Black Sea Fleet
|Navies of Russia|
Soviet Navy (1918–1991)
The Black Sea Fleet (Russian: Черноморский Флот) is a large operational-strategic sub-unit of the Russian (and formerly Soviet) Navy, operating in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea since the late 18th century. Its ships are based in various harbors of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, while its aviation and infrastructure is based in various locations in Crimea, Ukraine and Krasnodar Krai, Russia.
It is considered to have been founded by Prince Potemkin on May 13, 1783, together with its principal base, the city of Sevastopol, Ukraine. The major shipyard is located in Mykolaiv (today in Ukraine). Expanded to the south at the end of 18th century, Russia struggled for long time against its main rival in the region the Ottoman Empire, with the Ottoman Navy being its main opponent in the Black Sea. The Black Sea Fleet defeated the Turks in 1790, fought the Ottomans during World War I, the Romanians during World War II, and Georgia during the 2008 South Ossetia war. The division of the fleet in 1997 became the basis of the Ukrainian Navy.
- 1 History
- 2 Incidents with Ukraine
- 3 Fleet Commanders
- 4 List of Black Sea Fleet ships
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
The Black Sea Fleet is considered to have been founded by Prince Potemkin on May 13, 1783, together with its principal base, the city of Sevastopol. Formerly commanded by such legendary admirals as Dmitriy Senyavin and Pavel Nakhimov, it is a fleet of enormous historical and political importance for Russia. In 1790, Russian naval forces under the command of Admiral Fyodor Ushakov defeated the Turkish fleet at the Battle of Kerch Strait.
From 1841 onward, the fleet was confined to the Black Sea by the London Straits Convention.
As a result of the Crimean War, one provision of the Treaty of Paris was that the Black Sea was to be a demilitarized zone like the Island of Åland in the Baltic Sea, although Russia subsequently renounced the treaty and reconstituted its naval strength and fortifications in the Black Sea.
The crew of the battleship Potemkin revolted in 1905 soon after the Navy's defeat in the Russo-Japanese War. Lenin wrote that the Potemkin uprising had had a huge importance in terms of being the first attempt at creating the nucleus of a revolutionary army.
During World War I, there were a number of encounters between the Russian and Ottoman navies in the Black Sea. The Ottomans initially had the advantage due to their having under their command the German battleship SMS Goeben, but after the two modern Russian dreadnoughts Imperatritsa Mariya and Imperatritsa Ekaterina Velikaya had been built in Mykolaiv, the Russians took command of the sea until the Russian government collapsed in November 1917. German submarines of the Constantinople Flotilla and Turkish light forces would continue to raid and harass Russian shipping until the war's end.
During the Russian Civil War, the vast majority of the Black Sea Fleet was scuttled by Bolsheviks in Novorossiysk, some were managed to be interned by the Central powers (later passed to Ukraine) or Western Allies (later passed to the White movement, see Wrangel's fleet). In 1919 out of the remnants of the Russian Imperial Fleet was established the Red Fleet of Ukraine which existed few months before a major advance of the Armed Forces of South Russia which occupied all the South and East Ukraine. Most of the ships became part of the "Russian Squadron" of Wrangl's armed forces and after the evacuation sailed to Tunisia. Out of those ships, some were passed to the French Navy and some were salvaged.
Upon the defeat of the Armed Forces of South Russia, the Ukrainian National Army and the Polish Armed Forces in Ukraine the Soviet government signed a military union with the Russian SFSR transferring all the command to the Commander-in-chief of Russia. Few ships that did stay in Black Sea were salvaged in the 1920s, while a large scale new construction programme began in the 1930s. Over 500 new ships were built during that period as well as massive expansion of coastal infrastructure took place. The Fleet was commanded by Vice Admiral F.S. Oktyabrskiy on the outbreak of war with Germany in June 1941. The Fleet gave a credible account of itself as it fought alongside the Red Army during the Siege of Odessa and the Battle of Sevastopol. (See Black Sea Campaigns (1941–44) for more details.)
In 1952, Turkey decided to join NATO, placing the Bosporus Strait in the Western sphere of influence. Together with the advent of long-range nuclear weapons, this dramatically decreased the strategic value of any naval activity in the Black Sea.
