The Phantom of the Opera (1986 musical)

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"The Phantom of the Opera (musical)" redirects here. For other musicals based on the Gaston Leroux novel, see The Phantom of the Opera (disambiguation).
The Phantom of the Opera
Phantom.jpg
Logo
Music Andrew Lloyd Webber
Lyrics Charles Hart
Richard Stilgoe (additional)
Book Andrew Lloyd Webber
Richard Stilgoe[1]
Basis Le Fantôme de l'Opéra 
by Gaston Leroux
Premiere 9 October 1986 – Her Majesty's Theatre, London
Productions 1986 West End
1988 Broadway
1989 Toronto, Canada
1991 First US Tour
1992 Second US Tour
1993 San Francisco
2004 Film Adaptation
2005 São Paulo
2006 Las Vegas Spectacular
2008 Third US Tour
2011 25th Anniversary
2009 Buenos Aires
2012 UK Tour
2013 25th Anniversary on Broadway
2013 North American Tour
2014-2015 North American Tour
2013 Hamburg Revival
2014 Moscow
2014 Philadelphia
2014 Tartu
2014 Prague
2015 Helsinki
Various international and amateur productions
Awards 1986 Laurence Olivier Award for Best New Musical
1988 Tony Award for Best Musical

The Phantom of the Opera is a musical with music by Andrew Lloyd Webber and lyrics by Charles Hart with additions from Richard Stilgoe. Lloyd Webber and Stilgoe also wrote the musical's book together.[1] Based on the French novel Le Fantôme de l'Opéra by Gaston Leroux, its central plot revolves around a beautiful soprano, Christine Daaé, who becomes the obsession of a mysterious, disfigured musical genius.

The musical opened in London's West End in 1986, and on Broadway in 1988. It won the 1986 Olivier Award and the 1988 Tony Award for Best Musical, and Michael Crawford (in the title role) won the Olivier and Tony Awards for Best Actor in a Musical.[2] It is the longest running show in Broadway history by a wide margin, and celebrated its 10,000th Broadway performance on 11 February 2012, the first production ever to do so.[3] It is the second longest-running West End musical, after Les Misérables, and the third longest-running West End show overall, after The Mousetrap.[4][5][6]

With total estimated worldwide gross receipts of over $5.6 billion (the highest in history) and total Broadway gross of US$845 million (surpassed only by The Lion King),[7] Phantom is the most financially successful entertainment event to date.[8][9] By 2011 it had been seen by over 130 million people in 145 cities in 27 countries, and continues to play in both London and New York.[8]

Development[edit]

Idea[edit]

In 1984 Lloyd Webber contacted Cameron Mackintosh, the co-producer of Cats and Song and Dance, to propose a new musical. He was aiming for a romantic piece, and suggested Gaston Leroux's book The Phantom of the Opera as a basis. They screened both the 1925 Lon Chaney and the 1943 Claude Rains motion picture versions, but neither saw an effective way to make the leap from film to stage. Later, in New York, Lloyd Webber found a second-hand copy of the original, long-out-of-print Leroux novel, which supplied the necessary inspiration to develop a musical:

"I was actually writing something else at the time, and I realized that the reason I was hung up was because I was trying to write a major romantic story, and I had been trying to do that ever since I started my career. Then with the Phantom, it was there!"[10]

Lyricists[edit]

Lloyd Webber first approached Jim Steinman to write the lyrics because of his "dark obsessive side", but he declined in order to fulfill his commitments on a Bonnie Tyler album.[11] Alan Jay Lerner was then recruited, but he became seriously ill after joining the project and was forced to withdraw; none of his contributions (mostly involving the song "Masquerade") are credited in the show.[12][13] Richard Stilgoe, the lyricist for Starlight Express, wrote most of the original lyrics for the production. Charles Hart, a young and then-relatively unknown lyricist, later rewrote many of the lyrics, along with original lyrics for "Think of Me". Some of Stilgoe's original contributions are still present in the final version, however.[14]

Score[edit]

Inspired in part by an earlier musical version of the same story by Ken Hill,[15] Lloyd Webber's score is sometimes operatic in style but maintains the form and structure of a musical throughout. The full-fledged operatic passages are reserved principally for subsidiary characters such as Andre and Firmin, Carlotta, and Piangi. They are also used to provide the content of the fictional "operas" that are taking place within the show itself, viz., Hannibal, Il Muto, and the Phantom's masterwork, Don Juan Triumphant. "Here, Lloyd Webber pastiched various styles from the grand operas of Meyerbeer through to Mozart and even Gilbert and Sullivan."[16] These pieces are often presented as musical fragments, interrupted by dialogue or action sequences in order to clearly define the musical's "show within a show" format. The musical extracts from the Phantom's opera, "Don Juan Triumphant", during the latter stages of the show, are dissonant and modern—"suggesting, perhaps, that the Phantom is ahead of his time artistically".[17]

Design, direction, and choreography[edit]

Maria Björnson designed the sets and over 200 costumes, including the elaborate gowns in the "Masquerade" sequence. Her set designs, including the chandelier, subterranean gondola, and sweeping staircase, earned her multiple awards.[18][19] Hal Prince, director of Cabaret, Candide, Follies, and Lloyd Webber's Evita, directed the production, while Gillian Lynne, associate director and choreographer of Cats, provided the integral musical staging and choreography.

