Lockheed Ventura

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Ventura
B-34 Lexington / B-37
PV-1 Ventura / PV-2 Harpoon
Ventura LOC 8e01506u.jpg
A Lockheed PV-1 Ventura
Role Patrol bomber
National origin United States
Manufacturer Lockheed
First flight 31 July 1940
Primary users United States Navy
United States Army Air Forces
Royal Air Force
Developed from Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar

The Lockheed Ventura was a bomber and patrol aircraft of World War II, used by United States and British Commonwealth forces in several guises.

The Ventura was developed from the Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar transport, as a replacement for the Lockheed Hudson bombers then in service with the Royal Air Force. Used in daylight attacks against occupied Europe, they proved to have weaknesses and were removed from bomber duty and some used for patrols by Coastal Command.

After USAAF monopolization of land-based bombers was removed, the Navy ordered a revised design which entered service as the Harpoon for anti-submarine work.

Development[edit]

Lockheed Ventura/B-34 Lexington[edit]

A USAAF B-34-VE in 1943.

The Ventura was very similar to its predecessor, the Lockheed Hudson. The primary difference was not in layout; rather, the Ventura was larger and heavier than the Hudson. The RAF ordered 188 Venturas in February 1940. They were delivered from mid-1942 onwards. Venturas were initially used for daylight raids on occupied Europe. They proved unsuited to this task, because (like many other bombers used by the RAF) they were too vulnerable without long-range fighter escorts. They were replaced in this role by the de Havilland Mosquito. The Venturas were gradually transferred to patrol duties with Coastal Command, 30 went to the RCAF and some to the SAAF.

The RAF placed a further order for 487 Ventura Mark IIs, but many of these were diverted to United States Army Air Forces service. The U.S. Army Air Forces placed its own order for 200 Ventura Mark IIA, which were put into service as the B-34 Lexington. Later redesignated RB-34.

Lockheed B-37[edit]

In August 1941, large orders for Venturas were placed with Lend-Lease Act money. Among the orders were for 550 armed reconnaissance versions of the Ventura. This aircraft was originally planned to be built under the designation O-56. The main differences between the Ventura and the O-56 were in the engines: rather than the 2,000 hp (1,491 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-2800 radials of the Ventura, the O-56 used 1,700 hp (1,270 kW) Wright R-2600-13 radials.

Before completion of the first O-56, the U.S. Army Air Forces dropped the "O-" category used to designate "observation" (reconnaissance) aircraft. The O-56 was redesignated the RB-34B (the R denoted 'restricted' meaning it was not to be used for combat). Before the first of these flew, the design was redesignated again as the B-37 with a higher powered version of the R-2600, later it also was designated the RB-37.

While 550 were ordered by the Army Air Forces, acquisition by the USAAF stopped after only 18 Venturas were accepted, when the Army Air Forces agreed to turn over exclusive use of the Ventura to the United States Navy.

PV-1 Ventura[edit]

A PV-1 Ventura

The PV-1 Ventura, built by the Vega Aircraft Company division of Lockheed (hence the "V" Navy manufacturer's letter that later replaced the "O" for Lockheed), was a version of the Ventura built for the U.S. Navy (see Venturas in U.S. Navy service below). The main differences between the PV-1 and the B-34 were the inclusion of special equipment in the PV-1, adapting it to its patrol bombing role. The maximum fuel capacity of the PV-1 was increased from 1,345 gal (5,081 l) to 1,607 gal (6,082 l), to increase its range; the forward defensive armament was also reduced for this reason. The most important addition was of an ASD-1 search radar.

Early production PV-1s still carried a bombardier's station behind the nose radome, with four side windows and a flat bomb-aiming panel underneath the nose. Late production PV-1s dispensed with this bombardier position and replaced it with a pack with three 0.50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns underneath the nose. These aircraft could also carry eight 5 in (127 mm) HVAR rockets on launchers underneath the wings.

The PV-1 began to be delivered in December 1942, and entered service in February 1943. The first squadron in combat was VP-135, deployed in the Aleutian Islands in April 1943. They were operated by three other squadrons in this theatre. From the Aleutians, they flew strikes against bases in Paramushiro and Shimushu, Japanese islands in the Kurile chain. Often, PV-1s would lead B-24 bomber formations, since they were equipped with radar. In late 1943, some PV-1s were deployed to the Solomon Islands as night fighters with VMF(N)-531, a Marine Corps fighter squadron.

