Space Shuttle Endeavour
|Contract award||July 31, 1987|
|Named after||HMS Endeavour (1764)|
|Status||Retired, displayed at California Science Center in Los Angeles, California|
May 7, 1992 – May 16, 1992
Ferry flight on SCA NASA905 to Los Angeles, CaliforniaSeptember 19–21, 2012
|Number of missions||25|
|Time spent in space||296 days, 3 hours, 34 minutes, 2 seconds|
|Number of orbits||4,671|
|Distance travelled||122,883,151 mi (197,761,262 km)|
Space Shuttle Endeavour (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105) is one of the retired orbiters of the Space Shuttle program of NASA, the space agency of the United States. Endeavour was the fifth and final spaceworthy NASA space shuttle to be built, and first flew in May 1992 on mission STS-49 with its last mission being STS-134 in May 2011. The STS-134 mission was originally planned as the final mission of the Space Shuttle program, but with authorization of the STS-135 mission, Atlantis became the last Space Shuttle to fly.
The United States Congress authorized the construction of Endeavour in 1987 to replace Challenger, which was lost in the STS-51-L launch accident in 1986. Structural spares built during the construction of Discovery and Atlantis, two of the previous shuttles, were used in its assembly. NASA chose to build Endeavour from spares rather than refitting Enterprise or accepting a Rockwell International proposal to build two shuttles for the price of one of the original shuttles, on cost grounds.
The orbiter is named after the British HMS Endeavour, the ship which took Captain James Cook on his first voyage of discovery (1768–1771). This is why the name is spelled in the British English manner, rather than the American English ("Endeavor"). This has caused confusion, most notably when NASA itself misspelled a sign on the launch pad in 2007. The name also honored Endeavour, the Command Module of Apollo 15, itself also named after Cook's ship.
Endeavour was named through a national competition involving students in elementary and secondary schools. Entries included an essay about the name, the story behind it and why it was appropriate for a NASA shuttle, and the project that supported the name. Endeavour was the most popular entry, accounting for almost one-third of the state-level winners. The national winners were Senatobia Middle School in Senatobia, Mississippi, in the elementary division and Tallulah Falls School in Tallulah Falls, Georgia, in the upper school division. They were honored at several ceremonies in Washington, D.C., including a White House ceremony where then-President George H. W. Bush presented awards to each school.
Endeavour was delivered by Rockwell International Space Transportation Systems Division in May 1991 and first launched a year later, in May 1992, on STS-49. Rockwell International claimed that it had made no profit on Space Shuttle Endeavour, despite construction costing US$2.2 billion. On its first mission, it captured and redeployed the stranded INTELSAT VI communications satellite. The first African-American woman astronaut, Mae Jemison, was brought into space on the mission STS-47 on September 12, 1992.
In 1993, it made the first service mission to the Hubble Space Telescope. Endeavour was withdrawn from service for eight months in 1997 for a retrofit, including installation of a new airlock. In December 1998, it delivered the Unity Module to the International Space Station.
Endeavour's last Orbiter Major Modification period began in December 2003 and ended on October 6, 2005. During this time, Endeavour received major hardware upgrades, including a new, multi-functional, electronic display system, often referred to as a glass cockpit, and an advanced GPS receiver, along with safety upgrades recommended by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) for the shuttle to return to flight after the disintegration of sister-ship Columbia during re-entry on February 1, 2003.
The STS-118 mission, the first for Endeavour following a lengthy refit, included astronaut Barbara Morgan, formerly assigned to the Educator Astronaut program, but now a full member of the Astronaut Corps, as part of the crew. Morgan was the backup for Christa McAuliffe on the ill-fated STS-51-L mission.
|1982 February 15||Start structural assembly of crew module (built as structural spare alongside Discovery and Atlantis)|
|1987 July 31||Contract award to Rockwell International|
|1987 August 1||Start of Final Assembly|
|1987 September 28||Start structural assembly of aft fuselage|
|1990 July 6||Completed Final Assembly|
|1991 April 25||Rollout from Palmdale|
|1991 May 7||Delivery to Kennedy Space Center|
|1992 April 6||Flight Readiness Firing (FRF)|
|1992 May 7||First flight (STS-49)|
Upgrades and features
As it was constructed later, Endeavour was built with new hardware designed to improve and expand orbiter capabilities. Most of this equipment was later incorporated into the other three orbiters during out-of-service major inspection and modification programs. Endeavour’s upgrades include:
- A 40-foot (12 m) diameter drag chute that reduced the orbiter's rollout distance by 1,000 to 2,000 feet (300 to 610 m).