In the later post-war period, along with the Northern Fleet, the Black Sea Fleet provided ships for the 5th Operational Squadron (ru:5-я Средиземноморская эскадра кораблей ВМФ) in the Mediterranean, which confronted the United States Navy during the Arab-Israeli wars, notably during the Yom Kippur War in 1973.
In 1988 Coastal Troops and Naval Aviation units of the Black Sea Fleet included:
- Danube Flotilla:
- 116th River Ship Brigade (Izmail, Odessa Oblast)
- 112th Reconnaissance Ship Brigade (Lake Donuzlav (Mirnyy), Crimean Oblast)
- 37th Rescue Ship Brigade (Sevastopol, Crimean Oblast)
- Department of Coastal Troops
- 810th Naval Infantry Brigade (Sevastopol, Crimean Oblast)
- 362nd independent Coastal Missile Regiment (Balaklava, Crimean Oblast)
- 138th independent Coastal Missile Regiment (Chernomorsk, Crimean Oblast)
- 417th independent Coastal Missile Regiment (Sevastopol, Crimean Oblast)
- 51st independent Coastal Missile Regiment (Mekenzerye, Crimean Oblast)
- Department of Naval Aviation Black Sea Fleet
- 2nd Guards Maritime Missile Aviation Division (Gvardeyskoye, Crimean Oblast)(three regiments of maritime attack Tu-22M2s
- 30th independent Maritime Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment (Saki-Novofedorovka, Crimean Oblast)(Tu-22P)
- 318th independent Anti-Submarine Aviation Regiment (Lake Donuzlav, Crimean Oblast)
- 78th independent Shipborne Anti-Submarine Helicopter Regiment (Lake Donuzlav, Crimean Oblast)
- 872nd independent Shipborne Anti-Submarine Helicopter Regiment (Kacha, Crimean Oblast)
- 917th independent Transport Aviation Regiment (Kacha, Crimean Oblast)
- 859th Training Center for Naval Aviation (Kacha, Crimean Oblast)
After the fall of the Soviet Union
The military importance of the fleet has degraded since the collapse of the Soviet Union, due to significant funding cuts and, to a degree, the loss of its major missions. However, in the early 21st century, local conflicts in the Caucasus region (particularly the 2008 South Ossetia war) saw Moscow employ elements of the Black Sea Fleet off the coast of Georgia, and the development of oil transit[disambiguation needed] in the region has strengthen Russia's support of the fleet.
In 1992, the major part of the personnel, armaments and coastal facilities of the Fleet fell under formal jurisdiction of the newly independent Ukraine as they were situated on Ukrainian territory. Later, the Ukrainian government ordered the establishment of its own Ukrainian Navy based on the Black Sea Fleet; several ships and ground formations declared themselves Ukrainian.
However, this immediately led to conflicts with the majority of officers who appeared to be loyal to Russia. Simultaneously, pro-Russian separatist groups became active in the local politics of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the Sevastopol municipality where the major naval bases were situated, and started coordinating their efforts with pro-Moscow seamen.
Joint Fleet and its partition
To ease the tensions, the two governments signed an interim treaty, establishing a joint Russo-Ukrainian Black Sea Fleet under bilateral command (and Soviet Navy flag) until a full-scale partition agreement could be reached. Formally, the Fleet's Commander was to be appointed by a joint order of the two countries' Presidents. However, Russia still dominated the Fleet unofficially, and a Russian admiral was appointed as Commander; the majority of the fleet personnel adopted Russian citizenship. Minor tensions between the Fleet and the new Ukrainian Navy (such as electricity cut-offs and sailors' street-fighting) continued.
In 1997, Russia and Ukraine signed the Partition Treaty, establishing two independent national fleets and dividing armaments and bases between them. Ukraine also agreed to lease major parts of its new bases to the Russian Black Sea Fleet until 2017. However, the treaty appeared to be far from perfect: permanent tensions on the lease details (including often reported issue of lighthouses) control continued. The Fleet's main base is still situated in the Crimean port city of Sevastopol. The Yushchenko Ukrainian government declared that the lease will not be extended and that the fleet will have to leave Sevastopol by 2017. However, in 2010 the Russian leasehold was renegotiated with an extension until 2042 and an option for an additional five years until 2047 (see below).