PV-2 Harpoon[edit]

A PV-2 Harpoon in flight in 1945
PV-2 Harpoon at the National Naval Aviation Museum Naval Air Station Pensacola FL 2008
PV-2 Harpoon at the National Naval Aviation Museum Naval Air Station Pensacola FL 18 JUN 2009
PV-2 Harpoon repainted and marked "Air Tropic Island Charters" on display at MAYDAY GOLF in North Myrtle Beach SC 14 AUG 2012

The PV-2 Harpoon was a major redesign of the Ventura with the wing area increased from 551 ft² (51.2 m²) to 686 ft² (63.7 m²) giving an increased load-carrying capability, and which first flew on 3 December 1943. The motivation for redesign was weaknesses in the PV-1, since it had shown to have poor-quality takeoffs when carrying a full load of fuel. On the PV-2, the armament became standardized at five forward-firing machine guns. Many early PV-1s had a bombardier's position, which was deleted in the PV-2. Some other significant developments included the increase of the bombload by 30% to 4,000 lb (1,800 kg), and the ability to carry eight 5-inch (127 mm) HVAR rockets under the wings.

While the PV-2 was expected to have increased range and better takeoff, the anticipated speed statistics were projected lower than those of the PV-1, due to the use of the same engines but an increase in weight. The Navy ordered 500 examples, designating them with the popular name Harpoon.

Early tests indicated a tendency for the wings to wrinkle dangerously. As this problem could not be solved by a 6 ft (1.8 m) reduction in wingspan (making the wing uniformly flexible), a complete redesign of the wing was necessitated. This hurdle delayed entry of the PV-2 into service. The PV-2s already delivered were used for training purposes under the designation PV-2C. By the end of 1944, only 69 PV-2s had been delivered. They finally resumed when the redesign was complete. The first aircraft shipped were the PV-2D, which had eight forward-firing machine guns and was used in ground attacks. When World War II ended, all of the order was cancelled.

With the wing problems fixed, the PV-2 proved reliable, and eventually popular. It was first used in the Aleutians by VP-139, one of the squadrons that originally used the PV-1. It was used by a number of countries after the war’s end, but the United States ceased ordering new PV-2s, and they were all soon retired from service.

Civil conversions[edit]

Ex-military PV-1 Venturas from Canada and South Africa were converted by Howard Aero in San Antonio, Texas in the 1950s and 1960s as high-speed executive transports. The earliest conversions, called Super Venturas, incorporated a 48 in (122 cm) fuselage stretch, extra fuel tankage, large picture windows, luxury interiors, and weapons bays transformed into baggage compartments. The landing gear was swapped for the heavier-duty units from the PV-2. Later versions, built in the 1960s, were called Howard 350s.[1] At least fifteen PV-2s were further modified, including cabin pressurization under the designation Howard 500. A final PV-1 modification by Howard was the Eldorado 700, with longer wings, a pointed nose, and streamlined engine cowlings.

Operational history[edit]

Royal Air Force[edit]

A No. 21 Squadron RAF Ventura attacking IJmuiden, February 1943.

The first Ventura Mark Is were accepted by the Royal Air Force in September 1941,[2] with aircraft starting to arrive in the United Kingdom in April 1942.[3] By the end of August that year, enough Venturas had been ferried over the Atlantic to equip three Squadrons, No. 21 Squadron RAF, No. 487 Squadron RNZAF and No. 464 Squadron RAAF.[4] The Ventura flew its first combat mission for the RAF on 3 November 1942, when three Venturas of 21 Squadron were sent against railway targets near Hengelo, the Netherlands.[5][6] On 6 December 1942, 47 Venturas from 21, 464 (RAAF) and 487 (RNZAF) squadrons were part of a No. 2 Group escorted daylight raid, with 36 Bostons and 10 Mosquitos, on a low altitude attack against the Philips radio and vacuum tube factories at Eindhoven, also in the Netherlands.[7] This was the primary event that demonstrated the Ventura's weakness in such raids:[citation needed] of the 47, nine of the Venturas were downed (along with four Bostons and one Mosquito) and many others received damage from flak and/or birdstrikes.[8] Following this tragedy, tactics were switched to medium altitude raids. The Ventura fared little better in this strategy. During one attack on a power station in Amsterdam on 3 May 1943, New Zealand's 487 Squadron was told the target was of such importance that the attack was to be continued regardless of opposition. All 10 Venturas to cross the coast were lost to German fighters. Squadron Leader Leonard Trent, (later the last of the Great Escapers), won the Victoria Cross for his leadership in this raid.

