Anhui

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Anhui Province
安徽省
Province
Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese 安徽省 (Ānhuī Shěng)
 • Abbreviation (pinyin: Wǎn)
Map showing the location of Anhui Province
Map showing the location of Anhui Province
Coordinates: 31°50′N 117°0′E / 31.833°N 117.000°E / 31.833; 117.000Coordinates: 31°50′N 117°0′E / 31.833°N 117.000°E / 31.833; 117.000
Capital
(and largest city)
Hefei
Divisions 16 prefectures, 105 counties, 1845 townships
Government
 • Secretary Li Jinbin
 • Governor Li Jinbin
Area[1]
 • Total 139,600 km2 (53,900 sq mi)
Area rank 22nd
Population (2013)[2]
 • Total 60,300,000
 • Rank 8th
 • Density 430/km2 (1,100/sq mi)
 • Density rank 9th
Demographics
 • Ethnic composition Han - 99%
Hui - 0.6%
 • Languages and dialects Jianghuai Mandarin, Zhongyuan Mandarin, Gan, Wu, Huizhou
ISO 3166 code CN-34
GDP (2014) CNY 2.085 trillion
US$ 339.38 billion (14th)
 • per capita CNY 34,575
US$ 5,628 (26th)
HDI (2010) 0.660[3] (medium) (25th)
Website www.ah.gov.cn (simplified Chinese)
Anhui
Anhui (Chinese characters).svg
"Anhui" in Chinese characters
Chinese 安徽
Literal meaning "An[qing] and Hui[zhou cities]"

Anhui ([ánxu̯éi̯]; Chinese: 安徽; pinyin: Ānhuī) is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China located in the eastern region of the country. Located across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, it borders Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, and Shandong for a tiny section in the north. The provincial capital is Hefei.

The name "Anhui" derives from the names of two cities: Anqing and Huizhou (now Huangshan City).[4] The abbreviation for Anhui is "Chinese: ; pinyin: wǎn" after the historical State of Wan, Mount Wan, and the Wan river.

History[edit]

The province of Anhui was formed in the 17th century. Before then, there was no coherent concept of "Anhui". In terms of culture, Northern Anhui was firmly a part of the North China Plain together with modern-day Henan province, northern Jiangsu and southern Shandong provinces. Central Anhui was densely populated and constituted mostly of fertile land from the Huai River watershed. In contrast, the culture of Southern Anhui, bordered mostly along the Yangtze, was closer to Jiangxi and southern Jiangsu provinces. The hills of southeastern Anhui formed a unique and distinct cultural sphere of its own.[citation needed]

In the 2007 book China Road, author Rob Gifford stated that the Chinese refer to Anhui as a "big agricultural province" (农业大省). According to Gifford, this is an euphemism for a "very poor" area and that people have referred to Anhui as the "Appalachia of China."[5]

Geography[edit]

The Yangtze River bisects the province diagonally. Pictured: The Anqing Yangtze River Bridge
A street in Zhide (至德), a town, historically known as Yaodu (尧度), in Dongzhi County

Anhui is quite diverse topographically. The north of the province is part of the North China Plain while the north-central areas are part of the Huai River watershed. Both of these regions are very flat and densely populated. The land becomes more uneven further south, with the Dabie Mountains occupying much of southwestern Anhui and a series of hills and ranges cutting through southeastern Anhui. The Yangtze River finds its way through south Anhui in between these two mountainous regions. The highest peak in Anhui is Lotus Peak, part of Huangshan in southeastern Anhui. It has an altitude of 1873 m.

Major rivers include the Huai River in the north and the Yangtze in the south. The largest lake is Lake Chaohu situated in the center of the province, with an area of about 800 km2 (310 sq mi). The southeastern part of the province near the Yangtze River has many lakes as well.

As with topography, the province differs in climate from north to south. The north is more temperate and has more clearcut seasons. January temperatures average at around -1 to 2 °C north of the Huai River, and 0 to 3 °C south of the Huai River; in July temperatures average 27 °C or above. Plum rains occur in June and July and may cause flooding.