First preview at Sydmonton[edit]

A preview of the first act was staged at Sydmonton (Lloyd Webber's home) in 1985, starring Colm Wilkinson (later the star of the Toronto production) as the Phantom, Sarah Brightman as Kristin (later Christine) and Clive Carter (later a member of the London cast) as Raoul. This very preliminary production used Richard Stilgoe's original unaltered lyrics, and many songs sported names that were later changed, such as "What Has Time Done to Me" ("Think of Me"), and "Papers" ("Notes"). The Phantom's original mask covered the entire face and remained in place throughout the performance, obscuring the actor's vision and muffling his voice. Björnson designed the now-iconic half-mask to replace it, and the unmasking sequence was added.[14] Clips of this preview performance were included on the DVD of the 2004 film production.[20]

West End[edit]

Phantom began previews at Her Majesty's Theatre in London's West End on 27 September 1986 under the direction of Hal Prince, then opened on 9 October. It was choreographed by Gillian Lynne and the sets were designed by Maria Björnson, with lighting by Andrew Bridge.[21] Michael Crawford starred in the title role with Sarah Brightman as Christine and Steve Barton as Raoul. The production, still playing at Her Majesty's, celebrated its 10,000th performance on 23 October 2010, with Lloyd Webber and the original Phantom, Michael Crawford, in attendance. It is the second longest-running musical in West End (and world) history behind Les Misérables, and third overall behind The Mousetrap.[22][23]

A 25th-anniversary stage performance was held in London on 1 and 2 October 2011 at the Royal Albert Hall and was screened live in cinemas worldwide.[24] The production was produced by Cameron Mackintosh, directed by Laurence Connor, musical staging & choreography by Gillian Lynne, set design by Matt Kinley, costume design by Maria Björnson, lighting design by Patrick Woodroffe and sound design by Mick Potter. The cast included Ramin Karimloo as the Phantom, Sierra Boggess as Christine, Hadley Fraser as Raoul, Wynne Evans as Piangi, Wendy Ferguson as Carlotta, Barry James as Monsieur Firmin, Gareth Snook as Monsieur Andre, Liz Robertson as Madame Giry and Daisy Maywood as Meg Giry. Lloyd Webber and several original cast members, including Crawford and Brightman, were in attendance. A DVD and Blu-ray of the performance was released in February 2012,[25] and it began airing in March 2012 on PBS's "Great Performances" television series.[24]

In March 2012 a new production directed by Laurence Connor began a UK and Ireland tour to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the show, beginning at the Theatre Royal Plymouth and traveling to Manchester, Bristol, Dublin, Leeds, Edinburgh, Milton Keynes, Cardiff and Southampton. John Owen-Jones and Earl Carpenter alternate as the Phantom with Katie Hall as Christine and Simon Bailey as Raoul.[26]

Broadway[edit]

Phantom began Broadway previews at the Majestic Theatre on 9 January 1988 and opened on 26 January.[9][27] Crawford, Brightman, and Barton reprised their respective roles from the West End. The production continues to play at the Majestic, where it became the first Broadway musical in history to surpass 10,000 performances on 11 February 2012.[28] On 26 January 2013 the production celebrated its 25th anniversary with its 10,400th performance.[29] It is, by over 3,000 performances, the longest-running show in Broadway history.[21]

Amateur productions[edit]

In 2013 the rights to perform "Phantom" were released to non-professional groups.[30] CLOC musical theatre staged the world amateur premier in May 2013 at the National Theatre in Melbourne, Australia. In June 2013 Windmill Theatre Company staged the production at the Drum Theatre in Dandenong. Also in June 2013, Wellington Musical Theatre debuted the New Zealand premiere starring Chris Crowe and Barbara Graham.

Synopsis[edit]

Prologue[edit]

On the stage of the fictional Opéra Populaire in 1905,[31][32] an auction of old theatrical props is underway. Lot 665, purchased by the elderly Raoul, Vicomte de Chagny, is a papier-mâché music box in the shape of a monkey. He eyes it sadly, noting that its details appear "exactly as she said". Lot 666 is a shattered chandelier that, the auctioneer explains, has a connection to "the strange affair of the Phantom of the Opera, a mystery never fully explained". As the chandelier is uncovered, its lamps flicker to life and it magically rises over the audience to its original position in the rafters. As it ascends, the years roll back and the Opéra returns to its 1880s grandeur. ("Overture")

Act I[edit]

It is now 1881.[33] As Carlotta, the Opéra's resident soprano prima donna, rehearses for that evening's performance, a backdrop collapses without warning. "The Phantom! He's here!" the anxious cast members whisper. The Opera's new owners, Firmin and André, try to downplay the incident, but Carlotta refuses to continue and storms offstage. Madame Giry, the Opéra's ballet mistress, tells Firmin and André that Christine Daaé, a Swedish chorus girl and orphaned daughter of a prominent violinist, has been "well taught" and could sing Carlotta's role. With cancellation of the performance their only alternative, the owners reluctantly audition Christine, and to their surprise she is equal to the challenge. ("Think of Me")

Michael Crawford and Sarah Brightman performing the title song

Backstage after her triumphant début, Christine confesses to her best friend Meg (Madame Giry's daughter) that she knows her mysterious teacher only as an invisible "Angel of Music" ("Angel of Music"). The Opera's new patron, Raoul, the Vicomte de Chagny, finds Christine, his old childhood playmate, in her dressing room. ("Little Lotte") Christine reminisces with Raoul about the "Angel of Music" stories that her late father used to tell them and confides that the Angel has visited her and taught her to sing. Raoul laughs at her "fantasies" and invites her to dinner. He exits and a jealous Phantom appears in Christine's mirror in the guise of The Angel of Music. ("The Mirror/Angel of Music (Reprise)") Christine begs him to reveal himself and The Phantom obliges, then guides her into a ghostly underground realm. ("The Phantom of the Opera") They cross a subterranean lake to his secret lair beneath the opéra house. The Phantom explains that he has chosen Christine to sing his music and enchants her with his own sublime voice. ("The Music of the Night") Christine sees a mannequin resembling herself in a wedding dress, and when the mannequin suddenly moves, she faints. The Phantom picks her up and places her gently on a bed.