It was never a very popular aircraft among RAF crews, and despite the fact that it was 50 mph (80 km/h) faster and carried more than twice as many bombs as its predecessor, the Hudson, it proved ill-suited to its task as a bomber. By the summer of 1943, the Ventura had been phased out of service in favor of the de Havilland Mosquito. Its last mission was flown by No. 21 Squadron RAF on 9 September 1943. After leaving bombardment service, a number were modified to be used by Coastal Command; they served as the Ventura G.R.I.. A total of 387 PV-1s were used by the RAF as the Ventura G.R.V. They were used in the Mediterranean and by Coastal Command. Some RAF aircraft were modified into Ventura C.V transport aircraft.

A small number of Venturas were also used in other countries, including Canada the Royal New Zealand Air Force and South Africa.

Royal Australian Air Force[edit]

In the United Kingdom 464 Squadron was formed at RAF Feltwell to operate the Ventura as part of Bomber Command's No. 2 Group, it converted to the De Havilland Mosquito in September 1943.

A total of 55 PV-1s were used by the RAAF in the South West Pacific Area, serving primarily in New Guinea. Initially, air crews and ground staff disliked the Ventura, preferring the North American B-25 Mitchell. But in many cases, the PV-1 had developed a grudging respect from its operators.

Royal Canadian Air Force[edit]

A total of 157 Ventura G.R. Mk. Vs were used operationally by the RCAF from 16 June 1942 to 18 April 1947 in the home defence coastal patrol role in both Eastern and Western Air Command. They were flown by 8, 113, 115, 145, and 149 Squadrons. A further 21 Ventura Mk. Is and 108 Ventura Mk. IIs were used in a training role at 1 Central Flying School, Trenton, Ontario, and at RCAF Station Pennfield Ridge, New Brunswick (RAF No. 34 Operational Training Unit) as part of the BCATP. A total of 21 Mk. Is, 108 Mk. IIs, and 157 G.R. Mk. Vs were in service during this period for a total of 286 aircraft.

South African Air Force[edit]

The South African Air Force also received some 135 PV-1s, which were used to protect shipping around the Cape of Good Hope, and to bomb Italian shipping in the Mediterranean. They were used by the South African Air Force up to 1960.

Royal New Zealand Air Force[edit]

487 Squadron NCOs at RAF Methwold early 1943

From August 1942, No. 487 Squadron RNZAF, (operating in Europe as part of the Royal Air Force), was equipped with the type, although losses (including on 3 May 1943 the loss of all 11 aircraft attacking Amsterdam), lead to their replacement with the de Havilland Mosquito in June.

The Royal New Zealand Air Force in the Pacific received 139 Venturas and some Harpoons from June 1943 to replace Lockheed Hudsons in the maritime patrol bomber and medium bomber roles. Initially Venturas were unpopular with the RNZAF due to rumoured poor performance on one engine, the fate of Squadron Leader Leonard Trent VC's 487 Squadron (above) as well as the failure of the U.S. to provide New Zealand with promised B-24 Liberators. Despite that the RNZAF Venturas came to be among the most widely used of any nation's, seeing substantial action until VJ Day over South West Pacific islands.

The first 19 RB-34s that arrived by sea from the U.S. in June had much equipment either missing or damaged. Six airworthy machines were hurriedly produced by cannibalization and sent into action with No. 3 Squadron RNZAF in Fiji. On 26 June the first PV-1s were flown to Whenuapai and No. 1 Squadron RNZAF was able to convert to 18 of these by 1 August, then replacing the mixed 3 Squadron in action at Henderson Field, Guadacanal in late October.

By this time No. 2 Squadron RNZAF at Ohakea and No. 9 Squadron RNZAF were also using the type. The following year No. 4 Squadron RNZAF and No. 8 Squadron RNZAF also received Venturas. Some squadrons were retained on garrison duty while others followed the allied advance to Emirau and Green Island and to New Britain. RNZAF Venturas were tasked with routine patrols, anti-shipping strikes, minelaying, bombing and strafing missions, air-sea rescue patrols, and photographic reconnaissance missions. In an apparently bizarre case of taking Lockheed's marketing slogan of The Fighter-Bomber too literally, even briefly, Venturas conducted fighter sweeps.