- The plumbing and electrical connections needed for Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) modifications to allow up to a 28-day mission (although a 28-day mission was never attempted; the record is 17 days, which was set by Columbia).
- Updated avionics systems that included advanced general purpose computers, improved inertial measurement units and tactical air navigation systems, enhanced master events controllers and multiplexer-demultiplexers, a solid-state star tracker and improved nose wheel steering mechanisms.
- An improved version of the Auxiliary Power Units (APUs) that provided power to operate the Shuttle's hydraulic systems.
Modifications resulting from a 2005–2006 refit of Endeavour include:
- The Station-to-Shuttle Power Transfer System (SSPTS), which converted 8 kilowatts of DC power from the ISS main voltage of 120VDC to the orbiter bus voltage of 28VDC. This upgrade allowed Endeavour to remain on-orbit while docked at ISS for an additional 3- to 4-day duration. The corresponding power equipment was added to the ISS during the STS-116 station assembly mission, and Endeavour flew with SSPTS capability during STS-118.
Endeavour flew its final mission, STS-134, to the International Space Station (ISS) in May 2011. After the conclusion of STS-134, Endeavour was formally decommissioned.
Endeavour was originally scheduled to be decommissioned in 2010 after 18 years of service, but on July 1, 2010, NASA released a statement saying the Endeavour mission was rescheduled for February 27, 2011, instead of late November, 2010.
"The target dates were adjusted because critical payload hardware for STS-133 will not be ready in time to support the previously planned 16 September launch," NASA said in a statement. With the Discovery launch moving to November, Endeavour mission "cannot fly as planned, so the next available launch window is in February 2011," NASA said, adding that the launch dates are subject to change.
The launch was once again postponed until April 29, 2011, in order to avoid a scheduling conflict with a Russian supply vehicle heading for the International Space Station.
Endeavour completed its final mission with a landing at the Kennedy Space Center at 06:34 UTC on June 1, 2011. Over its flight career, Endeavour flew 122,853,151 miles and spent 299 days in space. While flying Endeavour's last mission, the Russian spacecraft Soyuz TMA-20 departed from the ISS and paused at a distance of 200 meters. Italian astronaut Paolo Nespoli took a series of photographs and videos of the ISS with Endeavour docked. This was the second time a Shuttle had been photographed while docked and the first time since 1996. Commander Mark Kelly was the last astronaut off Endeavour after the landing, and the crew stayed on the landing strip long enough to sign autographs and pose for pictures. With commander Mark Kelly and pilot Gregory Johnson at the controls, Endeavour's touchdown was the 25th time a shuttle performed a night landing.
One final mission, STS-135, was added to the schedule in January 2011, and Atlantis flew for the last time in July 2011.
After low level flyovers above NASA and civic landmarks across the country and in California, it was delivered to Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) on September 21, 2012. The orbiter was slowly and carefully transported through the streets of Los Angeles and Inglewood three weeks later, from October 11-14 along La Tijera, Manchester, Crenshaw, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevards to her final destination at the California Science Center in Exposition Park.
