|The Untold Story of the Witches of Oz|
Official poster of the original Broadway production
|Basis||Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West by Gregory Maguire|
|Productions|| 2003 San Francisco Tryout
2005 US Tour
2006 West End
Various international productions (see below)
|Awards||2004 Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Musical
2004 Outer Critics Circle Award for Outstanding Broadway Musical
Wicked (full title: Wicked: The Untold Story of the Witches of Oz) is a musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Schwartz and a book by Winnie Holzman. It is based on the 1995 Gregory Maguire novel Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West, a parallel novel of the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz and L. Frank Baum's classic story The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. The musical is told from the perspective of the witches of the Land of Oz; its plot begins before and continues after Dorothy's arrival in Oz from Kansas and includes several references to the 1939 film and Baum's novel. Wicked tells the story of two unlikely friends, Elphaba (the Wicked Witch of the West) and Glinda (the Good Witch of the North), who struggle through opposing personalities and viewpoints, rivalry over the same love-interest, reactions to the Wizard's corrupt government, and, ultimately, Elphaba's public fall from grace.
Produced by Universal Pictures in coalition with Marc Platt and David Stone, the Joe Mantello–directed and Wayne Cilento–choreographed original production of Wicked premiered on Broadway at the Gershwin Theatre in October 2003, after completing pre-Broadway SHN tryouts at San Francisco's Curran Theatre in May 2003. Its original stars included Idina Menzel as Elphaba, Kristin Chenoweth as Glinda, and Joel Grey as the Wizard. The original Broadway production won three Tony Awards and six Drama Desk Awards whilst its cast album received a Grammy Award. It has since celebrated its ninth anniversary on October 30, 2012, and played for 3,886 performances, making Wicked the 12th longest-running Broadway show in history.
The success of the Broadway production has spawned several other productions worldwide, including various North American productions, a long-running Laurence Olivier Award–nominated West End production and a series of international productions. Since its 2003 debut, Wicked has broken box office records around the world, currently holding weekly-gross-takings records in Los Angeles, Chicago, St. Louis, and London. In the week ending January 2, 2011, the London, Broadway, and both North American touring productions simultaneously broke their respective records for the highest weekly gross. In the final week of 2012, the Broadway production broke this record again, earning $2.9 million. Both the West End production and the North American tour have been seen by over two million patrons each.
Inception and development 
Composer and lyricist Stephen Schwartz discovered writer Gregory Maguire's 1995 novel Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West while on vacation and saw its potential for a dramatic adaptation. Maguire, however, had released the rights to Universal, who had planned to develop a live-action feature film. Schwartz met Maguire in Connecticut in 1998 and persuaded him to release them for a stage production while making what Schwartz called an "impassioned plea" to Universal producer Marc Platt to realize his potential adaptation. Persuaded too, Platt signed on as joint producer of the project with Universal and David Stone.
The novel, described as a political, social, and ethical commentary on the nature of good and evil, takes place in the Land of Oz, in the years leading to Dorothy's arrival. The story centers on Elphaba, the misunderstood, smart, and fiery girl of emerald-green skin who grows up to become the notorious Wicked Witch of the West and Galinda, the beautiful, blonde, popular girl who grows up to become Glinda the Good Witch of the North. The story is divided into five different sections based on the plot location and presents events, characters and situations from L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900) and its 1939 film adaptation in new ways. It is designed to set the reader thinking about what it really is to be "Wicked", and whether good intentions with bad results are the same as bad intentions with bad results. Schwartz considered how best to condense the novel's dense and complicated plot into a sensible script. To this end, he collaborated with Emmy Award–winning writer Winnie Holzman to develop the outline of the plot over the course of a year while meeting with producer Marc Platt to refine the structural outline of the show, spinning an original stage piece rather than creating a strict adaptation of Maguire's work.
While the draft followed Maguire's idea of retelling the story of the 1939 film from the perspective of its main villain, the story line of the stage adaptation "goes far afield" from the novel. As Holzman observed in an interview with Playbill, "It was [Maguire's] brilliant idea to take this hated figure and tell things from her point of view, and to have the two witches be roommates in college, but the way in which their friendship develops – and really the whole plot – is different onstage." Schwartz justified the deviation, saying "Primarily we were interested in the relationship between Galinda – who becomes Glinda – and Elphaba...the friendship of these two women and how their characters lead them to completely different destinies." In addition to this change in focus, other modifications include Fiyero's appearance as the scarecrow, Elphaba's survival at the end, Nessarose using a wheelchair instead of being born without arms, Boq having a continuing love interest for Glinda, the complete cutting of Elphaba's years in the Vinkus and Doctor Dillamond not being murdered.
The book, lyrics, and score for the musical were developed through a series of readings. For these developmental workshops, Kristin Chenoweth, the Tony Award–winning actress whom Stephen Schwartz had in mind while composing the music for the character, joined the project as Glinda. Stephanie J. Block originally read the role of Elphaba before fellow performer Idina Menzel was cast in the role in late 2000. In early 2000, the creators recruited New York producer David Stone who began the transition of the workshop production into a full Broadway production. Joe Mantello was brought in as director and Wayne Cilento as choreographer while Tony Award–winning designer Eugene Lee created the set and visual style for the production based on both W. W. Denslow's original illustrations for Baum's novels and Maguire's concept of the story being told through a giant clock. Costume designer Susan Hilferty created a "twisted Edwardian" style through more than 200 costumes, while lighting designer Kenneth Posner used more than 800 individual lights to give each of the 54 distinct scenes and locations "its own mood". By April 2003, a full cast had been assembled and the show readied its public debut.
On May 28, 2003, the first public performance of Wicked was held at the Curran Theatre in San Francisco, as the start of SHN pre-Broadway tryouts. After officially opening on June 10, 2003, it ran there for the month and finished on June 29, 2003. Audience reaction was mostly positive and although critics tended to compliment the aesthetic and spectacle of the show, they disparaged the state of its book, score and choreography. Dennis Harvey of Variety commented positively of the "sleekly directed", "snazzily designed" and "smartly cast" production yet still disapproved of its "mediocre" book, "trite" lyrics and "largely generic" music while Karen D'Souza of the San Jose Mercury News wrote that "Style over substance is the real theme in this Emerald City." Noting mixed response, the creative team started making extensive changes, tweaking it before its transfer to Broadway. Winnie Holzman stated, "Stephen [Schwartz] wisely had insisted on having three months to rewrite in-between the time we closed in San Francisco and when we were to go back into rehearsals in New York. That was crucial; that was the thing that made the biggest difference in the life of the show. That time is what made the show work."