Georgia in the Fleet partition
The newly independent nation of Georgia, which also hosted several bases of the Soviet Black Sea Fleet when it was the Georgian SSR, also claimed a share of the Fleet, including 32 naval vessels formerly stationed at Georgia's Black Sea port of Poti. Not a CIS member at that time, Georgia was not, however, included in the initial negotiations in January 1992. Additionally, some low-importance bases situated in the Russian-backed breakaway autonomy of Abkhazia soon escaped any Georgian control. In 1996, Georgia resumed its demands, and the Russian refusal to allot Georgia a portion of the ex-Soviet navy became another bone of contention in the progressively deteriorating Georgian-Russian relations. This time, Ukraine endorsed Tbilisi's claims, turning over several patrol boats to the Georgian Navy and starting to train Georgian crews, but was unable to include in the final fleet deal a transfer of the formerly Poti-based vessels to Georgia. Later, the rest of the Georgian share was decided to be ceded to Russia in return for diminution of debt.
Since the 2008 South Ossetia war the Russian Black Sea Fleet has not taken part in any joint naval exercises involving Georgian warships. However, such a statement has little meaning since the Georgian Navy has ceased to exist (early 2009 it was merged with the Georgian coast guard).
Russia is a member of the Black Sea Naval Co-operation Task Group usually referred to as BLACKSEAFOR.
Russia mobilised part of the fleet during the 2008 Georgian conflict. Russian units operating off Georgia's separatist Abkhazia region resulted in a reported skirmish with the Georgian Navy unconfirmed by Georgia. As a result, Ukraine's President Viktor Yushchenko decreed that the Black Sea Fleet would henceforth need permission to cross the Ukrainian border to enter and leave to Sevastopol, to which a Russian admiral retorted that the President of the Russian Federation and not Ukraine commands the Black Sea Fleet. Yushchenko's decrees where without force and deployed units of the Russian Black Sea Fleet returned to their home moorings without incident.
Black Sea Fleet and Ukraine
As a consequence of Ukraine's Yushchenko government announcing that the lease of Russian naval bases on the Crimea will not be extended beyond 2017, the Russian Black Fleet initiated the expansion of its base in Novorossiysk. In July 2007, the Navy Commander announced that the new base will be ready in 2012. Under the 1997 bilateral treaty, Russia paid $98 million annually and the treaty provided for an extension by mutual agreement. Russian officials repeatedly said they would like to extend the lease.
In June 2009, the head of the Ukrainian Security Service said that after December 13, 2009, all officers from the Russian Federal Security Service (FSB) represented at the (Russian) Black Sea Fleet must leave Ukraine, from then the Security Service of Ukraine will ensure the security of the (Russian) Black Sea Fleet and Russian sailors on Ukrainian territory. According to the Russian Foreign Ministry the employees of the FSB, who are working at the Black Sea Fleet facilities, are staying on the Ukrainian territory "in line with bilateral agreements".
In October–November 2009, the (Russian) Black Sea Fleet complained about inspection of (non-boat) transport vehicles owned by the fleet by the Sevastopol State Auto Inspectorate and Ukrainian security officers, calling them "disrespect for the status of the Russian military units and an unfriendly step aimed at worsening the Russian-Ukrainian relations".
On April 21, 2010, Ukrainian President Yanukovych and Russian President Medvedev reached an agreement whereby the Russian lease on naval facilities in Crimea would be extended beyond 2017 by 25 years with an additional 5-year renewal option (to 2042–47) in exchange for a multiyear discounted contract to provide Ukraine with Russian natural gas. This deal is controversial in Ukraine.
While a Yushchenko administration minister said that Russia cannot unilaterally replace its Black Sea Fleet ships without Ukraine's consent, the recent lease extension also revalidated the agreements of 1997. Those agreements stipulate that the Russian Black Sea Fleet can maintain the same numbers and types of ships that it had based in Sevastopol as a result of the 1997 fleet division without approval by Ukraine. This stipulation permits Russia to increase the current size of the fleet which has fallen below those numbers.
