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This article is about the year 1855.
|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1820s 1830s 1840s – 1850s – 1860s 1870s 1880s|
|Years:||1852 1853 1854 – 1855 – 1856 1857 1858|
|1855 in topic:|
|Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature – Music|
|Australia – Brazil - Canada – France – Germany – Mexico – Philippines – South Africa – United Kingdom – United States|
|Rail Transport – Science – Sports|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial Governors – State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2608|
|British Regnal year||18 Vict. 1 – 19 Vict. 1|
|Chinese calendar||甲寅年 (Wood Tiger)
4551 or 4491
— to —
乙卯年 (Wood Rabbit)
4552 or 4492
|- Vikram Samvat||1911–1912|
|- Shaka Samvat||1777–1778|
|- Kali Yuga||4956–4957|
|Japanese calendar||Ansei 2
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||57 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2397–2398|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1855.|
- January 1 – Ottawa, Ontario is incorporated as a city.
- January 5 – Ramón Castilla begins his third term as President of Peru.
- January 23
- The first bridge over the Mississippi River opens in what is now Minneapolis, a predecessor of the modern-day Father Louis Hennepin Bridge.
- The region of Wairarapa, New Zealand is hit by the strongest earthquake ever recorded in New Zealand (Magnitude 8.1 on the Richter Scale); there are five deaths.
- January 26 – The Point No Point Treaty is signed in the Washington Territory.
- January 27 – The Panama Railway becomes the first railroad to connect the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean.
- January 29 – Lord Aberdeen resigns as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom over the management of the Crimean War.
- February 5 – Lord Palmerston becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
- February 11 – Kassa Hailu is crowned Tewodros II, Emperor of Ethiopia.
- February 12 – Michigan State University (the "pioneer" land-grant college) is established.
- February 15 – The North Carolina General Assembly incorporates the Western North Carolina Railroad to build a rail line from Salisbury to the western part of the state.
- February 22 – Pennsylvania State University is founded as the Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania.
- March 2 – Alexander II ascends the Russian throne, upon the death of his father Nicholas I.
- March 3 – The United States Congress appropriates $30,000 to create the U.S. Camel Corps.
- March 16 – Bates College is founded by abolitionists in Lewiston, Maine.
- March 17 – Taiping Rebellion: A Taiping army of 350,000 invades Anhui.
- March 30 – Elections are held for the first Kansas Territory legislature. Missourians cross the border in large numbers to elect a pro-slavery body.
- April 3 – The Nepalese invasion of Tibet starts the Nepalese–Tibetan War (1855-1856).
- May 1 – Van Diemen's Land separated administratively from New South Wales and granted self-government.
- May 15
- May 17 – The Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, is dedicated (as the Jews' Hospital) in New York City; it opens to patients on June 5.
- May 22 – Province of Victoria separated administratively from New South Wales.
- June 15 – Stamp duty is removed from newspapers in Britain, creating mass media in the United Kingdom.
- June 29 – The Daily Telegraph newspaper begins publication in London.
- July 1 – Quinault Treaty signed: Quinault and Quileute cede their land to the United States.
- July 2 – The Kansas territorial legislature convenes in Pawnee and begins passing proslavery laws.
- July 4 – Walt Whitman's poetry collection Leaves of Grass is published in Brooklyn.
- July 16 – Australian Colonies granted self-governing status by the United Kingdom.
- August 1 – First ascent of Monte Rosa, the second highest summit in the Alps.
- September 3 – The last Bartholomew Fair is held in London, England.
- September 9 (August 28 O.S.) – Siege of Sevastopol (1854–55) (Crimean War): Sevastopol falls to French and British troops.
- September 27 – Alfred Tennyson reads from his new book Maud and other poems at a social gathering in the home of Robert and Elizabeth Browning in London; Dante Gabriel Rossetti makes a sketch of him doing so.
- September 29 – Iloilo was opened to world trade. 
- October 17 – Henry Bessemer files his patent in the United Kingdom for the Bessemer process of steelmaking.
- October 24 – Van Diemen's Land officially renamed Tasmania.
- November 17 – Scottish missionary explorer David Livingstone becomes the first European to see Victoria Falls in modern-day Zambia–Zimbabwe.
- November 21 – Large-scale Bleeding Kansas violence begins with events leading to the 'Wakarusa War' between antislavery and proslavery forces.
- December 22 – The Metropolitan Board of Works is established in London.
- The cocaine alkaloid is first isolated by the German chemist Friedrich Gaedcke.
- Palm oil sales from West Africa to the United Kingdom reach 40,000 tons.