Elements of the book were rewritten while several songs underwent minor transformations. This included the excision of "Which Way is the Party?", the introductory song to the character Fiyero, which was subsequently replaced by "Dancing Through Life" in Schwartz's fear that the former failed to be a clear "statement of Fiyero's philosophy of life". In addition, there was concern that Menzel's Elphaba "got a little overshadowed" by Chenoweth's Glinda. San Francisco Chronicle critic Robert Hurwitt wrote, "Menzel's brightly intense Elphaba the Wicked Witch [needs] a chance of holding her own alongside Chenoweth's gloriously, insidiously bubbly Glinda", so the creative team set about making her character "more prominent". On the subject of the Broadway revisions, Schwartz recalled, "It was clear there was work to be done and revisions to be made in the book and the score. The critical community was, frankly, very helpful to us. We learned a lot from the reviews, which were honest and constructive in the aggregate, unlike New York, where the critics make up their minds before they come to the theatre." On October 30, 2003, the musical opened on Broadway.
||This article's plot summary may be too long or excessively detailed. (November 2012)|
Act I 
While the citizens of Oz celebrate the death of the Wicked Witch of the West, Glinda descends onto the stage in her bubble to confirm the circumstances of the Witch's melting. She recalls that the green-skinned Elphaba, who would grow up to become the Witch, was conceived during an affair between the erstwhile Munchkin Governor's wife and a mysterious stranger with a bottle of green elixir. Everyone was repulsed by Elphaba from the moment she was born, and so Glinda asks the Ozians to empathize ("No One Mourns the Wicked") with her side of the story. The remainder of the plot forms an extended flashback through the events of Glinda's and Elphaba's lives.
At Shiz University, the pair first meet amongst students reuniting with their friends ("Dear Old Shiz"). Elphaba is hardly surprised that all the students, including the popular but shallow Galinda, revile her. The only reason that Elphaba is sent to Shiz is to take care of her beautiful, wheelchair-bound younger sister Nessarose, who is presented with a bejeweled pair of Silver Shoes, being their father's favorite. Despite Elphaba and Galinda's instant mutual loathing, Madame Morrible, Shiz's headmistress, makes them roommates. Galinda has been excluded from Madame Morrible's Sorcery Seminar, but when Elphaba betrays an innate magical talent in sudden anger, Morrible notes that her talents may be of use to the Wizard of Oz. Elphaba dreams of what she and the Wizard could accomplish together ("The Wizard and I"). Galinda and Elphaba later write home about their unfortunate room-mate assignments ("What is this Feeling?"). The students gather in a history class taught by Doctor Dillamond, a Goat and Shiz's only Animal professor, who keeps mispronouncing Galinda's name as "Glinda". After dismissing the class upon the discovery of an anti-Animal slogan on the blackboard (which reads, "Animals should be seen and not heard"), Doctor Dillamond confides in Elphaba that something is causing the Animals of Oz to lose their powers of speech ("Something Bad"). Elphaba believes that the Wizard is the only one who can help.
Fiyero, a Winkie prince, then arrives at Shiz and immediately impresses his own brand of mindless, cavalier and carefree living on the students ("Dancing Through Life"). Besotted with Galinda, a Munchkin named Boq asks her to accompany him to a party at the Ozdust Ballroom, but having felt "perfect together" with Fiyero, Galinda asks him to invite Nessarose instead. Nessarose, not realising Galinda's real motives for getting Boq to ask her out, is delighted, and tells Elphaba that she wishes she could repay Galinda somehow. Later, Galinda discovers a black pointed hat in a box and gives it to Elphaba as a mock present. Elphaba, remembering how happy Galinda had made Nessarose (and not realising that she had ulterior motives), asks Madame Morrible to reconsider Galinda in her Sorcery Seminar, in return. When, however, Elphaba arrives at the party wearing the hat, she is only ridiculed. Defiant and unfazed, she proceeds to dance alone without musical accompaniment. Feeling guilty, Galinda joins her, marking the start of their friendship. Meanwhile, Boq convinces Nessarose that it was not pity that prompted him to ask her out, but the fact that she is "so beautiful", not realizing the full extent of Nessarose's affections towards him.
Back in their dorm, Elphaba tells Galinda that her father hates her, for good reason. When her mother became pregnant again, she had been fed milk-flowers to prevent her second child from being born green-skinned; the milk-flowers instead caused Nessarose to be born prematurely, which left her crippled whilst her mother died in childbirth. Feeling sympathetic, Galinda decides to give Elphaba a personality makeover, making her admirable to fellow students ("Popular").
The next day, Doctor Dillamond is arrested by Ozian officials. The new history teacher arrives with a caged Lion cub as the subject of an in-class experiment, revealing that Animals are to be kept in a new invention he has created, called a cage, the benefit of which is that Animals raised in them will not have the power of speech. He reveals that soon all Animals will be turned dumb, and Elphaba is outraged. She and Fiyero steal the cub and set it free, and as Elphaba begins to discover romantic feelings towards Fiyero, she personally reaffirms that she "wasn't born" to be loved ("I'm Not that Girl"). Madame Morrible finds her, announcing that Elphaba has been granted an audience with the Wizard in the Emerald City.
At the train station, Glinda, Fiyero, Nessarose and Boq see Elphaba off, all happy for her accomplishment. When it becomes apparent that Boq is not genuinely interested in Nessarose, Galinda feels guilty and suggests that Boq is not the right person for Nessarose, who in turn insists that it is herself "that's not right." Elphaba expresses concern about leaving her younger sister, but a protesting Nessarose insists she will manage without her and leaves. In an attempt to impress Fiyero, Galinda announces that she will change her name to "Glinda" in honor of Doctor Dillamond's persistent mispronunciation. Fiyero fails to notice and leaves. Glinda breaks into tears. Feeling badly for Glinda, Elphaba invites her along to see the Wizard.
After a day of bonding and sightseeing in the Emerald City ("One Short Day"), Elphaba and Glinda meet the Wizard. Eschewing the special effects he employs for the benefit of most visitors, he invites Elphaba to join him ("A Sentimental Man"). In testing Elphaba's true talents, the Wizard asks Elphaba to perform a levitation spell on his monkey servant, Chistery, using the Grimmerie – an ancient book of spells. Madame Morrible delivers the book to Elphaba, having just become the Wizard's new "press secretary". Elphaba demonstrates an intrinsic understanding of the lost language contained in the book, and successfully gives Chistery wings. However, Elphaba can see that he seems to be in pain and demands that Morrible and the Wizard show her how to reverse the spell. Unfortunately, Morrible tells Elphaba "spells are irreversible". The Wizard then reveals a cage full of winged monkeys, proving the extent of Elphaba's powers. He makes the comment that they (the monkeys) will make perfect spies. After Elphaba questions this comment, Morrible and the Wizard attempt to cover up what was said, but it is too late; Elphaba now realizes that the Wizard and Morrible have been behind the troubles in Oz all along. It was he who robbed the animals of their speech and created the cages. Elphaba is shocked that her once-admired hero is actually a criminal and a fraud. Still, the Wizard wants Elphaba to join him in "creating a really good enemy" for the Ozians using her powers.