RNZAF machines often clashed with Japanese fighters, notably during an air-sea rescue patrol on Christmas Eve 1943. NZ4509 was attacked by nine Japanese single-engined fighters over St. George's Channel. It shot down three, later confirmed, and claimed two others as probables, although it suffered heavy damage in the action. The pilot, Flying Officer D. Ayson and navigator, Warrant Officer W. Williams, were awarded the DFC. The dorsal turret gunner Flight Sergeant G. Hannah was awarded the DFM.

By late 1944 the Ventura began to be phased out of front line action as the RNZAF backed away from the Patrol Bomber concept, orders for PV-2 Harpoons were canceled after a handful or aircraft had been delivered. At VJ Day only 30 PV-1 aircraft remained on the front-line with No. 3 Squadron at Jacquinot Bay.

Planned re-equipment with de Havilland Mosquitos did not take place until after the cessation of hostilities. The last Ventura unit was No. 2 Squadron, which continued to operate PV-1 and PV-2 aircraft on meteorological duty until 1948. A restored RNZAF RB-34 (NZ4600) is owned by the Museum of Transport and Technology in Auckland.

United States Army Air Forces[edit]

Some 264 Ventura Mark IIs ordered by the RAF were seized by the U.S. Army Air Force. Though some were used as anti-submarine patrol bombers under the designation B-34 Lexington, most were used for training with various stateside units. 27 of these were used by the United States Navy for anti-submarine patrols as well; these were designated PV-1 Ventura and PV-2 Harpoon.

United States Navy[edit]

PV-1s of VPB-147 in the Caribbean in 1944.
PV-2s of VPB-136 at NAS Whidbey Island, 1945-46.
Long range aircraft at Hawkins Field on Betio (Tarawa Atoll) March 1944.

During the early months of 1942, the primary responsibility for anti-submarine warfare in the United States was shouldered by the Army Air Force. This irked the Navy, as it considered this region of battle its burden. To carry out such a task, the Navy was pursuing a long-range, land-based patrol and reconnaissance aircraft with a substantial bombload. This goal was always resisted by the Army Air Force, which carefully protected its monopoly on land-based bombing. This forced the navy to use long-range floatplanes for these roles. The Navy was unable to upgrade to more capable aircraft until the Army Air Force needed the Navy plant in Renton, Washington to manufacture its Boeing B-29 Superfortress. In exchange for use of the Renton plant, the Army Air Force would discontinue its objections to Naval land-based bombers, and provide aircraft to the Navy. One of the clauses of this agreement stated that production of the B-34 and B-37 by Lockheed would cease, and instead these resources would be directed at building a navalized version, the PV-1 Ventura.

The PV-1 began to be delivered in December 1942, and entered service in February 1943. The first squadron in combat was VP-135, deployed in the Aleutian Islands in April 1943. They were operated by three other squadrons in this theatre. From the Aleutians, they flew strikes against Paramushiro, a Japanese island. Often, PV-1s would lead B-24 bomber formations, since they were equipped with radar. In late 1943, PV-1s were deployed to the Solomon Islands and to the newly captured field at Tarawa in the Gilbert Islands.

After the war, the U.S. Navy deemed many PV-1s as obsolete and the aircraft were sent to Naval Air Station Clinton, Oklahoma to be demilitarized and reduced to scrap.

Other operators[edit]

Variants[edit]

One of 18 USAAF B-37s, 1943.
A PV-3 in early 1943. It was assigned in October 1942 to VP-82 which operated from Newfoundland on anti-submarine patrols over the Atlantic.
B-34
US designation for the Model 137 (with 2000hp R-2800-31 engines) bought for the Royal Air Force, 200 built and designated the Ventura IIA by the British.[9]
B-34A
Former Royal Air Force Venturas returned to USAAF under a reverse lend-lease.[9]
B-34B
B-34As converted as navigation trainers.[9]
B-37
Lockheed Model 437 for the USAAF (with 1700hp R-2600-13 engines), only 18 out of an order of 550 built for armed observation. Originally designated the O-56, it was later designated the RB-37.[9]
PV-1
United States Navy version of the B-34; 1,600 built. A total of 388 were delivered to the Royal Air Force as the Ventura GR.V, others to the RAAF, RNZAF and SAAF.[9]
PV-1P
Designation for PV-1s fitted with a camera installation.[9]
PV-2 Harpoon
Updated model with larger fin and wing area; 470 built.[9]
PV-2C
Modified version of the PV-2 used for training; 30 built.[9]
PV-2D
Same as PV-2 but with eight 0.5in nose guns; 35 built.[9]
PV-2T
Designation for PV-2s used for crew training.[9]
PV-3
Twenty-seven former RAF Ventura IIs requisitioned by the USN.[9]
Ventura I
R-2800-S1A4-G powered variant for the Royal Air Force; 188 built, 30 to the RCAF and some to the SAAF, later re-designated the Ventura GR.I.[9]
Ventura II
R-2800-31 powered variant for the RAF, 487 built, some transferred to the USAAC and USN.[9]
Ventura IIA
British designation for the B-34.[9]
Ventura V
British designation for the PV-1, later designated Ventura GR.V.[9]