As a result of the stance of the Ukrainian authorities, it was reported on 20 May 2013 that Russia would be concentrating on its new base in Novorossiysk and putting Sevastopol on hold as it upgrades the Black Sea Fleet. The Project-11356 frigate Admiral Grigorovich and the Project-636 submarines (Kilo class submarine) Novorossiysk and Rostov-na-Donu are expected to join the Fleet in 2014 and new moorings are being made ready for them at the base.
Additions of ships to the Fleet
Repeated and sometimes contradictory announcements have been made claiming that new ships will join the fleet. On December 3, 2009, First Vice Mayor of Sevastopol Vladimir Kazarin stated that Russia's Black Sea Fleet could lose its combat capability, given a small number of ships and the absence of new ones. Similar doubts had been stated by the Russian media. The Gazeta newspaper noted that by 2015 the majority of the warships would no longer be fit for duty.
In April 2010, Russian Navy sources said that up to four frigates and four diesel-electric submarines will be added to the Black Sea Fleet by 2015. In June 2010, Russian Navy Commander-in-Chief Admiral Vladimir Vysotsky announced that Russia was reviewing plans for the naval modernization of the Black sea fleet. The plans include 15 new warships and submarines by 2020. These vessels will partially replace the reported decommissioning of Kerch, Ochakov (reportedly decommissioned in 2011), several large support ships, and a diesel-electric submarine.
Russian Navy HQ sources have said that by 2020 six frigates of Project 22350 Gorshkov-class, six submarines of Project 677 Lada class, two large landing ships of Project 11711 Ivan Gren-class and four class-unspecified ships will be delivered. Due to the obsolescence of the Beriev Be-12 by 2015 they will be replaced with Il-38s. Sukhoi Su-24M aircraft are planned be upgraded to Su-24M2 at the same time. However, the November 2011 suspension of building of the second and third Lada-class boats throws this particular announcement into doubt.
The Project 636.3 (Kilo-class) diesel-electric submarine Novorossiysk — the first of three such new submarines – laid down at Admiralty Wharves Shipyard, St. Petersburg, on August 20, 2010 is destined to serve in the Black Sea Fleet. Navy sources also say that Project 11356 Grigorovich class frigate will be despatched to the Black Sea. Admiral Grigorovich, the lead ship of the class, was laid down on December 18, 2010 and is expected to be in service 34 months from that date (Oct 2013). Three ships of this class are to be in service in the Black Sea Fleet before 2015.
Incidents with Ukraine
The Russian Black Sea Fleet's use of leased facilities in Sevastopol and the Crimea has been controversial. A number of incidents have taken place:
- A lighthouse is located on the headland, which from 2005, was the subject of a controversy between Ukraine and Russia. From August 3, 2005, the lighthouse is occupied by the Russian Army. Not paying attention to the ruling of the Government Court in Sevastopol on the subject of the return of 77 geographical objects to Ukraine (including the lighthouse on Sarych), Russian military officials referred to the fact that they only subordinate to the chief of the Russian Navy headquarters and no one else. The Ukrainian public activists state that Sarych is illegally occupied by the Russian Navy. As a military object, the territory around the Sarych headland is closed to trespassers with barbed wire with the Russian flag flying above Sarych.
- In 2006, Ukrainian officials prevented Russian workers from entering the Black Sea Fleet lighthouse in Yalta.
- During the 2008 South Ossetia War, the Ukrainian Navy was ordered to block the entrance of Russian vessels taking part in hostilities to Sevastopol. However, Russian Navy ships returned to base unimpeded.