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Unable to contemplate the situation, Elphaba grabs the Grimmerie and runs off within the palace and Glinda runs after her. Realizing that she may know too much about his plans, the Wizard sends Morrible and his guards after Elphaba and Glinda. They finally reach the attic of the palace where Elphaba uses a broom to barricade the door. Morrible's voice is then heard outside a nearby window, warning all of Oz of this "Wicked Witch" and her horrible deed to the innocent monkeys. Elphaba and Glinda now must choose which path their lives will take. Ultimately, Glinda chooses to take a life living with the Wizard and becoming a public figure within Oz. Elphaba, however, decides to use her newly learned powers of levitation to fly away from the palace, against the Wizard and do what she believes is right. Using the Grimmerie, she places a spell on the broom (with which she barricaded the door) and flies away from the palace guards when they break into the attic. But this public act of defiance convinces the Ozians of her true wickedness forever. ("Defying Gravity").
Act II 
A few months have passed and Elphaba's opposition of the Wizard's regime has earned her the title "The Wicked Witch of the West" (reprise of "No One Mourns the Wicked"). Rumor has it that the witch's soul is so impure that pure water could melt her. Glinda, now the Wizard's assistant and adored by everyone, pronounces herself engaged to Fiyero. Informing him that he has to accept the fact that Elphaba does not want to be found, Glinda puts on a happy front despite Fiyero's waning affections ("Thank Goodness").
Meanwhile, Elphaba arrives at her old home, the Governor's residence in Munchkinland, seeking refuge. Nessarose is the Governor now, and laments that their father "died of shame" after Elphaba rebelliously defied the Wizard. She criticizes Elphaba for not using her new-found powers to help her own sister. Guilty, Elphaba enchants Nessarose's jeweled shoes, turning them into the ruby slippers and enabling her to walk. Boq is summoned, and he bemoans that Nessarose is as "wicked" as Elphaba for stripping the Munchkins of their rights and prohibiting them from leaving Munchkinland. Nessarose explains that she did this to keep Boq with her, but is sure that he will stay with her of his own accord now that she is no longer crippled. However, Boq insists that he should now be free to pursue Glinda instead, going so far as to brandish a knife when his "Madame Governor" refuses to let him go. Hurt and angry, Nessarose attempts to cast a spell from the Grimmerie to make Boq lose his heart to her, however her ability to understand the Lost Language of Spells is not as good as her sister's, and she mispronounces the magic words which causes Boq to literally lose his heart. While Elphaba attempts to save him, Nessarose reflects on how being "alone and loveless" has led to her wicked actions, and fears that she deserves her infamous new title ("The Wicked Witch of the East"). Elphaba says that nothing will ever be enough for her younger sister and leaves her for good, despite Nessarose's frantic pleas for her sister to stay. When Boq wakes up, he is horrified to discover that Elphaba has transformed him into a Tin Man, so he could live without a heart, and a desperate Nessarose lays the entire blame on her sister while Boq runs away in horror, believing that Elphaba has cursed him for leaving her sister.
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Returning to the Wizard's palace, Elphaba tries to free the remaining winged monkeys. The Wizard attempts to regain her favor by agreeing to set them free, recounting how the Ozians hailed him as the Wonderful Wizard when he first came to Oz in a balloon from America. He explains that she could, likewise, be hailed by everyone if she joins him ("Wonderful"). Upon discovering the now-speechless Doctor Dillamond amongst the monkeys, however, Elphaba rejects his offer. While attempting to escape, she bumps into Fiyero, who runs away with her, confirming that he loves her in return. Glinda sees this and is crestfallen that she has been betrayed by those closest to her (reprise of "I'm Not that Girl"). When Glinda states that Elphaba can be lured by spreading a rumor that Nessarose is in danger, the fiendish Madame Morrible creates a cyclone that brings Dorothy's house to Oz and crushes Nessarose to death. During this, Fiyero and Elphaba express their love in a dark forest ("As Long as You're Mine"), but Elphaba senses that her sister is in danger. Before she flees to help, Fiyero explains to Elphaba that his family has an empty castle far away. He promises her she can hide there and that he will go to join her. She then flies to Nessarose, but she is too late, arriving just as Glinda sends Dorothy and Toto off along the Yellow Brick Road. The palace guards capture Elphaba, but Fiyero intervenes, allowing Elphaba to escape before surrendering himself. The guards drag him to a nearby cornfield to be tortured or even killed, unless he tells them of Elphaba's whereabouts. At the castle, Elphaba tries to cast any spell she can to save Fiyero, but thinking she has failed, she begins to accept her reputation as "wicked" ("No Good Deed").
Dorothy, the Scarecrow, Boq – now the Tin Man – and the Cowardly Lion are sent to kill Elphaba ("March of the Witch Hunters"). It is revealed that the Cowardly Lion is the lion cub Elphaba set free; Boq claims that she turned him into a coward by not letting him fight his own battles. Meanwhile, Elphaba captures Dorothy, refusing to release her until she relinquishes Nessarose's ruby slippers – the only things left of her dead sister. Glinda travels to Elphaba's castle to warn her of the trouble and persuade her to let Dorothy go. Although Elphaba refuses, the two women forgive each other for all grievances, acknowledging they have both made mistakes. Elphaba makes Glinda promise not to clear her name and to take charge in Oz, allowing Elphaba to disappear. To help her in her future, Elphaba gives the Grimmerie to Glinda. The two friends embrace for the last time before saying goodbye forever, and acknowledge that they are who they are because they knew each other ("For Good"). Immediately after, when Dorothy throws a bucket of water on Elphaba, the witch appears to melt away. Glinda, not quite sure what has happened, sees that all that remains of her friend is her black hat and a vial of green elixir. Back at the Emerald City, Glinda reminds the Wizard that he has an identical bottle, and it is revealed that the Wizard is Elphaba's biological father, being the stranger with whom her mother had an affair. Madame Morrible surmises that Elphaba had special powers because she was a child of both Oz and the outside world. Glinda orders the Wizard to leave Oz in his balloon and sends Madame Morrible to prison before preparing to face the citizens of Oz, returning to the opening scene of the show.