As the Phantom composes music at his organ, Christine awakens to the sound of the monkey music box. ("I Remember…") She slips behind the Phantom, lifts his mask, and beholds his real face. The Phantom rails at her curiosity, then ruefully expresses his longing to look normal—and to be loved by her. ("Stranger Than You Dreamt It")

Meanwhile, inside the opéra house, Joseph Buquet, the Opéra's chief stagehand—who, like Madame Giry, inexplicably knows much about the Phantom—regales everyone with tales of the "Opéra Ghost" and his terrible Punjab lasso. ("Magical Lasso") Madame Giry warns Buquet to exercise restraint. In the managers' office, Madame Giry delivers a note from the Phantom: He demands that Christine replace Carlotta in the new opera, Il Muto, or there will be a terrible disaster "beyond imagination". ("Notes…") Firmin and André assure the enraged Carlotta that she will remain the star, ("Prima Donna") but during her performance, ("Poor Fool, He Makes Me Laugh") the Phantom reduces her voice to a frog-like croak. A ballet interlude begins, to keep the audience entertained—but a series of menacing shadows can be seen on the backdrop. Suddenly the corpse of Buquet, hanging from the Punjab lasso, drops from the rafters. Firmin and André plead for calm as the Phantom's diabolical laughter is heard.

In the ensuing mêlée, Christine escapes with Raoul to the roof, where she tells him about her subterranean rendezvous with the Phantom. Raoul is skeptical, ("Why Have You Brought Me Here?/Raoul, I've Been There") but swears to love and to protect her always. ("All I Ask of You") The Phantom, who has overheard their conversation, is heartbroken. As he angrily vows revenge against Raoul, ("All I Ask of You (Reprise)") the Opéra's mighty chandelier crashes to the stage as the curtain falls.

Act II[edit]

Steve Barton and Sarah Brightman in the final scene

Six months later, in the midst of the gala masquerade ball, the Phantom, costumed as the Red Death, makes his first appearance since the chandelier disaster. ("Masquerade/Why So Silent?") He announces to the stunned guests that he has written an opera entitled Don Juan Triumphant. He demands that it be produced immediately, with Christine (who is now engaged to Raoul) in the lead role, and warns of dire consequences if it is not. He seizes Christine's engagement ring and vanishes in a flash of fire and smoke. Raoul demands that Madame Giry tell him about the Phantom. She reluctantly replies that he is a brilliant musician and magician born with a terrifyingly deformed face, who escaped from captivity in a traveling freak show and disappeared.

During rehearsals, Raoul hatches a plan to use Don Juan Triumphant as a trap to capture the Phantom, knowing the Phantom will be sure to attend its première. ("Notes/Twisted Every Way") Christine, torn between her love for Raoul and her gratitude for the Phantom's teaching, visits her father's grave, longing for his guidance. ("Wishing You Were Somehow Here Again") The Phantom appears, again under the guise of the Angel of Music. ("Wandering Child") Christine nearly falls under his spell, but Raoul arrives to rescue her. The Phantom taunts Raoul, launching fiery missiles at him, ("Bravo Monsieur") until Christine begs Raoul to leave with her. Furious, the Phantom sets fire to the cemetery.

Don Juan Triumphant opens with Christine and Ubaldo Piangi, the Opéra's principal tenor, singing the lead roles. ("Don Juan") During their duet, Christine suddenly realizes that she is singing not with Piangi, but with the Phantom himself. ("The Point of No Return") He expresses his love for her and gives her his ring, but Christine rips off his mask, exposing his deformed face to the shocked audience. As Piangi is found strangled to death backstage, the Phantom seizes Christine and flees the theatre. An angry mob led by Meg searches the theatre for the Phantom, while Madame Giry directs Raoul to the Phantom's subterranean lair, and warns him to beware his Punjab lasso.

In the lair Christine is forced to don the doll's wedding dress. ("Down Once More/Track Down This Murderer") Raoul arrives, but the Phantom captures him with his lasso. He tells Christine that he will free Raoul if she agrees to stay with him forever; if she refuses, Raoul will die. ("Final Lair") Christine tells the Phantom that it is his soul that is deformed, not his face, and kisses him. The Phantom, having experienced kindness and compassion for the first time, sets them both free. Christine returns the Phantom's ring to him, and he tells her he loves her. She cries, forces herself to turn away, and exits with Raoul. The Phantom, weeping, huddles on his throne and covers himself with his cape. The mob storms the lair and Meg pulls away the cape—but the Phantom has vanished; only his mask remains.[34]



Casting[edit]

Original Casts[edit]

The original casts of the major productions of The Phantom of the Opera:[35][36]

Character Original West End Cast Original Broadway Cast Original Canadian Cast Original Las Vegas Cast
The Phantom of the Opera Michael Crawford Colm Wilkinson Brent Barrett
Anthony Crivello
Christine Daaé Sarah Brightman
Claire Moore
Sarah Brightman
Patti Cohenour
Rebecca Caine
Susan Cuthbert
Sierra Boggess
Elizabeth Loyacano‡
Raoul, Vicomte de Chagny Steve Barton Byron Nease Tim Martin Gleason
Carlotta Giudicelli Rosemary Ashe Judy Kaye Lyse Guerin Elena Jeanne Batman
Geena Jeffries Mattox‡
Madame Giry Mary Millar Leila Martin Kristina Marie Guiguet Rebecca Spencer
Meg Giry Janet Devenish Elisa Heinsohn Donna Rubin Brianne Kelly Morgan
Monsieur Richard Firmin John Savident Nick Wyman Gregory Cross Lawson Skala
Monsieur Gilles André David Firth Cris Groenendaal Paul Massell John Leslie Wolfe
Ubaldo Piangi John Aron David Romano Peter Cormican Larry Wayne Morbitt

† The role of Christine Daaé is double-cast in most professional productions. The secondary actress performs the role twice a week (on Broadway, Thursday evening and Saturday matinée).[37]