- January 5 – King Camp Gillette, American razor inventor (d. 1932)
- January 20 – Ernest Chausson, French composer (d. 1899)
- January 21
- February 4 – George Cope, American painter (d. 1929)
- February 12 – Marie-Anne de Bovet, French writer
- February 20 – John R. Lindgren, founder of the banking firm Haugan & Lindgren (d. 1915)
- March 4 – Luther Emmett Holt, American pediatrician (d. 1924)
- March 13 – Percival Lowell, American astronomer (d. 1916)
- March 24 – Andrew W. Mellon, American banker and philanthropist (d. 1937)
- April 9 – John Marden, Australian Headmaster and pioneer of women's education (d. 1924)
- April 21 – Hardy Richardson, 19th century baseball player (d. 1931)
- April 27 – Caroline Rémy de Guebhard, French feminist (d. 1929)
- May 1 – Marie Corelli, English novelist (d. 1924)
- May 9 – Julius Röntgen, German-Dutch classical composer (d. 1932)
- May 10 – Sri Yukteswar Giri, Author of The Holy Science
- May 21 – Emile Verhaeren, Belgian poet (d. 1916)
- May 23 – Isabella Ford, English socialist, feminist, trade unionist and writer (d. 1924)
- June 28 – Theodor Reuss, German occultist (d. 1923)
- July 26 – Ferdinand Tönnies, German sociologist (d. 1936)
- August 25 – Hugo von Pohl, German admiral (d. 1916)
- August 28 – Alexander Bethell, British admiral (d. 1932)
- August 31 – Vsevolod Rudnev, Russian admiral (d. 1913)
- September 25 – James P. Parker, United States Navy commodore (d. 1942)
- October 12 – Arthur Nikisch, Hungarian conductor (d. 1922)
- October 21 – Howard Hyde Russell, American activist (d. 1946)
- November 1 – Templin Potts, American naval officer; 11th Naval Governor of Guam (d. 1927)
- November 5 – Léon Teisserenc de Bort, French meteorologist (d. 1913)
- November 6 – Ezra Seymour Gosney, American philanthropist and eugenicist (d. 1942)
- December 28 – John William Wood, Sr., North Carolinan politician, founder of Benson, North Carolina (d. 1928)
- January 6 – Giacomo Beltrami, Italian explorer (b. 1779)
- January 10 – Mary Russell Mitford, English novelist and dramatist (b. 1787)
- January 15 – Henri Braconnot, French chemist and pharmacist (b. 1780)
- January 26 – Gérard de Nerval, French writer (b. 1808)
- February 6 – Josef Munzinger, Member of the Swiss Federal Council (b. 1791)
- February 23 – Carl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician, astronomer, and physicist (b. 1777)
- March 2 – Emperor Nicholas I of Russia (b. 1796)
- March 8 – William Poole, infamous member of New York City's Bowery Boys gang (b. 1821)
- March 29 – Henri Druey, member of the Swiss Federal Council (b. 1799)
- March 31 – Charlotte Brontë, English author (b. 1816)
- May 5 – Robert Inglis, English politician (b. 1786)
- May 23 – Charles Robert Malden English explorer (b. 1797)
- June 28
- August 7 – Mariano Arista, President of Mexico (b. 1802)
- August 30 – Feargus O'Connor, British political radical and Chartist leader (b. 1794)
- September 7 – William Barton Wade Dent, U.S. Congressman (b. 1806)
- November 11 – Søren Kierkegaard, Danish philosopher (b. 1813)
- November 17 – Maurycy Gottlieb, Ukrainian painter (b. 1856
- September 20 – José Trinidad Reyes, Honduran Father, national hero, and founder of Autonomous National University of Honduras (b. 1797)
- November 26 – Adam Mickiewicz, Lithuanian-Polish poet and writer (b. 1798)
- December 6 – William John Swainson, English naturalist and artist (b. 1789)
- "Railroad — Western North Carolina Railroad". North Carolina Business History. historync.org. 2006. Archived from the original on October 30, 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-09.
- Rose, Leo E. (1971). Nepal: Strategy for Survival. University of California Press. pp. 110–111.
- Wine-Searcher. "Classification of Medoc and Graves of 1855". wine-searcher.com. Archived from the original on March 30, 2010..
- Hanrahan, David C. (2011). The First Great Train Robbery. London: Robert Hale. ISBN 978-0-7090-9040-3.
- "Tennyson Reading 'Maud'". Pre-Raphaelite Online Resource. Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery. Retrieved 2013-05-09.
- Henry Funtecha. "Iloilo's position under colonial rule". thenewstoday.info. Archived from the original on July 21, 2006..
- van Dulken, Stephen (2001). Inventing the 19th Century: the great age of Victorian inventions. London: British Library. pp. 30–1. ISBN 0-7123-0881-4.
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.