Meanwhile, Fiyero had in fact been turned into the Scarecrow when Elphaba had cast spells, therefore saving him from the Ozian guards' spears in the cornfield. He opens a trap door in Elphaba's castle, down which she had descended, only pretending to die for the benefit of the others. While Elphaba and Fiyero leave Oz forever, Glinda continues her bittersweet celebration with the citizens of Oz. They gaze up at the sky, individually appreciating their true friendship and acknowledging that they have changed for the better because they knew each other ("Finale").
Principal roles and current cast 
- See also: List of Wicked characters
|Character||Original Broadway Cast||Broadway Cast||"Emerald City" Tour Cast†||"Munchkinland"
|West End Cast|
|Elphaba||Idina Menzel||Willemijn Verkaik||Alison Luff||Jennifer DiNoia||Louise Dearman|
|Glinda||Kristin Chenoweth||Katie Rose Clarke||Jenn Gambatese||Hayley Podschun||Gina Beck|
|Fiyero||Norbert Leo Butz||Kyle Dean Massey||Curt Hansen||David Nathan Perlow||Ben Freeman|
|Madame Morrible||Carol Shelley||Randy Danson||Kim Zimmer||Gina Ferrall||Harriet Thorpe|
|Nessarose||Michelle Federer||Catherine Charlebois||Jaime Rosenstein||Zarah Mahler||Katie Rowley Jones|
|Boq||Christopher Fitzgerald||F. Michael Haynie||Jesse JP Johnson||Michael Wartella||Sam Lupton|
|Doctor Dillamond||William Youmans||John Schiappa||Clifton Davis||Jay Russell||Christopher Howell|
|The Wizard||Joel Grey||Adam Grupper||John Davidson||Walker Jones||Keith Bartlett|
†Also known as the 1st North American National Tour
††Also known as the 2nd North American National Tour
Musical numbers 
Music and recordings 
Music analysis 
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The score of Wicked is heavily thematic, bearing in some senses more resemblance to a film score than a traditional musical score. While many musical scores employ new motifs and melodies for each song with little overlap, Schwartz integrated a handful of leitmotifs throughout the production. Some of these motifs indicate irony – for example, when Galinda presents Elphaba with a "ghastly" hat in "Dancing through Life", the score reprises a theme from "What is this Feeling?" a few scenes earlier, in which Elphaba and Glinda had espoused their mutual loathing.
Two musical themes in Wicked run throughout the score. Although Schwartz rarely reuses motifs or melodies from earlier works, the first – Elphaba's theme – came from The Survival of St. Joan, on which he worked as musical director. "I always liked this tune a lot and I never could figure out what to do with it," he remarked in an interview in 2004. The chord progression that he first penned in 1971 became a major theme of the show's orchestration. By changing the instruments that carry the motif in each instance, Schwartz enables the same melody to convey different moods. In the overture, the tune is carried by the orchestra's brass section, with heavy percussion. The result is, in Schwartz' own words, "like a giant shadow terrorizing you". When played by the piano with some electric bass in "As Long As You're Mine", however, the same chord progression becomes the basis for a romantic duet. And with new lyrics and an altered bridge, the theme forms the core of the song "No One Mourns the Wicked" and its reprises.
Schwartz uses the "Unlimited" theme as the second major motif running through the score. Although not included as a titled song, the theme appears as an interlude in several of the musical numbers. In a tribute to Harold Arlen, who wrote the score for the 1939 film adaptation, the "Unlimited" melody incorporates the first seven notes of the song "Over the Rainbow." Schwartz included it as an inside joke as, "according to copyright law, when you get to the eighth note, then people can come and say, 'Oh you stole our tune.' And of course obviously it's also disguised in that it's completely different rhythmically. And it's also harmonized completely differently.... It's over a different chord and so on, but still it's the first seven notes of 'Somewhere Over the Rainbow'". Schwartz further obscured the motif's origin by setting it in a minor key in most instances. This also creates contrast in the songs in which it forms a part, for example in "Defying Gravity", which is written primarily in the key of D-flat major. In the song "The Wicked Witch of the East", however, when Elphaba finally uses her powers to let her sister walk, the "Unlimited" theme is played in a major key.
A cast recording of the original Broadway production was released on December 16, 2003, by Universal Music. All of the songs featured on stage are present on the recording with the exception of "The Wizard and I (Reprise)" and "The Wicked Witch of the East". The short reprise of "No One Mourns the Wicked" that opens Act II is attached to the beginning of "Thank Goodness". The music was arranged by Stephen Oremus, who was also the conductor and musical director, and James Lynn Abbott, with orchestrations by William David Brohn. The recording received the Grammy Award for Best Musical Show Album in 2005 and was certified platinum by the RIAA on November 30, 2006. The album was certified double platinum on November 8, 2010. A fifth-anniversary special edition of the original Broadway cast recording was released on October 28, 2008, with a bonus CD including tracks from the Japanese and German cast recordings, "Making Good" – a song later replaced by "The Wizard and I" – sung by Stephanie J. Block with Schwartz at the piano, "I'm Not that Girl" by Kerry Ellis (featuring Brian May on guitar), Menzel's dance mix of "Defying Gravity", and "For Good" sung by LeAnn Rimes and Delta Goodrem.
A German recording of the Stuttgart production was released on December 7, 2007, featuring a track listing and arrangements identical to those of the Broadway recording. The Japanese cast recording was released on July 23, 2008, featuring the original Tokyo cast. It is notable for being the only Cast Album of the show that includes Glinda's Finale dialogue.
Original Broadway production 
Wicked officially opened on June 10, 2003 at the Curran Theatre in San Francisco, after previews began on May 28, in a pre-Broadway tryout presented by SHN. The cast included Kristin Chenoweth as Glinda, Idina Menzel as Elphaba, Robert Morse as the Wizard, Norbert Leo Butz as Fiyero, Michelle Federer as Nessarose, Carole Shelley as Madame Morrible, John Horton as Doctor Dillamond, and Kirk McDonald as Boq while Stephanie J. Block, who originally read the role of Elphaba in workshop development, served as an ensemble member and understudied the lead role. The tryout closed on June 29, 2003, and after extensive retooling, the musical began previews on Broadway at the Gershwin Theatre on October 8, 2003, and made its official premiere on October 30. Most of the original production team and cast members remained with the show, with the exception of some minor ensemble changes and the replacement of Robert Morse with Joel Grey as the Wizard, John Horton with William Youmans as Doctor Dillamond and Kirk McDonald with Christopher Fitzgerald as Boq while Eden Espinosa and Laura Bell Bundy were added as standbys for Elphaba and Glinda respectively.