‡ Three roles (The Phantom, Christine, and Carlotta) were double-cast in the original Las Vegas production, with the two actors in each pair singing alternate performances.[38] Later, Las Vegas casting became identical to that in the Broadway production, with single casting for all characters except Christine.[39]

Notable West End replacements
  • Phantom

-Dave Willetts -John Owen-Jones -Ramin Karimloo -Peter Jöback -Simon Bowman -Earl Carpenter

  • Christine

-Claire Moore -Rebecca Caine -Myrra Malmberg -Gina Beck -Rachel Barrell -Leila Benn Harris -Robyn North -Meredith Braun

  • Raoul

Michael Ball -John Barrowman -Simon Bowman -Simon Burke -Clive Carter -Killian Donnelly -Ramin Karimloo -Robert Meadmore -Oliver Thornton

  • Carlotta

Julia Goss -Margaret Preece -Shan Cothi

Notable Broadway replacements
  • Phantom

Timothy Nolen -Steve Barton -Mark Jacoby -Davis Gaines -Thomas James O'Leary -Hugh Panaro -Howard McGillin -Gary Mauer -Brad Little -John Cudia -Peter Jöback -Norm Lewis

  • Christine

-Lisa VromanPatti Cohenour -Rebecca Luker -Rebecca Pitcher -Jennifer Hope Wills -Sierra Boggess

  • Raoul

-Gary MauerHugh Panaro -Brad Little -John Cudia -Tim Martin Gleason

  • Monsieur André

George Lee Andrews

Musical numbers[edit]

Notes:

  • § The forward slash used here between two titles indicates two musical numbers about which it is difficult to distinguish when one ends and the other begins. (Such pairs are often merged on recordings into a single track.)

Orchestration[edit]

There are several scores: 27 piece orchestra (original score), 13 piece orchestra (Bus&Truck reduced score), 45 piece orchestra (25th Anniversary score).

The Broadway production utilizes a 27-piece pit orchestra:

  • Reed I: Flute/Piccolo
  • Reed II: Flute/Clarinet
  • Reed III: Oboe/English horn
  • Reed IV: B-flat Clarinet/Bass Clarinet/E-flat Clarinet
  • Reed V: Bassoon
  • Horns I–III
  • Trumpets I–II
  • Trombone
  • Percussion I–II
  • Keyboards I–II: Piano, Synthesiser
  • Violins I-VIII
  • Violas I–II
  • Cellos I–II
  • Double Bass
  • Harp

Recordings[edit]

Cast recordings have been made of the London,[40] Austrian,[41] and Canadian productions.[42]

The recording of the 1986 original London cast, released by Polydor Records in 1987, was released in both a single CD Highlights From The Phantom of the Opera and a two CD Phantom of the Opera, both of which have been certified 4× Platinum in the US.[43] Phantom was also certified 3× Platinum in the UK.[44] The Canadian cast recording went 2× Platinum in Canada.[45] In Switzerland, Phantom was certified 3× Platinum and Highlights was certified 2× Platinum.[46] Recordings of the Vienna cast and the Hamburg cast were certified Gold and triple Platinum, respectively, in Germany.[47] The original album recording has sold an alleged 24 million copies worldwide.[48]

A live recording of The Phantom of the Opera at the Royal Albert Hall was released in the UK on 15 November 2011 and subsequently in the U.S. and Canada on 7 February 2012,[49] along with Blu-ray and DVD videos, and a collectors' box set of the Royal Albert concert, the original cast recording, and the sequel, Love Never Dies.[49][50]

Certifications[edit]


Allegations of plagiarism[edit]

In 1987 the heirs of Giacomo Puccini charged in a lawsuit that the climactic phrase in "Music of the Night" closely resembled a similar phrase in the sequence "Quello che tacete" from Puccini's opera Girl of the Golden West.[66][67] The litigation was settled out of court for an undisclosed amount.[68][69]

In 1990 a Baltimore songwriter named Ray Repp filed a lawsuit alleging that the title song from Phantom was based on a song that he wrote in 1978 called "Till You." After eight years of litigation – including an unsuccessful countersuit by Lloyd Webber claiming that "Till You" was itself a plagiarism of "Close Every Door" from Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat[70] — the jury found in Lloyd Webber's favor.[71]

Roger Waters has repeatedly claimed in interviews that the signature descending/ascending half-tone chord progression from Phantom's title song was plagiarised from the bass line of a track on the Pink Floyd 1971 album Meddle called "Echoes."[72] He has never taken any legal action ("Life's too long to bother with suing Andrew fucking Lloyd Webber"), but he did add an insulting reference to Lloyd Webber in his song "It's a Miracle": "We cower in our shelters/With our hands over our ears/Lloyd Webber's awful stuff/Runs for years and years and years/An earthquake hits the theatre/But the operetta lingers/Then the piano lid comes down/And breaks his fucking fingers./It's a miracle!".[73]

Other productions[edit]

Phantom has been translated into several languages and produced in over 28 countries on six continents. With only the exception of Hungary, Poland, New Zealand and the 25th Anniversary UK and US Tours, these productions have all been "clones", using the original staging, direction, sets and costume concepts.[74] International productions include the following:

  • Argentina: The Argentine production premièred in March 2009 at Buenos Aires' Teatro Ópera and closed 29 November 2009 after 194 performances.
  • Australia: 1990–1998: Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane, Adelaide, and Perth; 2007–2009: Melbourne, Brisbane, Sydney, Auckland, Perth and Adelaide, both starring Anthony Warlow. Marina Prior starred as Christine in the original production. In the original Australian production, Rob Guest later took over the title role.[75] The final leg of the recent tour was staged in Adelaide in an arena format featuring giant screens on either side of the stage that presented footage shot simultaneously with the performance. 2013: Canberra starring Michael Cormick with Julie Lea Goodwin starring as Christine from 9–23 August 2013.[76]
  • Austria: The German language production premiered at the Theater an der Wien in December 1988.[77]
  • Belgium: The Dutch production was performed in Stadsschouwburg Antwerpen Stadsschouwburg Antwerpen in Antwerp.
  • Brazil: São Paulo, premièred at Teatro Abril in April 2005.
  • Canada: The Canadian production of Phantom ran for over ten years (September 20,1989 - October 31,1999) in Toronto, Ontario at the Pantages Theatre, ending abruptly when Livent collapsed. The Music Box Tour (Third U.S. National Tour) played dates across Canada in 2006–2007 including Calgary, Vancouver, Edmonton, Winnipeg, Toronto, Saskatoon and Ottawa.
  • Canadian International Touring Company: 11 March 1991 – October 1995 toured Canada, Hawaii, Alaska, Hong Kong and Singapore
  • China: The Shanghai production played 97 performances at the Shanghai Grand Theatre. The World Tour is currently having their sixth season at the Culture Plaza Theatre at Shanghai Culture Square from 3 December 2013 to 26 January 2014.[78]
  • Denmark: Det Ny Theater, Copenhagen (2000–2001, 2003–2004, 2009)
  • Finland: Will premiere in Helsinki in 2015 as a Finnish National Opera production in original language.[79]
  • Germany: "Das Phantom der Oper" opened at the Stage Neue Flora Theatre, Hamburg from 1990 to 2001, the Palladium Theatre in Stuttgart from 2002 to 2004, and at the Colosseum Theatre in Essen from 2005 to 2007. A second Hamburg production is scheduled in December 2013 at the Stage Theatre Neue Flora.
  • Hong Kong: First tour – at the Hong Kong Cultural Centre Grand Theatre June to October 1995; Second tour – July to August 2006 at the Hong Kong Cultural Centre Grand Theatre.
  • Hungary: Madách Theatre, Budapest. This production, which began in 2003, was the first to modify the original staging with new sets, costumes and direction.[74] The five hundredth performance on 20 September 2007 featured four successive sets of casts.
  • Japan: Shiki Productions produced the show in 1988, the first production performed in a language other than English. The production celebrated its 25th Anniversary on 29 April 2013 and finished its run at the Dentsu Shiki Umi Theatre in Tokyo on 15 June.
  • Mexico: Mexico City, premiered at Teatro Alameda, Centro Cultural Telmex in December 1999.
  • Netherlands: At the Circus Theatre in Scheveningen. More than 1,000 performances (1993–1996) with Henk Poort as the Phantom.
  • New Zealand: Opened at the Aotea Centre in Auckland in 1997 and at The Civic, The Edge-Auckland in 2008. A local production (with new designs)[80] opened on 13 June at the St. James Theatre in Wellington[81] and closed on 16 July 2013.
  • Philippines: The World Tour had its second season from August until October 2012 at the Tanghalang Nicanor Abelardo (Main Theatre) of the Tanghalang Pambansa (National Theatre) in the Cultural Center of the Philippines, featuring sets and several cast members from the 2011 – 2012 South African tour.
  • Poland: Warsaw production premiered in March 2008 at Teatr Muzyczny Roma, featuring original sets, costumes, and direction; closed June 2010.
  • Singapore: First tour at the Kallang Theatre from 26 February 1995 to 20 May 1995, 2nd tour at the Esplanade - Theatres on the Bay from 23 March 2007 to 20 May 2007.[82] The World Tour had their fifth season from 16 July to 1 September 2013 at the Grand Theatre, Marina Bay Sands.
  • South Africa: Opened in 2004 at the Opera House, Artscape Theatre Centre in Cape Town and at the South African State Theatre in Pretoria. A 2011 - 2012 South African tour of the show commenced at the Artscape Theatre in Cape Town and at the Teatro at Montecasino in Johannesburg.
  • South Korea: A Korean-language production opened in 2001 at the LG Arts Centre in Seoul and in 2009 at Charlotte Theater in Seoul. The World Tour visited in 2005 at the Opera House, Seoul Arts Center in Seoul. In December 2012, the World Tour had their third season at the Blue Square Music Hall in Seoul for the Broadway production's 25th Anniversary celebration using sets from the 2011–2012 South African tour featuring several cast members who performed in Manila; closed on March 2013. The World Tour returned to South Korea in Daegu at the Daegu Arts Center Keimyung; opened 27 February 2014.
  • Spain: Madrid, premiered at Teatro Lope de Vega on 4 September 2002.
  • Sweden: 1989–1995, Oscarsteatern, Stockholm. More than 1,000 performances. Starring Mikael Samuelson as the Phantom.
  • Switzerland: Performed in both English and German at the Musical Theatre Messe Basel in Switzerland for over a year in 1996–1997.
  • Taiwan: began on 18 January 2006 at National Theater and Concert Hall (Taiwan) and July 2009 at Taipei Arena, with Brad Little as the Phantom. The World Tour will return to Taiwan on 11 September 2014 at the Taipei Arena.
  • Thailand: The World Tour had their fourth season at the Muangthai Rachadalai Theatre in Bangkok from 7 May to 9 June 2013.
  • United States: Los Angeles (1989–1993), San Francisco (1993–1999). A US National tour commenced in 1991 in Los Angeles, and closed on 31 October 2010 at the Pantages Theatre in Hollywood, California, after nearly 2 decades. The closing night performance was attended by many former cast- and crew-members, including Andrew Lloyd Webber and Sarah Brightman.[83]

Feature film version[edit]

A film version, directed by Joel Schumacher and starring Gerard Butler as the Phantom, Emmy Rossum as Christine, Patrick Wilson as Raoul, Minnie Driver as Carlotta, and Miranda Richardson as Madame Giry opened in limited release on 22 December 2004 in the U.S. and later in nationwide release on 21 January 2005.[84]

Phantom: The Las Vegas Spectacular[edit]

An edited production renamed Phantom – The Las Vegas Spectacular opened 24 June 2006 at The Venetian Resort Hotel Casino in Las Vegas, Nevada, in a theatre built specifically for the show to resemble the Opéra Garnier in Paris.[85] The production ran 95 minutes with no intermission, and was directed and choreographed by Harold Prince and Gillian Lynne, with scenic designs by David Rockwell. The show featured updated technology and effects, including a re-engineered chandelier capable of reassembling in midair during the overture while the entire interior of the venue (not merely the stage) returned to its 1880s halcyon days.[38] Almost 45 minutes' worth of material was eliminated, such as the Don Juan Triumphant rehearsal. "Poor Fool, He Makes Me Laugh" and "The Point of No Return" were significantly shortened.[38] Other changes resembled those in the 2004 film, such as staging the chandelier crash at the plot's climax (during performance of "The Point of No Return") rather than mid-story.[39][86] The Las Vegas production closed on 2 September 2012.