Operators[edit]

Retired PV-1 at the SAAF Museum
 Australia
 Brazil
 Canada
 France
 Japan
 Netherlands
 New Zealand
 Portugal
  • Portuguese Air Force 42 aircraft from 1954 to 1975
    • Squadron 61, Montijo Air Base (1954-1960)
    • Squadron 62, Montijo Air Base (1954-1960)
    • Squadron 91, Luanda Air Base, Angola (1961-1975)
    • Squadron 103, Beira Air Base, Mozambique (1962)
    • Squadron 101, Beira Air Base, Mozambique (1962-1975)
 South Africa to 1960
 United Kingdom
 United States
A USMC PV-1 night fighter from VMF(N)-531 in the Solomons, 1943.
PBY-5As and PV-1s of VPB-135 on an Aleutian airfield in 1943, most likely Atka Island.
    • VB/VPB-125 — (PV-1) September 1942 – June 1945[10]
    • VB/VPB-126 — (PV-1) March 1943 – June 1945[11]
    • VB/VPB-127 — (PV-1) March 1943 – July 1945[12]
    • VB/VPB-128, VP-ML-1 — (PV-1) February 1943 – November 1946, (PV-2) November 1946 – September 1947[13]
    • VB/VPB-129 — (PV-1) April 1943 – June 1945[14]
    • VB/VPB-130, VP-ML-2 — (PV-1) March 1943 – May 1945, (PV-2) August 1945 – March 1947[15]
    • VB/VPB-131 — (PV-1) March 1943 – August 1945, (PV-2) September 1945 – April 1946.[16]
    • VB/VPB-132 — (PV-1) March 1943 – May 1945[17]
    • VB/VPB-133 — (PV-1) March 1943 – 1946, (PV-2) 1946[18]
    • VB/VPB-134 — (PV-1) April 1943 – April 1945[19]
    • VB/VPB-135, VP-ML-5 — (PV-1) February 1943 – June 1945, (PV-2) June 1945 – June 1948[20]
    • VB/VPB-136 — (PV-1) June 1943 – March 1945, (PV-2) May 1945 – 1946[21]
    • VB/VPB-137 — (PV-1) March 1943 – July 1945[22]
    • VB/VPB-138 — (PV-1) March 1943 – November 1944[23]
    • VB/VPB-139 — (PV-1) May 1943 – June 1944, (PV-2) August 1944 – September 1945[24]
    • VB/VPB-140 — (PV-1) April 1943 – May 1944[25]
    • VB/VPB-141 — (PV-1) July 1943 – April 1945, (PV-2) April 1945 – June 1945[26]
    • VB/VPB-142 — (PV-1) June 1943 – January 1945, (PV-2) January 1945 – May 1946[27]
    • VB/VPB-143 — (PV-1) June 1943 – 1945[28]
    • VB/VPB-144 — (PV-1) July 1943 – September 1944, (PV-2) November 1944 – May 1946[29]
    • VB/VPB-145 — (PV-1) July 1943 – June 1945[30]
    • VB/VPB/VP-146, VP-ML-6 — (PV-1) July 1943 – February 1945, (PV-2) April 1945 – February 1948[31]
    • VB/VPB-147 — (PV-1) August 1943 –May 1945, (PV-2) April 1945 – July 1945[32]
    • VB/VPB-148 — (PV-1) October 1943 – April 1945, (PV-2) June 1945 – June 1946[33]
    • VB/VPB-149 — (PV-1) September 1943 – September 1945[34]
    • VB/VPB-150 — (PV-1) November 1943 – March 1945, (PV-2) May 1945 – July 1945[35]
    • VB/VPB-151 — (PV-1) January 1944 – June 1945[36]
    • VB/VPB-152 — (PV-1) April 1944 – June 1946[37]
    • VB/VPB-153 — (PV-1) April 1944 – October 1945, (PV-2) November 1945 – June 1946[38]
    • VB/VPB-200
    • VD-2

Survivors[edit]

Australia[edit]