When Saycon Sengbloh became the standby for Elphaba in January 2005, she became the first black woman to play the role of Elphaba. Since then, four other black women have either played or covered the role (Brandi Chavonne Massey, Dan'yelle Williamson, Alexia Khadime, and Lilli Cooper) with Khadime being the first, and so far only, to play Elphaba full-time.
On February 12, 2013, Willemijn Verkaik, who created the role of Elphaba for German and Dutch audiences, joined the Broadway production at the Gerwshwin Theatre. She is the first actress to have appeared in three different language productions.
Other North American productions 
In 2005, the first national tour of Wicked started in Toronto, Ontario, and has since visited numerous cities throughout the United States and Canada. Stephanie J. Block was set to open the tour as Elphaba with previews beginning March 8, but after having sustained a minor injury in rehearsal, Kristy Cates temporarily took her place. Previews were therefore postponed until the following day. After some delay, Block made her debut on March 25, and the tour officially opened on March 31. The original touring cast also included Kendra Kassebaum as Glinda, Derrick Williams as Fiyero, Jenna Leigh Green as Nessarose, Carol Kane as Madame Morrible, Timothy Britten Parker as Doctor Dillamond, Logan Lipton as Boq, and David Garrison as the Wizard.
While the original touring cast intended to play a limited engagement from April 29 to June 12, 2005 at the Oriental Theatre in Chicago, producers decided to extend it to an open-ended run, making it the first non-Broadway sit-down production of Wicked. Opening at the same Chicago theatre the day after the touring production had finished, the original Chicago cast included Ana Gasteyer as Elphaba, Kate Reinders as Glinda, Rondi Reed as Madame Morrible, Kristoffer Cusick as Fiyero, Telly Leung as Boq, Heidi Kettenring as Nessarose and Gene Weygandt as the Wizard. The production closed on January 25, 2009, after over 1,500 performances. The touring production returned to Chicago for a special engagement at the Cadillac Palace Theatre from December 1, 2010 to January 23, 2011.
An open-ended production also appeared in Los Angeles, California at the Pantages Theatre. Performances began on February 10, 2007, with an official opening on February 21. Megan Hilty and original Broadway standby Eden Espinosa were Glinda and Elphaba respectively while Carol Kane was Madame Morrible, Timothy Britten Parker was Doctor Dillamond, Jenna Leigh Green was Nessarose, Adam Wylie was Boq, Kristoffer Cusick was Fiyero, and John Rubinstein was the Wizard. The production closed on January 11, 2009, after 791 performances and 12 previews. The first national touring production returned to the Pantages Theatre for a limited engagement from November 30, 2011 until January 29, 2012.
A San Francisco production of Wicked officially opened February 6, 2009, at SHN's Orpheum Theatre, following previews from January 27. The cast included Teal Wicks as Elphaba, Kendra Kassebaum as Glinda, Nicolas Dromard as Fiyero, Carol Kane as Madame Morrible, David Garrison as the Wizard, Deedee Magno Hall as Nessarose, Tom Flynn as Doctor Dillamond, and Eddy Rioseco as Boq. The production closed on September 5, 2010, after 672 performances and 12 previews with Marcie Dodd as Elphaba and Alli Mauzey as Glinda. The first national touring company most recently ended their second San Francisco engagement at the Orpheum Theatre, which ran January 23–February 17, 2013.
The second national tour of Wicked began in 2009 with previews on March 7 and official opening night on March 12 at the Barbara B. Mann Performing Arts Hall in Fort Myers, Florida. Like the first, this touring production has since visited numerous cities throughout North America. The original cast starred Marcie Dodd as Elphaba (the first actress to play both Nessarose and Elphaba full-time), Helene Yorke as Glinda, Colin Donnell as Fiyero, Kristine Reese as Nessarose, Marilyn Caskey as Madame Morrible, David deVries as Doctor Dillamond, Ted Ely as Boq, and Tom McGowan as the Wizard.
UK productions 
The West End production began previews at the Apollo Victoria Theatre from September 7, 2006, and officially opened on September 27. The production is currently booking until November 2, 2013 and celebrated its fifth anniversary in 2011 with a special curtain call featuring former West End cast members. The London production was tailored slightly for a British audience, including minor creative changes to dialogue, choreography and special effects. These changes were later incorporated into all productions of Wicked.
The West End production reunited the show's original creative team with Idina Menzel, who had originated the role of Elphaba in the Broadway production. Original London cast members included Helen Dallimore as Glinda, Miriam Margolyes as Madame Morrible, Adam Garcia as Fiyero, Martin Ball as Doctor Dillamond, James Gillan as Boq, Katie Rowley Jones as Nessarose and Nigel Planer as the Wizard. After a three-month limited engagement, Menzel was succeeded by Kerry Ellis, who became the first British woman to assume the role of Elphaba and so far the only actress other than Menzel to play Elphaba in both the Broadway and West End productions.
Ellis' replacement, Alexia Khadime, was the first black woman to have played Elphaba in the London production. The longest-running London Elphaba is Rachel Tucker, who played the role for over two and a half years upon her departure. Louise Dearman (who starred in the production as Glinda from 2010-11) currently plays Elphaba, making her the first person in the musical's history to play both female leads.
- UK Tour
The show is set to begin its first national tour of the UK and Ireland beginning September 12, 2013 at the Palace Theatre in Manchester, on a run through November 16. Other cities that have thus far been confirmed through 2014 include Dublin, Milton Keynes, Cardiff, Glasgow, Leeds, and Birmingham.
Subsequent international productions 
A condensed thirty-minute version of the musical played at Universal Studios Japan in Osaka, Japan. Australian Jemma Rix was part of the original cast, alternating the role of Elphaba with Jillian Giaachi and Taylor Jordan. The show, which opened on July 12, 2006, featured the preliminary storyline of Act 1 but Fiyero, Madame Morrible, Boq, Nessarose and Doctor Dillamond were absent and there were considerable changes in sets and costumes. The final performance took place on January 11, 2011. The first replicated non-English production opened in Tokyo, Japan, on June 17, 2007 with Hamada Megumi as Elphaba and Numao Miyuki as Glinda. The production closed on September 6, 2009, in preparation for its transfer to Osaka. After opening on October 11, 2009, the Osaka production closed on February 13, 2011, featuring Ebata Masae as Elphaba with Tomada Asako as Glinda. The production then moved again to Fukuoka on April 2, 2011 where its original stars were Ebata Masae (Elphaba) and Numao Miyuki (Glinda). After its closure in Fukuoka on August 28, 2011, the production re-located to Nagoya with performances beginning September 23. It stars Masae Ebata and Asako Tomada as Elphaba and Glinda, respectively.