- June 20, 2009 – In Sevastopol, an incident again took place involving the Black Sea Fleet. In 2007, the administration of this organization was contracted by some 200 citizens of Sevastopol to build four several stories residential buildings. The job was never finished although the financial aspect of the contract was fulfilled as it was a prepaid venture. At this time, there are only two buildings that are only finished at 95% as stated in the local newspaper Novyi Sevastopol. The protesters are being simply kicked out by force without any intention to regulate the conflict. The protesters also sent a letters to the President and the Prime-Minister of the Russian Federation, Dmitry Medvedev and Vladimir Putin, and also to the Minister of Defense of Russia, Anatoliy Serdyukov. Those attempts brought no results. UNIAN
- On August 27, 2009, Ukrainians identifying themselves as bailiffs were detained when they attempted to seize a Russian lighthouse. Russia states that Ukrainians may not step onto its bases without permission.
- On April 16, 2013 a "high-ranking Russian Defense Ministry official" complained to Interfax that “Ukraine’s stubborn position" was slowing the cancellation of customs payments (for the fleet) and that Ukraine still upheld (former) Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko 2008 decrees that banned the "relaxed procedure" of Black Sea Fleet formations across the Ukrainian border.
|#||VADM||Aleksey Fedotovich Klokachev||1783|
|#||VADM||Yakov Filippovich Sukhotin||1784–1785|
|#||RADM||Nikolay Semenovich Mordvinov||1785–1789|
|#||RADM||Marko Ivanovich Voynovich||1789–1790|
|#||RADM||Fyodor Fyodorovich Ushakov||1790–1792|
|#||ADM||Nikolay Semenovich Mordvinov||1792–1799|
|#||ADM||Vilim Petrovich Fondezin||1799–1802|
|#||ADM||Aleksandr Ivanovich deTravers||1802–1811|
|#||ADM||Roman Romanovich Gall||1811|
|#||VADM||Nikolay Lvovich Yazykov||1811–1816|
|#||ADM||Aleksey Samuilovich Greyg||1816–1833|
|#||ADM||Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev||1834–1851|
|#||ADM||Morits B. Berg||1851–1855|
|#||ADM||Aleksandr Sergeyevich Menshikov||1854–1855|
|#||ADM||Nikolay Andreyevich Arkas||1871–1881|
|#||ADM||Mikhail Pavlovich Manganari||1881–1882|
|#||VADM||Aleksey Alekseyevich Peshchurov||1882–1890|
|#||RADM||Roman A. Grenkvist||1890|
|#||VADM||Nikolay Vasilyevich Kopytov||1891–1898|
|#||VADM||Yevgeniy Ivanovich Alekseyev||1898|
|#||VADM||Sergey P. Tyrtov||1898–1903|
|#||VADM||Yakov Appolonovich Giltebrandt||1903|
|#||VADM||Nikolay Illarionovich Skrydlov||1903–1904|
|#||VADM||Aleksandr Kh. Kriger||1904|
|#||VADM||Grigoriy P. Chukhnin||1904–1906|
|#||RADM||Ivan Konstantinovich Grigorovich||1906|
|#||VADM||Nikolay Illarionovich Skrydlov||1906–1907|
|#||RADM||Genrikh F. Tsyvinskiy||1907|
|#||RADM||Robert Nikolayevich Viren||1907–1908|
|#||VADM||Ivan Fyodorovich Bostrem||1908–1909|
|#||VADM||Vladimir Simonovich Sarnavskiy||1909–1911|
|#||VADM||Ivan Fyoforovich Bostrem||1911|
|#||RADM||Pavel Ivanovich Novitskiy||1911|
|#||VADM||Andrey Avgustovich Ehbergard||1911– Jun 1916|
|#||VADM||Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak||Jun 1916 – Jun 1917|
|Acting||RADM||Veniamin K. Lukin||Jun 1917 – Jul 1917|
|#||RADM||Aleksandr Vasilyevich Nemitts||Jul 1917 – Dec 1917|
|#||Captain 1st Rank||Aleksandr Tikhmenev||1918|
|#||Captain 1st Rank||Aleksandr Sheykonskiy||1919|
|#||Captain 1st Rank||Aleksey V. Dombrovskiy||May 1920 – Oct 1920|
|#||Senior Lieutenant||Ehduard Samuilovich Pantserzhanskiy||Nov 1920 – Nov 1921|