Copyright release[edit]

In 2011 The Really Useful Group (copyright owners of Phantom) released certain rights to the play in celebration of its 25th anniversary. In April 2011 Central High School in Knoxville, Tennessee became the first school to perform Phantom under the new rights.[87][88]

Awards and nominations[edit]

Original London production[edit]

Year Award Ceremony Category Nominee Result
1986 Laurence Olivier Award[89][90] Best New Musical Won
Best Actor in a Musical Michael Crawford Won
Designer of the Year Maria Björnson Nominated
2002 Most Popular Show Won

Original Broadway production[edit]

Year Award Ceremony Category Nominee Result
1988 Drama Desk Award Outstanding Musical Nominated
Outstanding Actor in a Musical Michael Crawford Won
Outstanding Actress in a Musical Sarah Brightman Nominated
Outstanding Director of a Musical Harold Prince Won
Outstanding Music Andrew Lloyd Webber Won
Outstanding Orchestrations David Cullen and Andrew Lloyd Webber Won
Outstanding Set Design Maria Björnson Won
Outstanding Costume Design Won
Outstanding Lighting Design Andrew Bridge Won
Tony Award[91] Best Musical Won
Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical Michael Crawford Won
Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a Musical Judy Kaye Won
Best Direction of a Musical Harold Prince Won
Best Book of a Musical Richard Stilgoe and Andrew Lloyd Webber Nominated
Best Original Score Andrew Lloyd Webber, Charles Hart and Richard Stilgoe Nominated
Best Scenic Design Maria Björnson Won
Best Costume Design Won
Best Lighting Design Andrew Bridge Won
Best Choreography Gillian Lynne Nominated

Sequel[edit]

The sequel to Phantom, written by Lloyd Webber, Glenn Slater and Ben Elton with lyrics by Slater, is called Love Never Dies.[92] It was loosely adapted from the 1999 novel The Phantom of Manhattan by Frederick Forsyth in collaboration with Lloyd Webber. Set in 1907 (a decade after the conclusion of Phantom according to the production's announcement,[93] but actually 26 years later, as the original show was set in 1881[33]), Christine is invited to perform at Phantasma, a new attraction at Coney Island, by an anonymous impresario. With her husband Raoul and son Gustave in tow she journeys to Brooklyn, unaware that it is the Phantom who has arranged her appearance at the popular beach resort.[93][94]

