|Sir Tom Stoppard|
Stoppard at a reception in Russia, 2007
3 July 1937
|Occupation||Playwright and screenwriter|
|Spouse(s)||Josie Ingle (1965–1972)
Miriam Stoppard (1972–1992)
Sir Tom Stoppard, OM, CBE, FRSL (born Tomáš Straussler; 3 July 1937) is a Czech-born British playwright, knighted in 1997. He has written prolifically for TV, radio, film and stage, finding prominence with plays such as Arcadia, The Coast of Utopia, Every Good Boy Deserves Favour, Professional Foul, The Real Thing, and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. He co-wrote the screenplays for Brazil and Shakespeare in Love, and has received one Academy Award and four Tony Awards. Themes of human rights, censorship and political freedom pervade his work along with exploration of linguistics and philosophy. Stoppard has been a key playwright of the National Theatre and is one of the most internationally performed dramatists of his generation.
In 1939, Stoppard left Czechoslovakia as a child refugee, fleeing imminent Nazi occupation. He settled with his family in Britain after the war, in 1946. After being educated at schools in Nottingham and Yorkshire, Stoppard became a journalist, a drama critic and then, in 1960, a playwright. He has been married twice, to Josie Ingle (1965–1972) and Miriam Stoppard (1972–1992), and has two sons from each marriage, one of whom is actor Ed Stoppard.
- 1 Life and career
- 2 Themes
- 3 Personal life
- 4 Selected awards and honours
- 5 Works
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Life and career
Stoppard was born Tomáš Straussler, in Zlín, a "Shoe Town", in the Moravia region of Czechoslovakia. He was the son of Martha Bečkova and Eugen Straussler, a doctor with the Bata shoe company. Both of his parents were non observant Jews. Just before the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, the town's patron, Thomas J. Bata, helped re-post his Jewish employees, mostly physicians, to various branches of his firm all over the world. On 15 March 1939, the day that the Nazis invaded Czechoslovakia, the Straussler family fled to Singapore, one of the places Bata had a company.
Before the Japanese occupation of Singapore, the two sons and their mother were sent on to Australia. Stoppard's father remained in Singapore as a British army volunteer, knowing that, as a doctor, he would be needed in its defence. His father died when Stoppard was four years old. In the book Tom Stoppard in conversation, Stoppard tells how his father died in Japanese captivity, a prisoner of war although Straussler is also commonly reported to have drowned on board a ship bombed by Japanese forces.
From there, in 1941, when Tomas was five, the three were evacuated to Darjeeling in India. The boys attended Mount Hermon School, an American multi-racial school, where Tomas became Tom and his brother Petr became Peter.
In 1945, his mother Martha married British army major Kenneth Stoppard, who gave the boys his English surname and, in 1946, after the war, moved the family to England. His stepfather believed strongly that "to be born an Englishman was to have drawn first prize in the lottery of life" – a quote from Cecil Rhodes – telling his small stepson: "Don't you realise that I made you British?" setting up Stoppard's desire as a child to become "an honorary Englishman". "I fairly often find I'm with people who forget I don't quite belong in the world we're in", he says. "I find I put a foot wrong – it could be pronunciation, an arcane bit of English history – and suddenly I'm there naked, as someone with a pass, a press ticket." This is reflected in his characters, he notes, who are "constantly being addressed by the wrong name, with jokes and false trails to do with the confusion of having two names". Stoppard attended the Dolphin School in Nottinghamshire, and later completed his education at Pocklington School in East Riding, Yorkshire, which he hated.
Stoppard left school at seventeen and began work as a journalist for the Western Daily Press in Bristol, never receiving a university education, having taken against the idea. Years later he came to regret not going to university, but at the time he loved his work as a journalist and felt passionately about his career. He remained at the paper from 1954 until 1958, when the Bristol Evening World offered Stoppard the position of feature writer, humour columnist, and secondary drama critic, which took Stoppard into the world of theatre. At the Bristol Old Vic – at the time a well-regarded regional repertory company – Stoppard formed friendships with director John Boorman and actor Peter O'Toole early in their careers. In Bristol, he became known more for his strained attempts at humour and unstylish clothes than for his writing.