|#||VADM||Andrey S. Maksimov||Nov 1921 – Jul 1922|
|#||Captain 2nd Rank||Aleksandr Vekman||Jul 1922 – May 1924|
|#||Lieutenant||Mikhail V. Viktorov||May 1924 – Dec 1924|
|#||Senior Lieutenant||Ehduard Samuilovich Pantserzhanskiy||Dec 1924 – Oct 1926|
|#||Warrant Officer||Vladimir M. Orlov||Oct 1926 – Jun 1931|
|#||Fleet Flag Officer 2nd Rank||Ivan K. Kozhanov||Jun 1931 – Aug 1937|
|#||Fleet Flag Officer 2nd Rank||Petr I. Svetlovskiy (Smirnov)||Aug 1937 – Dec 1937|
|#||Fleet Flag Officer 2nd Rank||Ivan Stepanovich Yumashev||1938 – Mar 1939|
|#||VADM||Filipp Sergeyevich Oktyabrsky||Mar 1939 – Apr 1943|
|#||VADM||Lev A. Vladimirskiy||Apr 1943 – Mar 1944|
|#||VADM||Filipp Sergeyevich Oktyabrsky||Mar 1944 – Nov 1948|
|#||ADM||Nikolay Efremovich Basistyy||Nov 1948 – Aug 1951|
|#||ADM||Sergey Georgiyevich Gorshkov||Aug 1951 – Jul 1955|
|#||VADM||Viktor Aleksandrovich Parkhomenko||Jul 1955 – Dec 1955|
|#||ADM||Vladimir Afanasyevich Kasatonov||Dec 1955 – Feb 1962|
|#||ADM||Serafim Evregiyevich Chursin||Feb 1962 – Dec 1968|
|#||ADM||Viktor Sergeyevich Sysoyev||Dec 1968 – Mar 1974|
|#||ADM||Nikolay Ivanovich Khovrin||Mar 1974 – April 1983|
|#||ADM||Aleksey Mikhailovich Kalinin||Apr 1983 – Jul 1985|
|#||ADM||Mikhail Nikolayevich Khronopulo||Jul 1985 – Oct 1991|
|#||ADM||Igor Vladimirovich Kasatonov||Oct 1991 – Dec 1992|
|#||ADM||Ehduard Dmitriyevich Baltin||Dec 1992 – Feb 1996|
|#||ADM||Viktor Kravchenko||Feb 1996 – Jul 1998|
|#||ADM||Vladimir Komoyedov||Jul 1998 – Oct 2002|
|#||ADM||Vladimir Masorin||Oct 2002 – Feb 2005|
|#||ADM||Aleksandr Arkadyevich Tatarinov||Feb 2005 – Jul 2007|
|#||VADM||Aleksandr Kletskov||Jul 2007 – Jul 2010|
|#||VADM||Vladimir Ivanovich Korolev||Jul 2010 – Jun 2011|
|#||VADM||Aleksandr Fedotenkov||Jun 2011 – May 2013|
|#||VADM||Aleksandr Vitko||17 May 2013 – present|
List of Black Sea Fleet ships
30th Surface Ship Division
|121||Guided Missile Cruiser||Moskva||Slava||1983||Active|
|713||Large ASW Ship||Kerch||Kara||1974||Active;Scheduled to be decommissioned within the next several years|
|810||Guided Missile Destroyer||Smetlivy||Kashin||1969||Active as of 2011|
|801||Guided Missile Frigate||Ladnyy||Krivak-class frigate||1978||Active as of 2012|
|808||Guided Missile Frigate||Pytlivyy||Krivak-class frigate||1979|
|152||Landing Ship||Nikolay Filchenkov||Alligator||1975|
|158||Landing Ship||Tsezar Kunikov||Ropucha-I||1986|
247th Independent Submarine Division
|554||Diesel Attack Submarine||Alrosa (B-871)||Kilo||1990||Sevastopol||Active|
|572||Diesel Attack Submarine||Svyatoy Knyaz Georgiy (B-380)||Tango||1982||Sevastopol||Out of service, will be decommissioned|
68th Coastal Defense Ship Brigade
|059||ASW Corvette||Alexandrovets||Grisha I||1982|
|053||ASW Corvette||Povorino||Grisha III||1989|
|071||ASW Corvette||Suzdalets||Grisha III||1983|
|064||ASW Corvette||Muromets||Grisha III||1983|
|060||ASW Corvette||Vladimirets||Project 11451 / Mukha-class||1984|
|913||Seagoing Minesweeper||Kovrovets||Natya I||1974|
|911||Seagoing Minesweeper||Ivan Golubets||Natya I||1973|
|912||Seagoing Minesweeper||Turbinist||Natya I||1972|
|909||Seagoing Minesweeper||Vice Admiral Zhukov||Natya I||1977|
41st Missile Boat Brigade
|615||Guided Missile Corvette||Bora||Dergach||1988|
|616||Guided Missile Corvette||Samum||Dergach||1991|
|620||Guided Missile Corvette||Shtyl||Nanuchka-III||1976|
|617||Guided Missile Corvette||Mirazh||Nanuchka-III||1983|
|966||Missile Boat||R-44||Matka Mod||disc|