Endeavour encountered a few obstacles while transiting the streets narrowly missing telephone poles, apartment buildings and other structures. The power had to be turned off and power carrying poles had to be removed temporarily as the orbiter crept along Manchester to Prairie Avenue then Crenshaw Boulevard. News crews lined the streets along the path with visible news personalities in the news trucks. There were several police escorts as well as considerable security helping to control the large crowds gathered. Endeavour was parked for a few hours at the Great Western Forum where it was available for viewing. The journey was famous for an unmodified Toyota Tundra pickup truck pulling the space shuttle across the Manchester Boulevard Bridge. The space shuttle was mainly carried by four self-propelled robotic dollies throughout the 12 mile journey. However, due to bridge weight restrictions, the space shuttle was moved onto the dolly towed by the Tundra. After it had completely crossed the bridge, the Space Shuttle was returned to the robotic dollies. The footage was later used in a commercial for the 2013 Super Bowl. Having taken longer than expected, Endeavour finally reached the Science Center on October 14.
The exhibit was opened to the public on October 30, 2012 at the temporary Samuel Oschin Space Shuttle Endeavour Display Pavilion of the museum. A new addition to the Science Center, called the Samuel Oschin Air and Space Center, is under construction as Endeavour's permanent home. Planned for a 2017 opening, the Endeavour will be mounted vertically with an external tank and a pair of solid rocket boosters in the shuttle stack configuration. One payload door will be open to reveal a demonstration payload inside.
After its decommissioning, Endeavour's Canadarm (formally the 'Shuttle Remote Manipulator System') was removed in order to be sent to the Canadian Space Agency’s John H. Chapman Space Centre in Longueuil, Quebec, a suburb of Montreal, where it was to be placed on display. The Space Agency's Longueuil headquarters was an unlikely choice for the display of the Canadian-built robotic device. In a Canadian poll on which science or aerospace museum should be selected to display the Canadarm, originally built by SPAR Aerospace, the Canadian Space Agency’s headquarters placed third to last with only 35 out of 638 votes. Endeavour's Canadarm has since gone on permanent display at the Canada Aviation and Space Museum in Ottawa.
|#||Launch date||Designation||Launch pad||Landing location||Notes|
|1||1992-05-07||STS-49||39-B||Edwards Air Force Base||First flight of Endeavour: Capture and redeploy Intelsat VI. First three-man EVA, longest US EVA since Apollo 17.|
|2||1992-09-12||STS-47||39-B||Kennedy Space Center||Spacelab mission J with the first African American woman in space, Mae Jemison|
|4||1993-06-21||STS-57||39-B||Kennedy||Spacelab experiments. Retrieve European Retrievable Carrier|
|5||1993-12-02||STS-61||39-B||Kennedy||First Hubble Space Telescope service mission (HSM-1)|
|6||1994-04-09||STS-59||39-A||Edwards||Space Radar Laboratory experiments|
|7||1994-09-30||STS-68||39-A||Edwards||Space Radar Laboratory experiments|
|8||1995-03-02||STS-67||39-A||Edwards||Spacelab Astro-2 experiments‡|
|9||1995-09-07||STS-69||39-A||Kennedy||Wake Shield Facility and other experiments|
|10||1996-01-11||STS-72||39-B||Kennedy||Retrieve Japanese Space Flyer Unit|
|12||1998-01-22||STS-89||39-A||Kennedy||Rendezvous with Mir space station and astronaut exchange|
|13||1998-12-04||STS-88||39-A||Kennedy||International Space Station assembly mission 2A (assembled the Unity Module (Node 1), first American component of the ISS)|
|14||2000-02-11||STS-99||39-A||Kennedy||Shuttle Radar Topography Mission experiments|
|15||2000-11-30||STS-97||39-B||Kennedy||International Space Station assembly mission (P6 truss segment)|
|16||2001-04-19||STS-100||39-A||Edwards||International Space Station assembly mission 6A (Canadarm2 robotic arm and hand)|
|17||2001-12-05||STS-108||39-B||Kennedy||International Space Station assembly mission UF-1, rendezvous and astronaut exchange (Expedition 3/Expedition 4)|
|18||2002-06-05||STS-111||39-A||Edwards||International Space Station assembly mission UF-2, rendezvous and astronaut exchange (Expedition 4/Expedition 5)|