Stoppard wrote short radio plays in 1953-4 and by 1960 he had completed his first stage play, A Walk on the Water, which was later re-titled Enter a Free Man (1968). He noted that the work owed much to Robert Bolt's Flowering Cherry and Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman. Within a week after sending A Walk on the Water to an agent, Stoppard received his version of the "Hollywood-style telegrams that change struggling young artists' lives." His first play was optioned, staged in Hamburg, then broadcast on British Independent Television in 1963. From September 1962 until April 1963, Stoppard worked in London as a drama critic for Scene magazine, writing reviews and interviews both under his name and the pseudonym William Boot (taken from Evelyn Waugh's Scoop). In 1964, a Ford Foundation grant enabled Stoppard to spend 5 months writing in a Berlin mansion, emerging with a one-act play titled Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Meet King Lear, which later evolved into his Tony-winning play Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. In the following years, Stoppard produced several works for radio, television and the theatre, including "M" is for Moon Among Other Things (1964), A Separate Peace (1966) and If You're Glad I'll Be Frank (1966). On 11 April 1967 — following acclaim at the 1966 Edinburgh Festival — the opening of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead in a National Theatre production at the Old Vic made Stoppard an overnight success. Jumpers (1972) places a professor of moral philosophy in a murder mystery thriller alongside a slew of radical gymnasts and Travesties (1974), explored the 'Wildean' possibilities arising from the fact that Vladimir Lenin, James Joyce, and Tristan Tzara had all been in Zurich during the First World War. In his early years, he also wrote extensively for BBC radio, often introducing surrealist themes. He has also adapted many of his stage works for radio, film and television winning extensive awards and honours from the start of his career. His latest original radio production, Darkside (2013), has been written for BBC Radio 2 to celebrate the 40th anniversary of Pink Floyd's album, The Dark Side of the Moon.
Stoppard has written one novel, Lord Malquist and Mr Moon (1966), set in contemporary London. Its cast includes the 18th-century figure of the dandified Malquist and his ineffectual Boswell, Moon, and also cowboys, a lion (banned from the Ritz) and a donkey-borne Irishman claiming to be the Risen Christ.
In the 1980s, in addition to writing his own works, Stoppard translated many plays into English, including works by Sławomir Mrożek, Johann Nestroy, Arthur Schnitzler, and Václav Havel. It was at this time that Stoppard became influenced by the works of Polish and Czech absurdists. He has been co-opted into the Outrapo group, a far-from-serious French movement to improve actors' stage technique through science.
Stoppard has also co-written screenplays including Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. Spielberg states that though Stoppard was uncredited, "he was responsible for almost every line of dialogue in the film". It is also rumoured that Stoppard worked on Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith, though again Stoppard received no official or formal credit in this role. He worked in a similar capacity with Tim Burton on his film Sleepy Hollow. In 2008, Stoppard was voted the number 76 on the Time 100, Time magazine's list of the most influential people in the world.
Stoppard serves on the advisory board of the magazine Standpoint, and was instrumental in its foundation, giving the opening speech at its launch. He is also a patron of the Shakespeare Schools Festival, a charity that enables school children across the UK to perform Shakespeare in professional theatres.
Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead (1966–7) was Stoppard's first major play to gain recognition. The story of Hamlet, as told from the viewpoint of two courtiers echoes Beckett in its double act repartee, existential themes and language play. "Stoppardian" became a term describing works using wit and comedy while addressing philosophical concepts. Critic Dennis Kennedy notes "It established several characteristics of Stoppard's dramaturgy: his word-playing intellectuality, audacious, paradoxical, and self-conscious theatricality, and preference for reworking pre-existing narratives... Stoppard's plays have been sometimes dismissed as pieces of clever showmanship, lacking in substance, social commitment, or emotional weight. His theatrical surfaces serve to conceal rather than reveal their author's views, and his fondness for towers of paradox spirals away from social comment. This is seen most clearly in his comedies The Real Inspector Hound (1968) and After Magritte (1970), which create their humour through highly formal devices of reframing and juxtaposition." Stoppard himself went so far as to declare "I must stop compromising my plays with this whiff of social application. They must be entirely untouched by any suspicion of usefulness." He acknowledges that he started off "as a language nerd", primarily enjoying linguistic and ideological playfulness, feeling early in his career that journalism was far better suited for presaging political change, than playwriting.