|955||Missile Boat||R-60||Tarantul-III Mod||1985|
|962||Missile Boat||R-71||Tarantul-II Mod||1985|
184th Novorossiysk Coastal Defense Brigade
|054||Small Antisubmarine Ship||Eysk||Grisha-III||1987|
|055||Small Antisubmarine Ship||Kasimov||Grisha-III||1984|
|770||Seagoing Minesweeper||Valentin Pikul'||Natya I Mod||2001|
|426||Base Minesweeper||Mineralnyye Vody||Sonya-class||1990|
|438||Base Minesweeper||Leytenant Ilyin||Sonya-class||1982|
11th Independent Coastal Missile-Artillery Brigade
Anapa, Krasnodar region
810th Naval Infantry Brigade
382nd Independent Naval Infantry Battalion
- Status in 2010
- 25th Independent Anti-submarine Helicopter Regiment – HQ at Kacha, Crimea – ~20 helicopters of types Ka-27 and Mi-14
- 917th Independent Composite Air Regiment – HQ at Kacha, Crimea – ~10x Antonov transport aircraft of types An-2, An-12 and An-26; 4x Be-12; ~10x Mi-8
- 43rd Independent Naval Shturmovik (Assault) Air Squadron – HQ at Gvardeyskoye, Crimea – 18x Su-24M; 4x Su-24MR;
- Black Sea Fleet (BSF) Morskoyo Flota (Naval Force). Globalsecurity.org.
- John Erickson, The Road to Stalingrad, Cassel Military Paperbacks, 2003, p.205
- On Airpower.org, Military Thought article on Soviet Mediterranean squadron air defence. Retrieved May 30, 2008.
- Michael Holm, Red Banner Black Sea Fleet, accessed December 2012.
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- Subtelny, Orest (2000). Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto Press. p. 600. ISBN 0-8020-8390-0.
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- Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty's (opt, mozilla, unix,english,,new) Newsline. Vol. 1, No. 42, Part I, May 30, 1997
- Russia's Black Sea Fleet rules out joint drills with Georgia, UNIAN (June 17, 2009)
- Navy to Merge with Coast Guard, FINANCIAL (December 3, 2008)
- Kyiv obstructs Black Sea Fleet’s modernization, says Russian military official, Interfax-Ukraine (16 April 2013)
- Russia denies naval bases report, BBC News (January 16, 2009)
- Yulia Tymoshenko: Russian Black Sea Fleet will not remain in Crimea, Personal web site of Yulia Tymoshenko (June 25, 2009)
- Moscow News – News – Russia's New Black Sea Base Complete by 2012[dead link]
- Russia hopes to keep naval base in Ukraine, Reuters, (July 14, 2009)
- Russia fleet 'may leave Ukraine', BBC News, (October 18, 2008)
- All FSB officers working at Russian Black Sea Fleet must leave Ukraine –SBU, UNIAN (June 17, 2009)
- Russia says FSB to stay in Crimea, UNIAN (June 18, 2009)
- Black Sea Fleet: Black Sea Fleet concerned by checks by Ukrainian security agencies, Kyiv Post (October 14, 2009)
- Russian Black See Fleet slams Ukraine authorities over trucks incident, Kyiv Post (November 3, 2009)
- The Great Power (mis)Management by Alexander Astrov, Ashgate Publishing, 2011, ISBN 1409424677 (page 82)
- ITAR-TASS 21.04.2010 17:13
- Deal Struck on Gas, Black Sea Fleet, The Moscow Times (April 21, 2010)
- Russia, Ukraine agree on naval-base-for-gas deal, CNN (April 21, 2010)
- Our Ukraine: Yanukovych should be impeached, Kyiv Post (April 21, 2010)
- Ukrainian parliament ratifies agreement extending Russian Black Sea Fleet's presence in Crimea, Kyiv Post (April 27, 2010)
- Oppositional deputies throw eggs in Lytvyn, Kyiv Post (April 27, 2010)
- Police clash with protesters in front of Ukrainian parliament, Kyiv Post (April 27, 2010)
- "Russia and Ukraine resume joint naval exercises". Voice of Russia. April 16, 2010. Retrieved April 22, 2010.