The original production was directed by Jack O'Brien and choreographed by Jerry Mitchell with set and costume designs by Bob Crowley,[92] and opened at the Adelphi Theatre in the West End on 9 March 2010.[95] Though it ran for over 17 months and closed on 27 August 2011, the production received mixed reviews.[96][97][98] A scheduled Broadway opening in November 2010 was postponed until Spring 2011[99] and later canceled.[100] A revamped Australian production, starring Ben Lewis and Anna O'Byrne, opened 21 May 2011 at the Regent Theatre in Melbourne to more favorable notices.[101][102][103][104] After the Melbourne run ended on 12 December 2011 the production moved to the Capitol Theatre in Sydney where it played from January to April 2012.[105][106]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "The Phantom of the Opera: The most commercially successful stage musical ever". Really Useful Licensing. Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
  2. ^ "The Phantom of the Opera – The Show – Awards". 
  3. ^ Gerald Martin Bordman (2004). The Oxford companion to American theatre p.496. Oxford University Press. "A British musical based on Leroux's famous novel".
  4. ^ Top 10 Longest-Running London Theatre Shows Londonist.com. Retrieved 11 February 2012
  5. ^ The A to Z of the Broadway Musical p.266. Scarecrow Press, 2009
  6. ^ Smith, Tim (11 April 2010) 'Phantom of the Opera’ at the Hippodrome The Baltimore Sun
  7. ^ Trueman, Matt (10 April 2012). "Lion King rules Broadway as highest grossing show of all time". The Guardian (London). 
  8. ^ a b "Phantom of the Opera Screening Earns Over £500,000 in the UK", BroadwayWorld.com, 5 October 2011
  9. ^ a b Jones, Kenneth (25 January 2006). "Phantom turns 18". Playbill. Retrieved 23 April 2008. 
  10. ^ Andrew Lloyd Webber, Martin Knowlden The Phantom of the Opera Companion Pavilion, 2007
  11. ^ Bright, Spencer (8 December 1996). "Jim'll Fix It". Sunday Times. Retrieved 9 July 2007. 
  12. ^ Citron, Stephen. Sondheim and Lloyd-Webber (2001), Oxford University Press US, ISBN 0-19-509601-0, p. 330
  13. ^ Behr, Edward. The Complete Book of Les Misérables (1993),Arcade Publishing, ISBN 1-55970-156-0, p. 62
  14. ^ a b Behind the Mask documentary, on the 2004 film DVD
  15. ^ Evans, Everett (2 December 1990). "You need program to keep `Phantom' productions straight". Houston Chronicle. 
  16. ^ Coveney, M. Cats on a Chandelier: The Andrew Lloyd Webber Story. New York, Hutchinson (1999). pp. 200-206. ISBN 978-0091801700
  17. ^ Snelson, J. Andrew Lloyd Webber (Yale Broadway Masters Series). New Haven, Yale University Press (2009), p. 88. ISBN 978-0300151138
  18. ^ Maria Bjornson Dies; Theatre Production Designer was 53 (16 December 2002). LiveDesign archive Retrieved 3 April 2011.
  19. ^ Maria Bjornson obituary. London times archive Retrieved 3 April 2011.
  20. ^ Phantom of the Opera DVD (2004 film). Amazon.com Retrieved 3 April 2011.
  21. ^ a b Propst, Andy. Broadway's Phantom of the Opera to Reach Historic 9,000th Performance on 17 September TheaterMania.com. 14 September 2009.
  22. ^ "The Phantom of the Opera: Show awards". Andrew Lloyd Webber's Really Useful Group. Retrieved 23 April 2008. 
  23. ^ Glendinning, Lee (3 May 2008). "Musical to return louder than ever". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 5 May 2008. 
  24. ^ a b Phantom Live in Cinemas
  25. ^ http://www.amazon.com/Phantom-Opera-Royal-Albert-Hall/dp/B005SFR7YE/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&qid=1328927544&sr=8-2
  26. ^ http://www.thephantomoftheoperatour.com
  27. ^ Lloyd Webber had hoped to open in Toronto prior to Broadway but political pressure forced the change.Phantom of the Opera, at the Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 31 January 2008
  28. ^ Jones, Kenneth "Broadway's Phantom Hits 10,000th Performance on Feb. 11; Milestone Benefits The Actors Fund", Playbill.com, 11 February 2012
  29. ^ ""Phantom" Celebrates Its Silver Anniversary On Broadway". NY1. Retrieved 27 January 2013. 
  30. ^ "Theatre: The Phantom of the Opera". Newcastle Herald. Retrieved 20 February 2014
  31. ^ BWW New Desk (5 September 2011). "Details Revealed for THE PHANTOM OF THE OPERA 25th Anniversary Box Set". Retrieved 19 April 2012. "Track Listing, Disc 1...Original London Cast – Prologue (The Stage of Paris Opera House, 1905)" 
  32. ^ "Andrew Lloyd Webber – The Phantom of the Opera". DiscOgs. 5 April 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2012. "Tracklist...Prologue: The Stage of the Paris Opéra, 1905" 
  33. ^ a b Phantom Las Vegas: Musical Numbers
  34. ^ Perry, George. "The Complete Phantom of the Opera". Owl Books, 1991, ISBN 0-8050-1722-4. 
  35. ^ POTO Onstage, phantom-media.info – accessed 10 May 2009
  36. ^ Phantom of the Opera Toronto Cast
  37. ^ The Phantom of the Opera: opening night production credits. IBDB.com. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  38. ^ a b c Westley, Christine: "Phantom – The Las Vegas Spectacular. TheatreMania.com. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  39. ^ a b Casting: PhantomLasVegas.com Retrieved 8 September 2011
  40. ^ Discogs.com entry "The Phantom Of The Opera" Original London Cast
  41. ^ Discogs.com entry "Das Phantom Der Oper"
  42. ^ Discogs.com entry "The Phantom Of The Opera" Original Canadian Cast
  43. ^ "American certifications – Phantom of the Opera". Recording Industry Association of America. 
  44. ^ "British album certifications – Phantom of the Opera". British Phonographic Industry.  Enter Phantom of the Opera in the field Search. Select Title in the field Search by. Select album in the field By Format. Click Go
  45. ^ "Canadian certifications – Andrew Lloyd Webber – Phantom of the Opera". Music Canada. 
  46. ^ "The Official Swiss Charts and Music Community: Awards ('Phantom of the Opera')". Hung Medien. 
  47. ^ "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank ('Das Phantom der Oper')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie. 
  48. ^ Murray, Rebecca. "Phantom of the Opera Soundtrack List". Sony Classical Records. About.com. Retrieved 2012-12-03. 
  49. ^ a b http://www.thephantomoftheopera.com/news/latest-news/phantom-live-in-cinemas-for-25th-anniversary
  50. ^ http://broadwayworld.com/article/Details-Revealed-for-THE-PHANTOM-OF-THE-OPERA-25th-Anniversary-Box-Set-20110905
  51. ^ "Canadian album certifications – Andrew Lloyd Webber – Phantom of the Opera". Music Canada. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  52. ^ Scapolo, Dean (2007). The Complete New Zealand Music Charts: 1966–2006. Wellington: Dean Scapolo and Maurienne House. p. 12. ISBN 978-1877443-00-8. 
