Phenothrin

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Phenothrin
Sumithrin-2D-skeletal.png
Names
IUPAC name
(3-Phenoxyphenyl)methyl 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropane-1-carboxylate
Other names
Sumithrin
Phenothrine
Phenoxythrin
Sumitrin
Wellcide
Pibutin
Anvil
Duet
Anchimanaito 20S
Identifiers
ATC code P03AC03
QP53AC03
26002-80-2 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:34916 YesY
ChEMBL ChEMBL1322884 N
ChemSpider 4603 YesY
EC number 247-404-5
Jmol-3D images Image
KEGG D08357 N
MeSH Phenothrin
PubChem 4767
Properties
C23H26O3
Molar mass 350.451 g/mol
Melting point <25 °C
Boiling point >290 °C
Hazards
R-phrases R36 R38
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 N verify (what isYesY/N?)
Infobox references

Phenothrin, also called sumithrin, is a synthetic pyrethroid that kills adult fleas and ticks. It has also been used to kill head lice in humans. D-Phenothrin is used as a component of aerosol insecticides for domestic use. Phenothrin is often used with methoprene, an insect growth regulator that interrupts the insect's biological life cycle by killing the eggs.

Effects[edit]

Phenothrin is primarily used to kill fleas and ticks.[1] It is also used to kill head lice in humans, but studies conducted in Paris, France and the United Kingdom have shown widespread resistance to phenothrin.[1]

It is extremely toxic to bees. A U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study found that 0.07 micrograms was enough to kill honey bees.[1] It is also extremely toxic to aquatic life with a study showing concentrations of 0.03 ppb killing mysid shrimp.[1] It has increased risk of liver cancer in rats and mice in long term exposure.[1] It is poisonous to cats and dogs, with seizures and deaths being reported due to poisoning.[1] Specific data on concentrations or exposure is lacking.

The EPA has not assessed its effect on cancer in humans. However, one study performed by the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine links sumithrin with breast cancer; the link made by sumithrin's effect on increasing the expression of a gene responsible for mammary tissue proliferation.[1]

EPA action[edit]

In 2005, the U.S. EPA canceled permission to use phenothrin in several flea and tick products, at the request of the manufacturer, Hartz Mountain Industries.[2][3] The products were linked to a range of adverse reactions, including hair loss, salivation, tremors, and numerous deaths in cats and kittens. In the short term, the agreement called for new warning labels on the products.

As of March 31, 2006, the sale and distribution of Hartz's phenothrin-containing flea and tick products for cats has been terminated. However, EPA's product cancellation order did not apply to Hartz flea and tick products for dogs, and Hartz continues to produce many of its flea and tick products for dogs.[4]

References[edit]

External links[edit]