Major cities:

Administrative divisions[edit]

Anhui is divided into sixteen prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities:

Administrative divisions of Anhui
Anhui prfc map.png
Division code[6] English name Chinese Pinyin Area in km2[7] Population 2010[8] Seat Divisions[9]
Districts Counties CL cities
  340000 Anhui 安徽省 Ānhuī Shěng 139600.00 59,500,510 Hefei 44 55 6
1 340100 Hefei 合肥市 Héféi Shì 11429.68 7,457,000 Shushan District 4 4 1
16 340200 Wuhu 芜湖市 Wúhú Shì 6026.05 3,443,000 Jiujiang District 4 4
3 340300 Bengbu 蚌埠市 Bèngbù Shì 5952.13 3,164,000 Bengshan District 4 3
10 340400 Huainan 淮南市 Huáinán Shì 5569.96 2,334,000 Tianjia'an District 5 2
13 340500 Ma'anshan 马鞍山市 Mǎ'ānshān Shì 4049.13 2,304,000 Yushan District 3 3
9 340600 Huaibei 淮北市 Huáiběi Shì 2740.91 2,114,000 Xiangshan District 3 1
15 340700 Tongling 铜陵市 Tónglíng Shì 2924.00 1,562,670 Tongguan District 3 1
2 340800 Anqing 安庆市 Ānqìng Shì 13538.00 4,472,667 Daguan District 3 6 1
11 341000 Huangshan 黄山市 Huángshān Shì 9678.84 1,359,000 Tunxi District 3 4
7 341100 Chuzhou 滁州市 Chúzhōu Shì 13523.22 3,938,000 Langya District 2 4 2
8 341200 Fuyang 阜阳市 Fùyáng Shì 10122.77 7,600,000 Yingzhou District 3 4 1
14 341300 Suzhou 宿州市 Sùzhōu Shì 9939.80 5,353,000 Yongqiao District 1 4
12 341500 Lu'an 六安市 Lù'ān Shì 12461.45 5,612,000 Jin'an District 3 4
4 341600 Bozhou 亳州市 Bózhōu Shì 8522.58 4,851,000 Qiaocheng District 1 3
6 341700 Chizhou 池州市 Chízhōu Shì 8391.73 1,403,000 Guichi District 1 3
5 341800 Xuancheng 宣城市 Xuānchéng Shì 12323.43 2,533,000 Xuanzhou District 1 5 1

The sixteen prefecture-level divisions of Anhui are subdivided into 105 county-level divisions (44 districts, 6 county-level cities, and 55 counties). Those are in turn divided into 1,845 township-level divisions (972 towns, 634 townships, nine ethnic townships, and 230 subdistricts).

Politics[edit]

The Politics of Anhui Province is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Anhui (安徽省省长) is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Anhui. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Anhui Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary (安徽省委书记), colloquially termed the "Anhui Party Chief".

Economy[edit]

Agriculture in Anhui varies according to the climate zones that the province crosses. To the north of the Huai River, wheat and sweet potatoes are grown, while to the south of the Huai River it is rice and wheat instead.

Natural resources of Anhui include iron in Ma'anshan, coal in Huainan, and copper in Tongling. There are industries related to these natural resources (e.g. steel industry at Ma'anshan). One of the famous Anhui-based corporations is the automobile company Chery, which is based in Wuhu.[citation needed]

Compared to its more prosperous neighbours to the east, Zhejiang and Jiangsu, Anhui has lagged markedly behind in economic development, with a GDP per capita around one third the level of those two provinces. There is great regional disparity as well, and most of the wealth is concentrated in industrial regions close to the Yangtze River, such as Hefei, Wuhu, and Ma'anshan.[citation needed]

Anhui's nominal GDP for 2011 was approximately 1.51 trillion yuan (US$239.8 billion), up 12.9% from 2008 and a per capita of 16,391 yuan (US$2,400). It is considered a mid-size economy in terms of economic output. Anhui's GDP is largely driven by fixed-asset investment, and the province's GDP to FAI ratio as of 2009 was 0.89, the highest in China.[10]

Anhui's largest companies include Anhui Conch Cement Company, a producer and distributor of cement, Guoyang Securities Co (SHE: 000728), a financial services provider, and Ma’anshan Iron & Steel, a producer of steel and iron.[11]

Major Economic and Technological Development Zones[edit]

Hefei Economic and Technological Development Zone[edit]

Hefei Economic and Technological Development Zone is located in the southwest of Hefei. The zone is divided into two functional areas. The east part is allocated for manufacturing purpose and it also has two parks; the west part is where the business center, Hefei university town, and the international community center are located. It is established in 1993, and it is located close to Hefei Luogang International Airport.[12]

Hefei Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone[edit]