  53. ^ "Polish album certifications – Andrew Lloyd Webber – Phantom of the Opera" (in Polish). Polish Producers of Audio and Video (ZPAV). Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  54. ^ "Guld- och Platinacertifikat − År 1987−1998" (PDF) (in Swedish). IFPI Sweden. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  55. ^ "British album certifications – Stage Cast Recordings – Phantom of the Opera". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 7 August 2012.  Enter Phantom of the Opera in the field Search. Select Title in the field Search by. Select album in the field By Format. Click Go
  56. ^ "American album certifications – Andrew Lloyd Webber – Phantom of the Opera". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved 7 August 2012.  If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH
  57. ^ "Austrian album certifications – Diverse – Phantom der Oper" (in German). IFPI Austria. Retrieved 7 August 2012.  Enter Diverse in the field Interpret. Enter Phantom der Oper in the field Titel. Select album in the field Format. Click Suchen
  58. ^ "Canadian album certifications – Various Artists – The Phantom of the Opera". Music Canada. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  59. ^ "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank (Musical Hamburg; 'Musical Hamburg – Das Phantom der Oper')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  60. ^ "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank (Musical; 'Musical Wien – Das Phantom der Oper')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  61. ^ "Guld- och Platinacertifikat − År 1987−1998" (PDF) (in Swedish). IFPI Sweden. Retrieved 1 November 2012. 
  62. ^ "The Official Swiss Charts and Music Community: Awards (Musical; 'Phantom of the Opera (Andrew Lloyd Webber)')". Hung Medien. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  63. ^ "Canadian album certifications – Various Artists – The Phantom of the Opera (Highlights)". Music Canada. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  64. ^ "The Official Swiss Charts and Music Community: Awards (Musical; 'Phantom of the Opera (Highlights) (Andrew Lloyd Webber)')". Hung Medien. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  65. ^ "American album certifications – Andrew Lloyd Webber – Highlights from Phantom of the Opera _Loncon Cast_". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved 7 August 2012.  If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH
  66. ^ Hear the Opera Andrew Lloyd Webber Allegedly Plagiarized. SFist. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  67. ^ Who's Listening to Lloyd Webber? Theatre Communications Group archive Retrieved 7 November 2011
  68. ^ HOW THE WEST WON THE MET (13 June 2010). San Jose Mercury News (CA). Article ID: 1408078
  69. ^ LET'S HEAR 'GIRL OF THE GOLDEN WEST' SING (12 June 2010) San Jose Mercury News (CA). Article ID: 1408152
  70. ^ Andrew Lloyd Webber Loses Round in Battle Over Allegedly Stolen Song (5 December 1996). Seattle Post-Intelligencer Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  71. ^ Lloyd Webber Wins Phantom Battle. BBC News Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  72. ^ "Who the hell does Roger Waters think he is?". Q magazine. November 1992. Retrieved 20 November 2009. 
  73. ^ It's a Miracle Lyrics Roger Waters Online
  74. ^ a b "Official website of the Hungarian production". Theater Madách. Retrieved 23 April 2008. 
  75. ^ "Australian Broadcasting Corporation The world Today". 
  76. ^ "The Phantom of the Opera - Canberra Theatre Centre". Retrieved 13 October 2013. 
  77. ^ "Official website of the German production". Retrieved 23 April 2008. 
  78. ^ http://www.shculturesquare.com/program.aspx?programId=8843
  79. ^ "Official press release for production in Finland". Retrieved 14 October 2013. 
  80. ^ http://www.pwv.co.nz/live-in-wellington/single-show/show/the-phantom-of-the-opera/
  81. ^ http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/CU1212/S00056/the-phantom-of-the-opera-live-in-wellington.htm
  82. ^ Yong, Yvonne (3 October 2006). "Phantom of the Opera set to return to Singapore". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 23 April 2008. 
  83. ^ "Phantom" To Close at Pantages. neontommy.com Retrieved 27 January 2011.
  84. ^ The Phantom of the Opera (2004) at the Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 31 January 2008
  85. ^ "Phantom: The Las Vegas Spectacular official site". Really Useful Group/Mackintosh Ltd. Retrieved 23 April 2008. 
  86. ^ McKenzie, Kristine (3 October 2006). "Phantom: The Las Vegas Spectacular show review — Beloved show lives up to new name". LasVegas.com. Retrieved 23 April 2008. 
  87. ^ http://www.knoxnews.com/news/2011/apr/05/central-students-first-in-state-to-bring-phantom/
  88. ^ http://www.wbir.com/news/article/164367/2/Phantom-of-the-Opera-opens-at-Central-High-School
  89. ^ "OLIVIER AWARDS 1986". westendtheatre.com. Retrieved 19 July 2010. 
  90. ^ "The Laurence Olivier Awards: full list of winners 1976–2008". officiallondontheatre.co.uk. Retrieved 19 July 2010. 
  91. ^ "The Phantom of the Opera Tony Award Info". BroadwayWorld.com. Retrieved 19 July 2010. 
  92. ^ a b "Love Never Dies: The Show – The Creative Team". LoveNeverDies.com Official Site. Retrieved 19 July 2010. 
  93. ^ a b "Phantom Sequel, Love Never Dies, Now Due in London and on Broadway in March 2010". Playbill. 18 May 2009. 
  94. ^ "Love Never Dies: The Show – Background". Love Never Dies (official site). 
  95. ^ Bamigboye, Baz. Ramin Karimloo originated the Phantom, and Sierra Boggess played Christine. Joseph Millson, Summer Strallen, and Charlie Manton were all in the original cast of Love Never Dies as well.Watch out for... Daily Mail. 3 April 2009.
  96. ^ "Love Never Dies sees mixed reviews". CBC News. 10 March 2010. [dead link]
  97. ^ "Broadway debut of Love Never Dies is postponed". BBC News. 7 April 2010. 
  98. ^ Healy, Patrick (7 April 2010). "Broadway Opening for ‘Love Never Dies’ Is Delayed Until 2011". NY Times. 
  99. ^ Gans, Andrew (6 April 2010). "Love Never Dies Postpones Broadway Opening to Spring 2011". Playbill. 
  100. ^ Love Never Dies Scraps Plans for Spring Broadway Run
  101. ^ Bedford, Angie. "Love Never Dies Review". The Theatre Channel at Webwombat. Retrieved 27 September 2011. 
  102. ^ Solomon, Les (30 May 2011): "Australia's Creative Pride. AussieTheatre.com Retrieved 22 August 2001
  103. ^ Herbert, Kate (30 May 2011): "Australia Never Dies" review. Melbourne Herald Sun archive Retrieved 22 August 2011
  104. ^ Boyd, Chris (30 May 2011): Phantom sequel spectacularly unmasked. The Australian archive Retrieved 22 August 2011
  105. ^ LOVE NEVER DIES Arrives at Sydney's Capitol Theatre
  106. ^ Andrew Lloyd Webber's Love Never Dies Ends Australian Run 1 April

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Cats
Longest-running Broadway show
2006–present
Succeeded by