The accusations of favouring intellectuality over political commitment or commentary were met with a change of tack, as Stoppard produced increasingly socially engaged work. From 1977, he became personally involved with human rights issues, in particular with the situation of political dissidents in Central and Eastern Europe. In February 1977, he visited the Soviet Union and several Eastern European countries with a member of Amnesty International. In June, Stoppard met Vladimir Bukovsky in London and travelled to Czechoslovakia (then under communist control), where he met dissident playwright and future president Václav Havel, whose writing he greatly admires.Stoppard became involved with Index on Censorship, Amnesty International, and the Committee Against Psychiatric Abuse and wrote various newspaper articles and letters about human rights. He was also instrumental in translating Havel's works into English. Every Good Boy Deserves Favour (1977), ‘a play for actors and orchestra’ was based on a request by composer André Previn; inspired by a meeting with a Russian exile. This play as well as Dogg's Hamlet, Cahoot's Macbeth (1979), The Coast of Utopia (2002), Rock ‘n’ Roll (2006), and two works for television Professional Foul (1977) and Squaring the Circle (1984) all concern themes of censorship, rights abuses, and state repression.
Stoppard's later works have sought greater inter-personal depths, whilst maintaining their intellectual playfulness. Stoppard acknowledges that around 1982 he moved away from the "argumentative" works and more towards plays of the heart, as he became "less shy" about emotional openness. Discussing the later integration of heart and mind in his work, he commented "I think I was too concerned when I set off, to have a firework go off every few seconds... I think I was always looking for the entertainer in myself and I seem to be able to entertain through manipulating language... [but] it's really about human beings, it's not really about language at all." The Real Thing (1982) uses a meta-theatrical structure to explore the suffering that adultery can produce and The Invention of Love (1997) also investigates the pain of passion. Arcadia (1993) explores the meeting of chaos theory, historiography, and landscape gardening. He was inspired by a Trevor Nunn production of Gorky's Summerfolk to write a trilogy of 'human' plays: The Coast of Utopia (Voyage, Shipwreck, and Salvage, 2002).
Stoppard has commented that he loves the medium of theatre for how 'adjustable' it is at every point, how unfrozen it is, continuously growing and developing through each rehearsal, free from the text. His experience of writing for film is similar, offering the liberating opportunity to 'play God', in control of creative reality. It often takes four to five years from the first idea of a play to staging, taking pains to be as profoundly accurate in his research as he can be.
Stoppard has been married twice, to Josie Ingle (1965–1972), a nurse, and to Miriam Stoppard (née Stern, and subsequently Miriam Moore-Robinson, 1972–1992), whom he left to begin a relationship with actress Felicity Kendal. He has two sons from each marriage: Oliver Stoppard, Barnaby Stoppard, the actor Ed Stoppard and Will Stoppard, who is married to violinist Linzi Stoppard.
In 1979, the year of Margaret Thatcher's election, Stoppard noted to Paul Delaney: "I'm a conservative with a small c. I am a conservative in politics, literature, education and theatre." In 2007, Stoppard described himself as a "timid libertarian".
Stoppard sat for sculptor Alan Thornhill, and a bronze head is now in public collection, situated with the Stoppard papers in the reading room of the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin. The terracotta remains in the collection of the artist in London. The correspondence file relating to the Stoppard bust is held in the archive of the Henry Moore Foundation's Henry Moore Institute in Leeds.