Renamed Wicked: Die Hexen von Oz (Wicked: The Witches of Oz), the German production of Wicked began previews on November 1, 2007 and opened on November 15, at the Palladium Theater in Stuttgart. Willemijn Verkaik played Elphaba, Lucy Scherer played Glinda, Mark Seibert played Fiyero, Angelika Wedekind was Madame Morrible, Nicole Radeschnig was Nessarose, Stefan Stara was Boq, Michael Gunther was Doctor Dillamond, and Carlo Lauber played the Wizard. The production closed on January 29, 2010, and transferred to Oberhausen where previews began at the Metronom Theater am CentrO on March 5, 2010, with an opening night of March 8. The cast featured Willemijn Verkaik as Elphaba, Joana Fee Würz as Glinda, Barbara Raunegger as Madame Morrible, Mathias Edenborn as Fiyero, Janine Tippl as Nessarose, Ben Darmanin as Boq, Thomas Wissmann as Doctor Dillamond, and Carlo Lauber as the Wizard. Willemijn Verkaik left the role of Elphaba in February 2011, after being consistently billed as lead for almost three and a half years between the Stuttgart and Oberhausen productions. The Oberhausen production closed on September 2, 2011.
An Australian production officially opened on July 12, 2008, with previews commencing June 27 at the Regent Theatre in Melbourne. Amanda Harrison and Lucy Durack played Elphaba and Glinda respectively, with Maggie Kirkpatrick as Madame Morrible, Rob Guest as the Wizard, Rob Mills as Fiyero, Anthony Callea as Boq, Penny McNamee as Nessarose and Rodney Dobson as Doctor Dillamond. However, Rob Guest, who played the Wizard, died suddenly on October 2, 2008, after suffering a stroke two days earlier. Australian personality Bert Newton was brought in as his replacement six weeks later. In addition, Carmen Cusack, from the first North American tour and Chicago companies, made her Australian debut as the temporary standby for Elphaba while Amanda Harrison was on extended leave and regular standby Jemma Rix was performing as lead. The Melbourne production closed on August 9, 2009, after 464 performances. The production then transferred to Sydney's Capitol Theatre. Previews began there on September 5, 2009, with the official opening on September 12, 2009. Most of the Melbourne cast transferred but understudy James D. Smith took over as Boq. The production closed on September 26, 2010, after 412 performances and 8 previews.
Following successful seasons in Melbourne and Sydney, an Australian tour began at the QPAC Lyric Theatre in Brisbane. After a two-week delay due to the Queensland floods, performances began January 25, 2011, and ran until April 2. The touring production then moved to the Festival Centre in Adelaide, running from April 14 until June 4, 2011, and recently played its final leg at the Burswood Theatre in Perth, starting on June 19, 2011. The cast includes Sydney alumi Lucy Durack as Glinda, Jemma Rix as Elphaba, Maggie Kirkpatrick as Madame Morrible, Bert Newton as the Wizard, Elisa Colla as Nessarose, Rodney Dobson as Doctor Dillamond and James D. Smith as Boq while Wicked newcomer David Harris plays Fiyero. The Perth engagement finished on September 11, 2011, wrapping up more than 3 years of performances in Australia.
The Australian company then transferred to Singapore's Grand Theater in Marina Bay Sands from December 6, 2011 onwards, beginning an open-ended Asian tour. Jemma Rix plays Elphaba on the tour, while Australian understudy Suzie Mathers takes over as Glinda. They are joined by David Harris (Fiyero), Bert Newton (The Wizard), James D. Smith (Boq) and Elisa Colla (Nessarose), with Wicked newcomers Glen Hogstrom (Doctor Dillamond) and Anne Wood (Madame Morrible). After the Singapore engagement of the tour closed April 22, 2012, performances began in Seoul, Korea from May 31, 2012. Hogstrom becomes the first actor to be billed in the two principal roles of Dr. Dillamond and the Wizard, when he took over from Newton. After being extended twice, the run finished on October 7, 2012.
A brand new production, notable for not being a replica of the original Broadway staging, opened at the City Theatre in Helsinki, Finland on August 26, 2010 after a preview performance took place on August 24. Directed by Hans Berndtsson, the production stars Maria Ylipää as Elphaba, Anna-Maija Tuokko as Glinda, Tuukka Leppänen as Fiyero, Ursula Salo as Madame Morrible, Vuokko Hovatta as Nessarose, Antti Lang as Boq, Heikki Sankari as Doctor Dillamond, and Eero Saarinen as the Wizard. The second non-replicated production ran in Copenhagen, Denmark from January 12 until May 29, 2011, and was presented by Det Ny Teater. The cast included Annette Heick as Glinda, Maria Lucia Heiberg Rosenberg as Elphaba, John Martin Bengtsson as Fiyero, Marianne Mortensen as Madame Morrible, Anais Lueken as Nessarose, Kim Hammelsvang Henriksen as Boq, Kristian Boland as Doctor Dillamond and Steen Springborg as the Wizard.
A Dutch-language production began previews at the Circus Theater in Scheveningen, The Netherlands on October 26, 2011. The official opening took place on November 6. Willemijn Verkaik reprises her role of Elphaba from the German productions, becoming the first actress to play the role in two different languages. She is joined by Chantal Janzen as Glinda, Jim Bakkum as Fiyero, Pamela Teves as Madame Morrible, Christanne de Bruijn as Nessarose, Niels Jacobs as Boq, Jochem Feste Roozemond as Doctor Dillamond and Bill van Dijk in the role of the Wizard. As musicals do not usually run for a long open-ended run in Holland, closing night took place as announced on January 11, 2013, following a 14-month run.
The musical will receive its New Zealand premiere from September 17, 2013, when the Asia touring company begin performances begin at The Civic Theatre in Auckland. It will subsequently return to the Regent Theatre in Melbourne from May 2014, as the start of a second national tour of Australia. Stops are expected in other cities. Jemma Rix and Suzie Mathers are set to return as Elphaba and Glinda, respectively, with Jay Laga'aia recently announced as the Wizard.