Under restoration
PV-1

Canada[edit]

Under restoration
PV-1

New Zealand[edit]

On display
RB-34

South Africa[edit]

On display
PV-1

United States[edit]

Airworthy
PV-2
On display
PV-2
Under restoration
B-34
PV-1
  • 34670 - under restoration to airworthiness by TP Universal Exports International LLC in Eagan, Minnesota.[58]
PV-2

Specifications (B-34 Lexington)[edit]

3-side-drawing of a PV-1 Ventura
PV-2 Harpoon

Data from[citation needed]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

See also[edit]

Related development
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Taylor 1965, p.244.
  2. ^ Francillon 1982, p. 198.
  3. ^ Bowyer 1974, p. 254.
  4. ^ Bowyer 1974, pp. 254–256.
  5. ^ Bowyer 1974, p. 261.
  6. ^ Carey 2002, p. 12.
  7. ^ Bowyer 1974, pp. 263, 266, 273.
  8. ^ Bowyer 1974, pp. 280, 282.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Andrade 1979, pp. 52–53, 207–208, 247.
  10. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 548–549.
  11. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, p. 553.
  12. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 555–556.
  13. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 18–19, 23.
  14. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 557–559.
  15. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 26–27.
  16. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 373–375.
  17. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 561–562.
  18. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 377–379.
  19. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 563–564.
  20. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 42, 45–46.
  21. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 29–33.
  22. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 565–566.
  23. ^ Roberts 2000, pp. 625, 627.
  24. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 567–568.
  25. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 370–371.
  26. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 570–561.
  27. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 382–383.
  28. ^ Roberts 2000, pp. 629–630.
  29. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 34–35.
  30. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 572–573.
  31. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 53–54, 57.
  32. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 574–575.
  33. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 383–384.
  34. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 576–577.
  35. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 578–580.
  36. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 4, pp. 581–582.
  37. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 385–386.
  38. ^ Roberts 2000, Chapter 3, pp. 387–388.
  39. ^ "PV-1 Ventura/49555." Queensland Air Museum. Retrieved: 2 April 2012.
  40. ^ "PV-1 Ventura/33315." Warbird Registry. Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  41. ^ "RB-34 Ventura/41-38117." Warbirds Resource Group. Retrieved: 20 April 2011.
  42. ^ "PV-1 Ventura/34759." Warbirds Resource Group. Retrieved: 20 April 2011.
  43. ^ "PV-2 Harpoon/37211." Palm Springs Air Museum. Retrieved: 23 February 2014.
  44. ^ "FAA Registry: N7273C." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  45. ^ "PV-2 Harpoon/37396." American Military Heritage Foundation. Retrieved: 23 February 2014.
  46. ^ "FAA Registry: N7256C." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  47. ^ "FAA Registry: N7670C." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  48. ^ "PV-2 Harpoon/37535." Tillamook Air Museum. Retrieved: 23 February 2014.
  49. ^ "FAA Registry: N83L." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  50. ^ "PV-2 Harpoon/37634. Lone Star Flight Museum. Retrieved: 23 February 2014.
  51. ^ "FAA Registry: N6655D." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  52. ^ "PV-2 Harpoon/84062." Stockton Field Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 23 February 2014.
  53. ^ "FAA Registry: N6657D." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  54. ^ "PV-2 Harpoon/37230." National Museum of Naval Aviation. Retrieved: 10 April 2012.
  55. ^ "PV-2 Harpoon/37257." Pima Air Museum. Retrieved: 20 April 2011.
  56. ^ "PV-2 Harpoon/37492."Mayday Golf. Retrieved: 21 August 2012.
  57. ^ "B-34 Ventura/41-38032." NAS Sanford Memorial. Retrieved: 20 April 2011.
  58. ^ "FAA Registry: N500LN." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  59. ^ "FAA Registry: N7261C." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  60. ^ "FAA Registry: N7483C." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  61. ^ "FAA Registry: N10PV." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  62. ^ "FAA Registry: N2PV." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  63. ^ "FAA Registry: N7272C." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  64. ^ "FAA Registry: N6855C." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  65. ^ "FAA Registry: N7080C." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  66. ^ "FAA Registry; N20PV." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  67. ^ "FAA Registry: N7454C." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
  68. ^ "PV-2 Harpoon/84060." Cavanaugh Flight Museum. Retrieved: 23 February 2014.
  69. ^ "FAA Registry: N86493." FAA.gov Retrieved: 1 June 2011.
Bibliography

External links[edit]