Stoppard's mother died in 1996. The family had not talked about their history and neither brother knew what had happened to the family left behind in Czechoslovakia. In the early 1990s, with the fall of communism, Stoppard found out that all four of his grandparents had been Jewish and had died in Terezin, Auschwitz and other camps, along with three of his mother's sisters. In 1998, following the deaths of his parents he returned to Zlín for the first time in over 50 years. He has expressed grief both for a lost father and a missing past, but he has no sense of being a survivor, at whatever remove. "I feel incredibly lucky not to have had to survive or die. It's a conspicuous part of what might be termed a charmed life."
Selected awards and honours
- 1967: Evening Standard Award for Most Promising Playwright (UK)
- 1967: Plays and Players London Theatre Critics Award Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead (UK)
- 1968: Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead – Tony Award for Best Play, New York Drama Critics' Circle Best Play of the Year (U.S.), Plays and Players London Theatre Critics Award for Best New Play (UK)
- 1968: Albert's Bridge – Prix Italia (Italy)
- 1972: Jumpers – Evening Standard Award for Best Play, Plays and Players London Theatre Critics Award for Best New Play (UK)
- 1974: Travesties – Evening Standard Award for Best Comedy of the Year (UK)
- 1976: Travesties – Tony Award for Best Play, New York Critics Award for Best Play (U.S.)
- 1978: Night and Day – Evening Standard Award for Best Play (UK)
- 1982: The Dog It Was That Died – Giles Cooper Award
- 1982: The Real Thing – Evening Standard Award for Best Play (UK)
- 1984: The Real Thing – Tony Award for Best Play, New York Critics Award for Best Foreign Play (U.S.)
- 1991: In the Native State – Giles Cooper Award
- 1993: Arcadia – Critics' Circle Theatre Awards for Best New Play, Evening Standard Award for Best Play of the Year
- 1994: Arcadia – Laurence Olivier Award for Best New Play (UK)
- 1997: The Invention of Love – Evening Standard Award for Best Play (UK)
- 1998: Shakespeare in Love – Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay (U.S.)
- 1999: Shakespeare in Love - Silver Bear for an outstanding single achievement (Berlin)
- 2000: The Real Thing – Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Revival of a Play (U.S.)
- 2000: The Real Thing – Tony Award for Best Revival of a Play (U.S.)
- 2001: The Invention of Love - New York Drama Critics Circle Award for Best Play (U.S.)
- 2007: The Coast of Utopia – Tony Award for Best Play (U.S.)
- 2007: The Critics' Circle Award for Distinguished Service to the Arts (presented on 3 April 2008 at the National Theatre) (UK)
- 2008: The 2008 Dan David Prize for Creative Rendering of the Past in Theatre (Israeli)
- 2013: The PEN Pinter Prize for "determination to tell things as they are." (UK)
- 1972: Elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature
- 1978: CBE
- 1997: Knight Bachelor
- 2000: Order of Merit
- 2000: Honorary doctorate from Yale University
- 2000: Honorary degree from Cambridge University
- 2002: President of The London Library
- 2009: Honorary Patronage of the University Philosophical Society, Trinity College, Dublin
- 1964: A Walk on the Water
- 1965: The Gamblers, based on the novel The Gambler by Dostoevsky
- 1966: Tango, adapted from Sławomir Mrożek's play and Nicholas Bethell translation, premiered at the Aldwych Theatre
- 1966: Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead
- 1968: Enter a Free Man. Developed from A Walk on the Water. First performed 28 March 1968.
- 1968: The Real Inspector Hound
- 1969: Albert's Bridge premiered at St. Mary's Hall in Edinburgh
- 1969: If You're Glad I'll Be Frank premiered at St. Mary's Hall in Edinburgh
- 1970: After Magritte frequently performed as a companion piece to The Real Inspector Hound
- 1971: Dogg's Our Pet premiered at the Almost Free Theatre
- 1972: Jumpers
- 1972: Artist Descending a Staircase
- 1974: Travesties
- 1976: Dirty Linen and New-Found-Land first performed on 6 April 1976
- 1977: Every Good Boy Deserves Favour was written at the request of André Previn. The play calls for full orchestra
- 1978: Night and Day
- 1979: Dogg's Hamlet, Cahoot's Macbeth – two plays written to be performed together.