Hefei Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was founded in October 1990 and approved by the State Council as a state-level Development Zone in March 1991. In 1997, the Development Zone was ratified as an APEC Science and Technology Industrial Park, with special open policies to APEC and EU members. Hefei High Tech Park was also approved as a National High Tech Export Base in 2000 and obtained the award of an Advanced High Tech Zone under the Torch Program in 2003. So far, more than 100 hi-tech enterprises have entered the zone. Industries encouraged in the zone include Chemicals Production and Processing, Electronics Assembly & Manufacturing, Heavy Industry, Instruments & Industrial Equipment Production, Medical Equipment and Supplies, Research and Development, Telecommunications Equipment.[13]

Wuhu Economic and Technological Development Zone[edit]

Established in 1993, Wuhu Economic & Technological Development Zone is the first state-level development zone approved by central government in Anhui Province. As the hub in the west of the Yangtze Delta, it is an ideal place for business in Central China and East China such as manufacturing place or logistic center due to great transportation advantage. Wuhu port is the last fine deepwater port here going against the Yangtse River. It is the main foreign trade base and overseas transportation center. It takes 1 hour from Wuhu to Nanjing Lukou International Airport and to Hefei Luogang Airport.[14]

Wuhu Export Processing Zone[edit]

Wuhu Export Processing Zone was approved to be a national level export processing zone by State Council. Wuhu Export Processing Zone is located in the Wuhu EDZ, with a total planned area of 2.95 km2 with the first-stage are being 1.1 km2. It is located close to Wuhu Airport and Wuhu Port. Industries encouraged in the zone include Electronics Assembly & Manufacturing, Heavy Industry, Instruments & Industrial Equipment Production, Shipping/Warehousing/Logistics, Trading and Distribution.[15]

Transportation[edit]

Historically, Anhui's transport network was hampered by the lack of bridges across the Yangtze River, which divides the province into northern and southern regions. The first bridge across the Yangtze in Anhui, the Tongling Yangtze River Bridge was completed in 1995. As of October 2014, Anhui had four bridges across the Yangtze, at Ma'anshan, Wuhu, Tongling, and Anqing.

Rail[edit]

Electric locomotive at Bengbu in northern Anhui

Conventional railways in Anhui include the Beijing–Shanghai Railway, Beijing–Kowloon Railway, and Nanjing–Xi'an Railway that traverse the province north of the Yangtze River and the Nanjing−Tongling Railway, Anhui–Jiangxi Railway and Xuancheng–Hangzhou Railway that run south of the river.

High-speed lines include Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway, Hefei–Wuhan Passenger Railway and Hefei–Nanjing Passenger Railway.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1912[16] 16,229,000 —    
1928[17] 21,715,000 +33.8%
1936-37[18] 23,354,000 +7.5%
1947[19] 22,462,000 −3.8%
1954[20] 30,343,637 +35.1%
1964[21] 31,241,657 +3.0%
1982[22] 49,665,724 +59.0%
1990[23] 56,180,813 +13.1%
2000[24] 58,999,948 +5.0%
2010[25] 59,500,510 +0.8%

Han Chinese make up the vast majority of the population. The Hui and She nationalities are the two largest minorities.

Anhui has a highly unbalanced gender ratio. According to a 2009 study published in the British Medical Journal, in the 1-4 age group, there are 138 boys for every 100 girls, making it among the most unbalanced of provinces in China.[26]

Culture[edit]

Anhui spans many geographical and cultural regions. The northern, flatter parts of the province, along the Huai River and further north, are most akin to neighbouring provinces like Henan, Shandong and northern Jiangsu. In contrast, the southern, hilly parts of the province are more similar in culture and dialect to other southern, hilly provinces, like Zhejiang and Jiangxi.

Mandarin dialects are spoken over the northern and central parts of the province, north of the Yangzi river. Dialects to the north (e.g. Bengbu dialect) are classified as Zhongyuan Mandarin, together with dialects in provinces such as Henan and Shandong; dialects in the central parts (e.g. Hefei dialect) are classified as Jianghuai Mandarin, together with dialects in the central parts of neighbouring Jiangsu province. Non-Mandarin dialects are spoken to the south of the Yangzi: dialects of Wu are spoken in Xuancheng prefecture-level city, though these are rapidly being replaced by Jianghuai Mandarin; dialects of Gan are spoken in a few counties in the southwest bordering Jiangxi province;[27] and the Huizhou dialects are spoken in about ten counties in the far south, a small but highly diverse and unique group of Chinese dialects.

Huangmeixi, which originated in the environs of Anqing in southwestern Anhui, is a form of traditional Chinese opera popular across China. Huiju, a form of traditional opera originating in the Huizhou-speaking areas of southern Anhui, is one of the major precursors of Beijing Opera; in the 1950s, Huiju (which had disappeared) was revived. Luju is a type of traditional opera found across central Anhui, from east to west.