|19||2002-11-23||STS-113||39-A||Kennedy||International Space Station assembly mission 11A and astronaut exchange/final successful shuttle flight before the Columbia disaster (Expedition 5/6 exchange; P1 truss segment assembly)|
|20||2007-08-08||STS-118||39-A||Kennedy||Four spacewalks conducted. Installation of the International Space Station S5 Truss, of the Integrated Truss Structure. Carried a SPACEHAB module carrying 5,000 pounds of supplies and equipment to the International Space Station. Crew included the Educator Astronaut Barbara Morgan. Thermal tiles protecting the underside of the vehicle were damaged during launch. NASA decided not to fix this damage in-flight as it was not believed to be serious enough to result in loss of vehicle or crew. The craft landed a day early due to the possibility that Hurricane Dean would force Mission Control to evacuate.|
|21||2008-03-11||STS-123||39-A||Kennedy||International Space Station assembly mission 1J/A which delivered the first element of Japan's Kibo module along with the Canadian Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator robotic arm, and the Spacelab Pallet-Deployable 1.|
|22||2008-11-14||STS-126||39-A||Edwards||International Space Station assembly mission that brought equipment and supplies in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo, and Expedition 18 crew rotation, Sandra Magnus replaced Gregory Chamitoff. Endeavour was the only orbiter to land on the temporary Runway 4 at Edwards AFB, as the refurbished main runway will be operational from STS-119 onwards.|
|23||2009-07-15||STS-127||39-A||Kennedy||International Space Station assembly mission which delivered the last two elements of Japan's Kibo Module along with the Spacelab Pallet-Deployable 2, and an Integrated Cargo Carrier-Vertical Light Deployable.|
|24||2010-02-08||STS-130||39-A||Kennedy||International Space Station assembly mission which delivered the Node 3 and the Cupola observatory to the station. This brought the ISS to 98 percent completion.|
|25||2011-05-16||STS-134||39-A||Kennedy||International Space Station assembly mission which delivered the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer and the ELC-3 to the space station. This was the final mission of Endeavour. Although originally planned to be the last space shuttle program flight, one additional flight of Atlantis, STS-135, was flown in July 2011.|
‡ Longest shuttle mission for Endeavour
Tribute and mission insignias
|NASA Orbiter Tribute for Space Shuttle Endeavour|
|Mission insignia for Endeavour mission flights|
The Flow Director was responsible for the overall preparation of the shuttle for launch and processing it after landing, and remained permanently assigned to head the spacecraft's ground crew while the astronaut flight crews changed for every mission. Each shuttle's Flow Director was supported by a Vehicle Manager for the same spacecraft. Space shuttle Endeavour's Flow Directors were:
- 01/1991 – ?: John J. "Tip" Talone Jr. (previously Flow Director for Discovery)
- 08/2000 - 05/2006: Tassos Abadiotakis
- Until 08/2012: Dana M. Hutcherson
- List of human spaceflights
- List of Space Shuttle crews
- List of space shuttle missions
- Timeline of Space Shuttle missions
- List of human spaceflights chronologically
- "Space Shuttle Overview: Endeavour (OV-105)". NASA. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
- "STS-49". NASA KSC. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
- "Endeavour completes final mission; NASA has one left". CNN. June 1, 2011. Retrieved June 1, 2011.
- "Consolidated Launch Manifest". NASA. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
- John F. Kennedy Space Center – Space Shuttle Endeavour. Pao.ksc.nasa.gov. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
- "Shuttle's Name Misspelled On NASA Launch Pad Sign". WKMG-TV. Archived from the original on July 16, 2007.
- "The Naming Of The Space Shuttle Endeavour". NASA. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
- "Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour (OV-105)". NASA/KSC. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
- "Vehicle Upgrades: Station-Shuttle Power Transfer System (SSPTS)". Boeing: Integrated Defense Systems. Archived from the original on March 18, 2007.
- "NASA Presolicitation Notice: Station-Shuttle Power Transfer System (SSPTS)". NASA. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
- "NASA's Space Shuttle Processing Status Report: S05-034". NASA. December 2, 2005.