- 1979: 15-Minute Hamlet
- 1979: Undiscovered Country – an adaptation of Das Weite Land by the Austrian playwright Arthur Schnitzler
- 1981: On the Razzle based on Einen Jux will er sich machen by Johann Nestroy
- 1982: The Real Thing
- 1983: English libretto for The Love for Three Oranges. Original opera by Sergei Prokofiev.
- 1984: Rough Crossing based on Play at the Castle by Ferenc Molnár
- 1986: Dalliance An adaptation of Arthur Schnitzler's Liebelei
- 1987: Largo Desolato, translation of a play by Václav Havel
- 1988: Hapgood
- 1993: Arcadia
- 1995: Indian Ink – based on Stoppard's radio play In The Native State
- 1997: The Invention of Love
- 1997: The Seagull – translation of the play by Anton Chekhov
- 2002: The Coast of Utopia is a trilogy of plays: Voyage, Shipwreck, and Salvage
- 2004: Enrico IV (Henry IV) – translation of the Italian play by Luigi Pirandello First presented at the Donmar Theatre, London, in April 2004
- 2006: Rock 'n' Roll — first public performance 3 June 2006 preview at the Royal Court Theatre.
- 2010: The Laws of War — contributor to a collaborative piece for one-night benefit performance in support of Human Rights Watch.
Original works for radio
- 1964: The Dissolution of Dominic Boot
- 1964: 'M' is for Moon Amongst Other Things
- 1966: If You’re Glad I’ll be Frank
- 1967: Albert's Bridge
- 1968: Where Are They Now?, written for schools radio
- 1972: Artist Descending a Staircase
- 1982: The Dog It Was That Died
- 1991: In the Native State, later expanded to become the stage play Indian Ink (1995)
- 2007: On Dover Beach
- 2012: Albert's Bridge, Artist Descending a Staircase, The Dog It Was That Died, and In the Native State have been published by the British Library as Tom Stoppard Radio Plays 
- 2013: Darkside, written for BBC Radio 2
- A Separate Peace transmitted August 1966
- Another Moon Called Earth (containing some dialogue and situations later incorporated into Jumpers)
- Neutral Ground (a loose adaptation of Sophocles' Philoctetes)
- Professional Foul
- Squaring the Circle
Film and television adaptation of plays and books
- 1975: Three Men in a Boat adaptation of Jerome K. Jerome's novel for BBC Television
- 1975: The Boundary co-authored by Clive Exton, for the BBC
- 1985: Brazil co-authored with Terry Gilliam and Charles McKeown, script nominated for an Academy Award
- 1987: Empire of the Sun first draft of the screenplay
- 1989: Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade final rewrite of Jeffrey Boam's rewrite of Menno Meyjes's screenplay
- 1990: The Russia House screenplay for the 1990 film of the John Le Carre Novel
- 1990: Rosencrantz & Guildenstern are Dead – won the Golden Lion and which he also directed
- 1998: Shakespeare in Love co-authored with Marc Norman; script won an Academy Award
- 1998: Poodle Springs teleplay adaptation of the novel by Robert B. Parker and Raymond Chandler
- 2001: Enigma film screenplay of the Robert Harris novel
- 2005: The Golden Compass a draft screenplay, subsequently rejected
- 2012: Parade's End, television screenplay for BBC/HBO of Ford Madox Ford's series of novels
- 2012: Anna Karenina, film screenplay of the Leo Tolstoy novel
- Amy Reiter (13 November 2001). "Tom Stoppard". Salon.com. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
- Staff writers (11 June 2007). "Stoppard play sweeps Tony awards". BBC News. Retrieved 5 October 2008.
- "Stoppard, Tom" The Oxford Companion to Theatre and Performance. Edited by Dennis Kennedy. Oxford University Press Inc.