Anhui cuisine is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine. Combining elements of cooking from northern Anhui, south-central Anhui, and the Huizhou-speaking areas of southern Anhui, Anhui cuisine is known for its use of wild game and herbs, both land and sea, and comparatively simple methods of preparation.[citation needed]

Anhui has a high concentration of traditional products related to calligraphy: Xuanzhou (today Xuancheng) and Huizhou (today Huangshan City) are revered for producing Xuan Paper and Hui Ink, respectively, which are traditionally considered the best types of paper and ink for Chinese calligraphy. She County is famous for the She Inkstone, one of the most preferred types of inkstones (a required tool in traditional calligraphy).[citation needed]

Religion[edit]














Circle frame.svg

Religion in Anhui[28][note 1]

  Islam (0.58%)
  Christianity (5.30%)
  Other religions or not religious people[note 2] (89.48%)

The predominant religions in Anhui are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 4.64% of the population believes and is involved in cults of ancestors, while 5.30% of the population identifies as Christian.[28] According to a 2010 survey, Muslims constitute 0.58% of the population of Anhui .[29]

The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 89.48% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism and folk religious sects.

Avalokitesvara of One Thousand Arms at the Guanyin Nunnery.
Langya Buddhist Temple in Chuzhou.
Courtyard of a Buddhist temple in Qingyang County, Chizhou.

Tourism[edit]

Anhui's principal tourism sites include the following:

Development[edit]

In 2008, France helped the Anhui Provincial Tourism Bureau develop a rural tourism demonstration project.[30]

Notable people[edit]

Colleges, universities and research institutions[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015)[28] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang. The number of Muslims is taken from a survey reported in the year 2010.[29]
  2. ^ This may include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Doing Business in China - Survey". Ministry Of Commerce - People's Republic Of China. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  2. ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census [1] (No. 2)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2013. 
  3. ^ 《2013中国人类发展报告》 (PDF) (in Chinese). United Nations Development Programme China. 2013. Retrieved 2014-05-14. 
  4. ^ (Chinese) Origin of the Names of China's Provinces, People's Daily Online.
  5. ^ Gifford, Rob. "A Single Spark Can Light a Prairie Fire." China Road. 53.
  6. ^ "中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码". 中华人民共和国民政部. 
  7. ^ 深圳市统计局. 《深圳统计年鉴2014》. 深圳统计网. 中国统计出版社. Retrieved 2015-05-29. 
  8. ^ shi, Guo wu yuan ren kou pu cha ban gong; council, Guo jia tong ji ju ren kou he jiu ye tong ji si bian = Tabulation on the 2010 population census of the people's republic of China by township / compiled by Population census office under the state; population, Department of; statistics, employment statistics national bureau of (2012). Zhongguo 2010 nian ren kou pu cha fen xiang, zhen, jie dao zi liao (Di 1 ban. ed.). Beijing Shi: Zhongguo tong ji chu ban she. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2. 
  9. ^ 中华人民共和国民政部 (2014.08). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》. 中国统计出版社. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  10. ^ "Anhui Province: Economic News and Statistics for Anhui's Economy". Thechinaperspective.com. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 
  11. ^ "Anhui Province Economic News and Data". The China Perspective. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 
  12. ^ "Hefei Economic and Technological Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 
  13. ^ "Hefei Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 
  14. ^ RightSite.asia | Wuhu Economic & Technological Development Zone
  15. ^ "Wuhu Export Processing Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 
  16. ^ "1912年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014. 
  17. ^ "1928年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014. 
  18. ^ "1936-37年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014. 
  19. ^ "1947年全国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014. 
  20. ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 
  21. ^ "第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 
  22. ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 
  23. ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九〇年人口普查主要数据的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 
  24. ^ "现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 
  25. ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 
  26. ^ "China's excess males, sex selective abortion, and one child policy: analysis of data from 2005 national intercensus survey". BMJ. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 
  27. ^ Damian Harper; Chung Wah Chow; David Eimer; Thomas Huhti; Carolyn B. Heller; Robert Kelly (2009). China (11, illustrated ed.). Lonely Planet. p. 437. ISBN 1-74104-866-4. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  28. ^ a b c China General Social Survey 2009, Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15)
  29. ^ a b Min Junqing. The Present Situation and Characteristics of Contemporary Islam in China. JISMOR, 8. 2010 Islam by province, page 29. Data from: Yang Zongde, Study on Current Muslim Population in China, Jinan Muslim, 2, 2010.
  30. ^ Anhui Cooperates With France To Build Rural Tourism Area Archived September 8, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]