamization of the Iranian education system for both women and men. [21] When Khomeini died in 1989, under president Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, many but not all restrictions on women’s education were lifted, albeit with controversy. The right to education for everyone without discrimination is explicitly guaranteed under Iran’s constitution and international documents, which Iran has accepted or to which it is a party.[22] Some scholars believe that women have poor access to higher education because of certain policies and the oppression of women’s right in Iran’s strictly Islamic society. However, Iranian women do have fair access to higher education as seen by a significant increase in female enrollment and graduation rates as women university students now outnumber males, Iranian women emerge to more prominent positions in the labor force, and the presence and confidence of professional women in the public sphere. The opportunities for women education and their involvement in higher education has grown exponentially after the Iranian Revolution.[23] According to UNESCO world survey, Iran has the highest female to male ratio at primary level of enrollment in the world among sovereign nations, with a girl to boy ratio of 1.22 : 1.00.[24]

Schools for Gifted Children[edit]

The National Organization for Development of Exceptional Talents (NODET), also known as SAMPAD (سمپاد), maintains Middle and High Schools in Iran. These schools were shut down for a few years after the revolution, but later re-opened. Admittance is based on an entrance examination, and is very competitive, especially in Tehran. Their tuition is similar to private schools, but may be partially or fully waived depending on the students financial condition. Some NODET alumni are world leading scientists. Another schools are Selective Schools which are called "Nemoone Dolati".These schools are controlled by government and have no fees.Students take this entrance exam alongside with NODET exams.

Organization for Educational Research and Planning (OERP)[edit]

OERP is a government affiliated, scientific, learning organization. It has qualitative and knowledge-based curricula consistent with the scientific and research findings, technological, national identity, Islamic and cultural values.

OERP's Responsibilities:

1. To research on the content of the educational,
2. To study and develop simple methods for examinations and educational assessments,
3. To write, edit and print text-books,
4. To identify and provide educational tools and the list of standards for educational tools and equipments,
5. To run pure research on improving the quality and quantity of education,
6. To perform other responsibilities issued by the OERP Council.

Prominent high schools in Iran: historical and current[edit]

Tabriz Memorial High School Diploma. Dated: June 1, 1923

In alphabetical order:

Statistics[edit]

  • In 2010, 64% of the country’s population was under the age of 30.[1]
  • There are approximately 92,500 public educational institutions at all levels, with a total enrollment of approximately 17,488,000 students.[25]
  • According to 2008 estimates, 89.3% of males and 80.7% of females over the age of 15 are literate; thus 85% of the population is literate.[26] Virtually all children of the relevant age group enrolled into primary schools in 2008 while enrollment into secondary schools increased from 66% in 1995 to 80% in 2008. As a result, youth literacy rates increased from 86% to 94% over the same period, rising significantly for girls.[27]
  • A literacy corps was established in 1963 to send educated conscripts to villages. During its first 10 years, the corps helped 2.2 million urban children and 600,000 adults become literate.[6] This corps was replaced with the Literacy Movement Organization after the Islamic Revolution.
  • In 1997, there were 9,238,393 pupils enrolled in 63,101 primary schools, with 298,755 teachers. The student-to-teacher ratio stood at 31 to 1. In that same year, secondary schools had 8,776,792 students and 280,309 teachers. The pupil-teacher ratio at the primary level was 26 to 1 in 1999. In the same year, 83% of primary-school-age children were enrolled in school. As of 1999, public expenditure on education was estimated at 4.6% of GDP (not budget).[6]
  • In 2007, majority of students (60%) enrolled in Iranian universities were women.[23]
  • According to UNESCO world survey, Iran has the highest female to male ratio at primary level of enrollment in the world among sovereign nations, with a girl to boy ratio of 1.22 : 1.00.[24]
  • Each year, 20% of government spending and 5% of GDP goes to education, a higher rate than most other developing countries. 50% of education spending is devoted to secondary education and 21% of the annual state education budget is devoted to the provision of tertiary education.[1]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f http://www.thebusinessyear.com/tby_demo//publications.php?art_id=113&type=sector&sector=healtheducation
  2. ^ http://www.obs-ost.fr/fileadmin/medias/PDF/P3_SP1.pdf
  3. ^ a b c d "WEP-Iran". Wes.org. Retrieved 2012-02-07. 
  4. ^ http://www.arabiancampus.com/studyiniran/edusys.htm
  5. ^ "Education - Iran - system". Nationsencyclopedia.com. 2007-08-15. Retrieved 2012-02-07. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Iran - Education". Powered by JRank Encyclopedia of the Nations. Retrieved 2009-07-12. 
  7. ^ "Education in Iran - Part I". Retrieved 2010-01-10.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  8. ^ http://www.presstv.com/Program/226126.html
  9. ^ Nash, Jason John; Sasmaz, Aytng (January 2011). "The Business Year 2011: Iran". London, U.K.: The Business Year. p. 232. ISBN 978-1-908180-00-1. 
  10. ^ "Iran: Country Brief", Development Progress, World Bank, June 2009, retrieved 2009-07-12 
  11. ^ http://www.presstv.com/Program/230432.html
  12. ^ http://presstv.com/Program/265250.html
  13. ^ a b c d "With the verve of words: Learning foreign languages in Iran". Tehran Times. Retrieved 2012-02-07. 
  14. ^ "Telecoms And Technology Forecast for Iran", Economist Intelligence Unit, August 18, 2008 
  15. ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 2007-06-14. Retrieved 2012-02-07. 
  16. ^ Ayse, Valentine; Nash, Jason John; Leland, Rice (January 2013). "The Business Year 2013: Iran". London, U.K.: The Business Year. p. 162. ISBN 978-1-908180-11-7. 
  17. ^ "Microsoft Word - ......doc" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-02-07. 
  18. ^ "Press TV". Press TV. 2011-11-25. Retrieved 2012-02-07. 
  19. ^ Sahraei, Fariba. “Iranian University Bans on Women Causes Consternation.” BBC 21 Sept. 2012. Web. 30 Apr. 2013.
  20. ^ Esfandiari, Golnaz. “Iran: Number Of Female University Students Rising Dramatically.” Rferl.org. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 19 Nov. 2012. Web. 10 May 2013.
  21. ^ Rezai-Rashti, Goli. “Women and Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran: Repressive Policies, Unexpected Outcomes
  22. ^ “Joint Statement on the Right to Education and Academic Freedom in Iran.” iranhrdc.org. n.p., May 2012. Web. 3 May 2013.
  23. ^ a b "Number Of Female University Students Rising Dramatically in Iran". Payvand.com. 2003-11-19. Retrieved 2012-02-07. 
  24. ^ a b "Girls to boys ratio, primary level enrolment statistics - countries compared". NationMaster. Retrieved 2012-02-07. 
  25. ^ "WEP-Iran". Wes.org. 2004-05-06. Retrieved 2012-02-07. 
  26. ^ "Iran", CIA World Factbook, 2008, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html
  27. ^ "Subsidy plan reduces poverty and income disparities in Iran: World Bank". Tehran Times. Retrieved 2012-02-07. 

External links[edit]

Specialized reports
  • Iran, the UNESCO EFA 2000 Assessment: Country Reports
Videos