- Russian counterintelligence officers to return to Sevastopol, Kyiv Post (May 12, 2010)
- Ukrainian minister: Russia cannot unilaterally replace Black Sea Fleet ships, Kyiv Post (April 28, 2010)
- Russia-Ukraine Agreement on the Division of the Black Sea Fleet, May 1977
- Interfax-AVN military news agency, Moscow, 0740 GMT 20 May 13
- Sevastopol official: Black Sea Fleet risks to lose combat capability by 2017, Kyiv Post (December 3, 2009)
- Russia's Black Sea Fleet may lose all warships by 2015 | Defense . RIA Novosti.
- Globalsecurity.org, Russia plans to upgrade Black Sea Fleet with new warships, April 13, 2010
- Russian Black Sea Fleet to receive 15 new combat vessels by 2020. RIA Novosti. (June 23, 2010).
- Russia admits it needs to modernize its Navy". RIA Novosti. (June 25, 2010).
- Черноморская противолодочная авиация оказалась под угрозой исчезновения. Flot.com (October 20, 2010).
- A general criticized Black Sea Fleet aviation. Rusnavy.com (October 27, 2010).
- Проект 636. Deepstorm.ru.
- One can fire at any target from the Black Sea – BSF ex-commander. Rusnavy.com.
- "RIA Novosti: a new frigate is laid down in Kaliningrad for the Russian Navy (in Russian)". RIA Novosti. December 18, 2010.
- "The owner of the "sarych" lighthouse came back with a blank document to the President of Ukraine". CPCFPU (in Ukrainian). Retrieved February 24, 2007.
- "Access to Ukrainians is prohibited.". Zakryta Zona (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on March 10, 2007. Retrieved February 24, 2007.
- ""Sarych" was surrounded with a barbed wire and had a Russian flag flying above it". Korrespondent (in Ukrainian). February 10 2006.
- Ukraine drifts further from NATO as president sacks Navy chief — RT. Rt.com.
- Ukrainian officials attempt seizure of Russian Black Sea Fleet property — RT. Rt.com.
- Interfax-AVN, Moscow, 0903GMT 15 May 13
- BSF Ships Head For Mediterranean To Exercise With Italy. Rusnavy.com.
- Frigate Ladny Returns from Deployment. Rusnavy.com.
- Only submarine of Russian Black Sea Fleet to be repaired by late July, Kyiv Post (July 1, 2010)
- Third Bastion missile system has been delivered to Black Sea Fleet. Rusnavy.com (January 19, 2011).
- Simonsen, Sven Gunnar (June 2000). ""You take your oath only once:" Crimea, The Black Sea Fleet, and national identity among Russian officers". Nationalities Papers 28 (2): 289–316. doi:10.1080/713687467.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Black Sea fleet of Russia.|
- Russia – Ukraine Lease agreement
- Unofficial site (English version)
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- (Ukrainian) KOРАБЛІ УKРАЇНСЬKOЇ ФЛOТИ (1917–1918 рр.) – Ukrainian Navy (1917–1918)
- Ukrainian Navy: ferial excursions into the past and present
- Ukraine – Historical Naval Flags (1918)