- NASA – NASA Updates Shuttle Target Launch Dates For Final Two Flights. NASA. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
- "Unmanned Russian cargo ship heads for space station". CNN. February 2, 2003.
- "NASA – STS-134". NASA. Retrieved 2012-05-20.
- "Endeavour completes final mission; one flight left for NASA". CNN. June 1, 2011. Retrieved June 3, 2011.
- "Space Shuttle Endeavour Lands Safely in Florida". ABC News. June 1, 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
- "Soyuz TMA-20 captures historic photography prior to perfect landing". NASASpaceFlight. May 23, 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- Dunn, Marcia (January 6, 2011). "Endeavour's last landing sparks pride and sadness". MSNBC. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
- Harwood, William (June 1, 2011). "Endeavour ends final mission with smooth landing; The Space Shot". CNET News. Retrieved 2012-05-20.
- Simon, Richard (August 14, 2010). "With shuttles becoming museum pieces, cities vie to land one". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- "Discovery's Final Home 'Up In The Air'". United Press International. 1 November 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- Douglas Stanglin (12 April 2011). "NYC, L.A., Kennedy Space Center, Smithsonian to get the 4 retired space shuttles". USA Today. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- Richard Simon (April 12, 2012). "Delivering the space shuttles is tougher than you think". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- "Space shuttle Endeavour route, street closures & viewing areas". ABC7 News. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- Kate Mather; Adolfo Flores; Marisa Geber; Andrew Khouri; Ken Weiss (13 October 2012). "Space shuttle Endeavour rolls on toward its new home". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
- "Space Shuttle Endeavour homepage". California Science Center. 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
- Neal Morton (2012-10-13). "Shuttle Endeavour hitches a ride with S.A. truck". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved 2012-10-14.
- Allyson Harwood (2012-10-15). "How a 2012 Toyota Tundra Towed the Space Shuttle Endeavour". Motor Trend's Truck Trend. Retrieved 2013-07-17.
- "Endeavour Arrives at California Science Center". NBC News Los Angeles. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- Canadian Space Agency. The Canadarm Is Returning Home, Montreal: Canadian Space Agency press release, July 16, 2012. Retrieved October 19, 2012.[dead link]
- Canadian Space Agency Requests Proposals To Display Canadarm At St. Hubert Headquarters, SpaceRefCanada website. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- "Endeavour's Canadarm coming home". CBC. April 12, 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- Andy Johnson (2 May 2013). "Unveiling exhibit, Hadfield sends first Canadarm 'last command' from space". CTV News. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
- Elizabeth Howell (2 May 2013). "Space Shuttle's Robotic Arm Goes on Display at Canadian Museum". Space.com. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
- Canadian Space Agency (2 May 2013). "Minister Moore Unveils Exhibit for Canada's National Space Icon: the Canadarm". Canadian Space Agency. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
- "Space Shuttle Mission STS-122". Nasa.gov. May 24, 2009. Retrieved July 17, 2009.
- NASA (November 30, 2008). "NASA RSS archive". NASA. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- Bergin, Chris (November 30, 2008). "Endeavour lands at Edwards to conclude STS-126". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- "NASA – NASA's Shuttle and Rocket Launch Schedule". Nasa.gov. Retrieved July 17, 2009.
- "STS-127 MCC Status Report No. 32". NASA. July 31, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- "ISS Assembly missions". NASA.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Space Shuttle Endeavour.|
- NASA — Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour (OV-105) homepage
- California Science Center: Space Shuttle Endeavour homepage — final home in Exposition Park, Los Angeles.
- Stickrboo.com: Endeavour
- Endeavour during STS-126 mission — MPLM visible in Payload Bay.
- Image of Space Shuttle Endeavour docked to ISS during STS-127 — created using a telescope mounted camera by astrophotographer Ralf Vandebergh.
- Transition & Retirement Processing in OPF-2 — over, under, around and through Endeavour with high-resolution spherical panoramas.
- Consolidated Launch Manifest (2007) — Space Shuttle Flights and ISS Assembly Sequence.