- Moss, Stephen (22 June 2002). "And now, the real thing". 'The Guardian. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
- Theresienstadt memorial archive 'Tom Stoppard Discloses his Past
- "And now the real thing" The Guardian, 22 June 2002. Retrieved 10 October 2010
- Bloom, p.13
- Tom Stoppard, Paul Delaney (1994) Tom Stoppard in conversation p91 University of Michigan Press
- BBC John Tusa Interview (Audio 43 mins). Transcript
- "You can't help being what you write". The Guardian, 6 September 2008
- "Tom Stoppard’s Dark Side comes to BBC Radio 2". Tuppence Magazine. Retrieved 28 April 2013.
- von Bariter, Milie. "L'acteur cérébral". Contrainte du moment. Outrapo. Retrieved 6 September 2008.
- "Empire: Features". Empire. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
- Rolling Stone magazine article. Retrieved 19 February 2010
- "Get me Tom Stoppard". The Guardian 30 November 1999. Retrieved 22 October 2010
- Tom Stoppard. "ONLINE ONLY: Speech at the Standpoint Launch". Standpoint. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
- "Sir Tom Stoppard wins annual Pen Pinter prize". bbc.co.uk. 31 July 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
- Tom Stoppard. "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead Summary and Study Guide – Tom Stoppard". Enotes.com. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
- Kelly 2001, pp. 33–34.
- Kelly 2001, pp. 242–243.
- Kelly 2001, p. 151.
- Time Magazine 25 October 2007
- "Inventory of Tom Stoppard papers and location of bronze head". Research.hrc.utexas.edu:8080. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
- "image of Stoppard bust by sculptor Alan Thornhill". Alanthornhill.co.uk. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
- "HMI Archive". Henry-moore-fdn.co.uk. Archived from the original on 12 January 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
- "Cenu Toma Stopparda získala Linhartová za knihu, která vznikala 40 let" (in Czech). Hospodářské noviny. 26 May 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
- Theresienstadt memorial archive websiteTom Stoppard Discloses his Past
- Against the Law: Jude joins Kevin Spacey on street protest against brutal Belarus regime of 'Europe's last dictator'. The Daily Mail. 29 March 2011
- Prix Italia, Winners 1949 - 2010, RAI
- "Berlinale: 1999 Prize Winners". berlinale.de. Retrieved 2012-02-04.
- "Artist Descending a Staircase". ArtScope.net. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
- Bassett, Kate (9 May 2004). "Madness – it's just another act". The Independent. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 7 September 2008.
- "The Laws of War at The Royal Court Theatre". Royal Court Theatre. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "Alan Howard Reads". RadioListings.co.uk. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
- Tom Stoppard Radio Plays.
- Hodgson 2001, p. 41.
- Bloom, Harold, ed. Tom Stoppard. Bloom's Major Dramatists series. New York: Chelsea House, 2003, ISBN 0791070328.
- Cahn, Victor L. Beyond Absurdity: The Plays of Tom Stoppard. Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1979.
- Corballis, Richard. Stoppard. The Mystery and the Clockwork Oxford, New York, 1984.
- Delaney, Paul. Tom Stoppard: The Moral Vision of the Plays London, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1990.
- Fleming, John. Stoppard's Theater: Finding Order Amid Chaos Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001.
- Hodgson, Terry (2001). The Plays of Tom Stoppard: For Stage, Radio, TV and Film. Duxford, England: Icon. ISBN 1-84046-241-8.
- Hunter, Jim. About Stoppard: The Playwright and the Work. London: Faber and Faber, 2005.
- Kelly, Katherine E., ed. (2001). The Cambridge Companion to Tom Stoppard. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-64592-1.
- Londré, Felicia Hardison. Tom Stoppard Modern Literature Series. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., 1981.
- Stoppard, Tom & Paul Delaney, ed. Tom Stoppard in conversation University of Michigan Press, 1994.
- Südkamp, Holger. Tom Stoppard's Biographical Drama. Trier: WVT, 2008.
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Tom Stoppard|
- British Council Profile. Retrieved 2011-01-02
- BBC John Tusa Interview (Audio 43 mins). With transcript. BBC profile. Retrieved 2011-01-02
- Tom Stoppard archive at the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 2010-02-19
- Works by or about Tom Stoppard in libraries (WorldCat catalog)