Film adaptation 
A film adaptation of Wicked has been in talks since 2004 though producers have been waiting for a dip in the stage musical's earnings. In July 2012, it was reported that Universal Studios, who are producing the film, was "taking steps forward" to its realization. The company sought Stephen Daldry to direct the film whilst employing Winnie Holzman, who wrote the musical's book, to pen the screenplay. In December 2012, Marc Platt said that development of a film adaptation will happen 'soon'. Whilst a film adaptation of the musical has been talked about for some time, it has been slow in production. No casting or further members of the creative team have been announced. There is no start date or release date set for the film. In February 2013, Universal Pictures chairman, Adam Fogelson, said that due to the success of Les Misérables, a film adaptation might happen sooner rather than later.
Awards and nominations 
The original Broadway production of Wicked was nominated for 11 Tony Awards in 2004, including Best Musical; Book; Orchestrations; Original Score; Choreography; Costume Design; Lighting Design; Scenic Design while receiving two nominations for Best Actress – for Menzel and Chenoweth. Menzel won the Best Actress award, and the show also won the Tony Awards for Best Scenic Design and Best Costume Design, notably losing Best Book, Original Score and ultimately Best Musical to Avenue Q. The same year, the show won 6 Drama Desk Awards out of 11 nominations, including Outstanding Musical, Book, Director and Costume Design in addition to winning 4 Outer Critics Circle Awards out of 10 nominations. The original Broadway cast recording also received the 2005 Grammy Award for Best Musical Show Album. Since its opening in 2003, the Broadway production of Wicked has accrued 32 awards out of 63 nominations, being consecutively nominated every year for at least one award.
Similarly, subsequent productions of the musical have equated in abundant success. The North American tours have garnered 12 awards out of 14 nominations while the Chicago production was nominated for 5 Joseph Jefferson Awards. The West End production has received 5 Laurence Olivier Award nominations and despite not winning any in 2007, it won the Audience Award for Most Popular Show at the 2010 award ceremony. The original Australian production received 6 Helpmann Awards out of 12 nominations, including Best Musical. Wicked was named the Best Musical of the Decade by Entertainment Weekly magazine and hailed "a cultural phenomenon" by Variety magazine. While not technically an "award", the character of Elphaba was named 79th on Entertainment Weekly's list of The 100 Greatest Characters of the Past 20 Years.
Critical reception 
The Broadway production opened on October 30, 2003, to mixed reviews from theatre critics. Menzel and Chenoweth received nearly unanimous praise for their performances as Elphaba and Glinda. Both USA Today and Time Magazine gave the Broadway production of Wicked very positive reviews, with Richard Zoglin of Time saying, "If every musical had a brain, a heart and the courage of Wicked, Broadway really would be a magical place." Elysa Gardner of USA Today described it as "the most complete, and completely satisfying, new musical I've come across in a long time." Conversely, Ben Brantley in the New York Times loved the production but panned the show itself, calling it a "sermon" that "so overplays its hand that it seriously dilutes its power," with a "generic" score. He noted that Glinda is such a showy role that the audience ends up rooting for her rather than the "surprisingly colorless" Elphaba, who is "nominally" the hero. Despite these mixed reviews, interest in Wicked spread quickly by word-of-mouth, leading to record-breaking success at the box office, as described below. Speaking to The Arizona Republic in 2006, Schwartz commented, "What can I say? Reviews are reviews.... I know we divided the critics. We didn't divide the audience, and that's what counts."
International productions have opened to similarly ambivalent critical reception. The West End production opened to a slightly more upbeat response. The majority of critics have appreciated the spectacle of the lavish production, and the "powerhouse" performances of actors in the roles of the two witches. However, contemporaries have characterized the production as overblown, occasionally preachy, and suffering from more hype than heart. Although Charles Spencer of The Daily Telegraph described it as "at times ... a bit of a mess," he praised Holzman's script, described Kenneth Posner's lighting design as "magical" and lauded Menzel's Elphaba and Helen Dallimore's Glinda. Michael Billington of The Guardian gave it three out of five stars and remarked on the competence of all the lead actors; however, he complained that Wicked was "all too typical of the modern Broadway musical: efficient, knowing and highly professional but more like a piece of industrial product than something that genuinely touches the heart or mind". Paul Taylor of The Independent gave extremely negative remarks to his viewing of the London production, calling the attempt at topical political allegory "well-meaning but also melodramatic, incoherent and dreadfully superficial" while deploring the acting, songs and book, concluding that "the production manages to feel at once overblown and empty."
Commercial reception 
Since its opening in 2003, the original Broadway production of Wicked has broken the house record at the Gershwin Theatre twenty times. It regularly grosses in excess of $1.6 million each week, making it one of the most lucrative productions on Broadway. With a $14 million capitalization, the Broadway production took 15 months to break even, earning back its initial investment by December 21, 2004. In its first year, it grossed more than $56 million. In the week ending January 1, 2006, Wicked broke the record, previously held by the musical The Producers, for the highest weekly box office gross in Broadway history, earning $1,610,934. It has gone on to break its own record numerous times, reaching $1,715,155 in November 2006, $1,839,950, during the 2007 Christmas week, $2,086,135 for the week ending November 29, 2009, $2,125,740 just a few weeks later for the eight performances ending January 3, 2010, and over $2.2 million in the week ending January 2, 2011. In the first week of 2012, the Broadway production broke a record again, earning $2.7 million. Wicked once again broke this record in the final week of 2012 when it grossed $2.9 million.
Wicked's productions across North America and abroad have been equally financially successful. The Los Angeles production took the local weekly gross record, again from a performance of The Producers, bringing in $1,786,110 in the week ending March 4, 2003. The production joined its Broadway counterpart in setting a new record over Christmas 2007 with $1,949,968, with records also set in Chicago ($1,418,363), and St Louis ($2,291,608), to bring the collective gross of the seven worldwide productions to a world record-breaking $11.2 million. A new suite of records were set over Christmas 2010, with house records broken in San Francisco ($1,485,692), Providence ($1,793,764) and Schenectady ($1,657,139) as well as Broadway, bringing the musical's one-week gross in North America alone to $7,062,335.
Wicked played to more than 2 million visitors in Chicago with a gross of over $200 million, making it the highest-grossing show in Chicago history by June 2007. With an opening-week gross of $1,400,000, it continually set records and became the longest-running Broadway musical in Chicago history. Producer David Stone told Variety, "we thought it [the Chicago production] would run 18 months, then we'd spend a year in Los Angeles and six months in San Francisco... but sales stayed so strong that the producers created another road show and kept the show running in Chicago." In addition, over 2.2 million saw the touring production in its first two years, which grossed over $155 million The Los Angeles production grossed over $145 million and was seen by more than 1.8 million patrons. Over the 672 performances of the San Francisco production, Wicked sold over 1 million tickets with a cumulative gross of over $75 million. While the Broadway production of Wicked welcomed its 5 millionth audience member on September 29, 2010,
International productions of Wicked have matched the extremely positive reception at the box-office. Although West End theatres do not publish audited weekly grosses, the West End production of Wicked claimed to take the record for highest one-week gross in December 2006, taking £761,000 in the week ending December 30. On June 23, 2008, the producers reported that over 1.4 million people had seen the London production since its opening, and grosses had topped £50 million; The same reports stated that the show has consistently been one of the two highest-grossing shows in the West End. For the week commencing December 27, 2010, the London production grossed £1,002,885, the highest single-week gross in West End theatre history, with over 20,000 theatregoers attending the nine performances of Wicked that week. The Melbourne production broke Australian box-office records, selling 24,750 tickets in three hours during pre-sales and grossing over $1.3 million on the first business day after its official opening. On April 27, 2009, the production passed the milestone of 500,000 patrons. When it transferred to Sydney, the production broke "all previous weekly box office records for a musical at the Capitol Theatre, grossing $1,473,775.70" in one week during October 2009.
In the week ending October 17, 2010, Wicked became only the third musical in Broadway history to exceed $500 million in total gross. By seats sold on Broadway, it ranks tenth of all time. As of September 2011, Wicked's North American and international companies have cumulatively grossed nearly $2.5 billion and have been seen by nearly 30 million people worldwide. The original production still runs today and currently stands as the 12th longest-running Broadway show in history. Wicked celebrated its 1,000th performance on Broadway on March 23, 2006. Several other productions have also reached the 1,000th performance milestone, including the first North American touring company on August 15, 2007, the Chicago company on November 14, 2007, the West End company on February 14, 2009, the Australian company on May 7, 2011 and the second North American touring company on August 4, 2011.
Behind the Emerald Curtain 
The success of the Broadway production has led to the development of an auxiliary show, Behind the Emerald Curtain, created by Sean McCourt – an original Broadway production cast member who played the Witch's Father, among other roles, in addition to understudying the Wizard and Doctor Dillamond, before taking over the latter principal role – and Anthony Galde who was a long-running swing in the Broadway company from 2004 to 2012. The tour features a ninety minute behind-the-scenes look at the props, masks, costumes and sets used in the show, and includes a question-and-answer session with the cast members. The Broadway tour is currently led by McCourt and long-running ensemble member and Glinda understudy Lindsay K. Northern. The tour also featured in the Los Angeles, San Francisco and Chicago sit-down productions, and were each run by different long-serving cast members of the show. The tour provides a behind the scenes look at what goes into putting on the show every day. Participants get a first hand account of what it is like to be a part of the massive production that Wicked is.
In popular culture 
The success of Wicked has made several of the show's songs popular and has resulted in references to the show, characters, and songs in popular culture. The Broadway production has been featured in episodes of television programs, including Brothers & Sisters and The War at Home while, for filming purposes, the Pantages Theatre in Los Angeles doubled for the Gershwin Theatre on Broadway in an episode of Ugly Betty titled "Something Wicked This Way Comes" where Betty, the show's protagonist, goes to see Wicked on a date and accidentally stops the show. In the episode previous to this, "Brothers", Betty gets tickets to see Wicked and discusses with a friend how much she relates to Elphaba's outcast status in a popularity and beauty-oriented environment. In addition, The Simpsons episode "Donnie Fatso" sees Homer Simpson and Moe Szyslak accidentally sneak into a Springfield production of the show. The South Park episode "Broadway Bro Down" features Wicked and other musicals and have these shows contain subliminal messaging. In the episode these messages persuade women into performing oral sex upon their spouse or boyfriend.
"Defying Gravity" was covered on the television series Glee in the "Wheels" episode where two of the characters – the main female Rachel Berry (played by Lea Michele) and a supporting male character Kurt Hummel (played by Chris Colfer) – competed for a lead role by singing the song. In a later episode titled "New York", the two duet on the Gershwin stage and sing "For Good". On the show New Girl, Winston sings the songs "Popular" and "Defying Gravity" on a trip to Mexico. A clip of the song also "Popular" plays in the 2009 movie Zombieland.
Entertainer John Barrowman sang a version of "The Wizard and I" (retitled "The Doctor and I) on his 2008 UK tour, with adapted lyrics referring to his Doctor Who and Torchwood character Jack's affection for The Doctor. Kerry Ellis, who played Elphaba in the West End and the Broadway productions of Wicked, recorded a version of "I'm Not that Girl" which appears on the fifth anniversary edition of the original Broadway cast recording. She also recorded her own rock version of "Defying Gravity". Both songs were produced by British musician Brian May and were featured on her extended play Wicked in Rock (2008) and debut album Anthems (2010). She performed her version of "Defying Gravity" at the 2008 Royal Variety Performance alongside May on guitar. A dance remix of her rock version of "Defying Gravity" was later released in 2011. Louise Dearman, who has played both Elphaba and Glinda in the West End production, released an acoustic version of "Defying Gravity" for the Wicked edition of her album Here Comes the Sun. Rapper Drake sampled the musical's song "Popular" in his song of the same name; singer Mika also sampled the song in his song "Popular Song".
Media as diverse as the anime series Red Garden, the daytime drama Passions and the Buffy the Vampire Slayer graphic novels have all parodied Wicked's songs and characters. At the start of the second of three episodes of the miniseries, Tin Man (another adaptation of Baum's Ozian universe), protagonist DG refers to her father as "Popsicle" vice the more common names "Pop" or "Pappi", echoing Galinda in her letter home at the start of "What is this Feeling?". Also, in the second episode of the ABC Family drama series Huge, one of the characters wears a "Shiz University" athletic Dept t-shirt, while Wicked and its "long lines" have been mentioned in the Nickelodeon series iCarly. The Broadway musical Shrek the Musical parodies the show's Act I finale with "What's Up, Duloc?"; character Lord Farquaad re-enacts "Defying Gravity" by proclaiming "No one's gonna bring me down" followed by the legato belt while atop his castle.
In 2011, former cast member Felicia Ricci wrote a behind-the-scenes memoir called Unnaturally Green about her time as understudy and standby for Elphaba in Wicked's San Francisco company. In it, she described the process of getting cast, rehearsing, and performing in the hit musical.
See also 
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- Official production sites
- Official UK Facebook Page
- Official UK Twitter Profile
- Cast lists for all productions at Wikia
- Wicked at the Internet Broadway Database
- "Wicked Inspires The Theatre Lovers"
- Wicked at Playbill Vault
- Wicked at MusicalSchwartz.com, the official Stephen Schwartz fan site
- Wicked | A Visual History curated by Michigan State University